Proto-Micronesian reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (2023)

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Authors: Byron W. Bender, Ward H. Goodenough, Frederick H. Jackson, Jeffrey C. Marck, Kenneth L. Rehg and Ho-min Sohn

Date: June 2003

From:Oceanic Linguistics(Vol. 42, Issue 1)

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

Document Type: Article

Length: 83,007 words

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Part I presents some 980 reconstructions for Proto-Micronesian,Proto-Central Micronesian, and Proto-Western Micronesian. Part 2 (to appearin volume 42 [2]) gives reconstructions for two additional subgroups withinProto-Micronesian: Proto-Pohnpeic and Proto-Chuukic, and their immediateancestor, Pinto-Pohnpeic-Chuukic. A handful of putative loans are alsoidentified, and a single English finder list is provided for all of thereconstructions.

INTRODUCTION. Lexical data for a number of Micronesian languagesbegan to be collected systematically in the mid-1960s as part of thedevelopment of language lessons for the U.S. Peace Corps and in connectionwith other Micronesian language projects that followed at the University ofHawai'i. These data were stored on a mainframe computer using programsthen being developed (Hsu and Peters 1984), and eventually dictionaries werepublished for a number of the languages included in this study (Elbert 1972,Abo et al. 1976, Lee 1976, Sohn and Tawerilmang 1976, Harrison and Albert1977, Jensen 1977, Rehg and Sohl 1979, Goodenough and Sugita 1980, Jacksonand Mark 1991). Comparative work using these data began with Marck 1977,focusing on the group of languages referred to as Nuclear Micronesian. In thenext several years, the authors of the current study put the initial data oncomputer and substantially added to them by directly eliciting informationfrom speakers of Micronesian languages who were students in th e BilingualEducation Project for Micronesia at the University of Hawai'i. Hsu(1976) was especially helpful in cognate searches. This early activityculminated in a printout identified as Bender et al. 1984. Preliminaryfindings and some of the computer programs being used in the comparative workare summarized in Bender and Wang 1985. More recent work and the initialcompilation of this presentation of the data have been done primarily by thesecond author.

CLASSIFICATION OF SUBGROUPINGS IN NUCLEAR MICRONESIAN. In thisetymological dictionary we attribute to Proto-Micronesian (PMc) an inheritedlexical item shared between a Chuukic or a Pohnpeic language, or Marshalleseor Kiribati (Gilbertese), on the one hand, and Kosraean (Kusaiean), on theother. We have also attributed to PMc some lexical items in only oneMicronesian language that are shared with some other Austronesian languageand cannot be attributed to borrowing, although a systematic search for suchitems has not been made. Following Jackson (1983), we attribute toPinto-Central Micronesian (PCMc) items shared by Kiribati and any otherMicronesian language lower in the tree of figure I, but not found in anyother Austronesian language, and we attribute to Pinto-Western Micronesian(PWMc) items shared by Marshallese and any other language lower in the tree,but not found in any other Austronesian language. (Micronesian languages notshown in figure r include Sonsorolese [SNs] and Tobi [TOB] [which shou ld bepositioned on a par with PuA], the Tanapag dialect of Carolinian [CRN] [whichshould be included with PUL, CHK, and MRT within PECk], and Pingelapese [PNG][which should be included with PON and MOK under PPC]). Protoforms from allthree languages--PMc, PCMc, and PWMc--are inter-spersed in a singlealphabetized list in part I of this dictionary. Part 2 (in a future issue)will give protoforms for Proto-Chuukic (PCk), Proto-Pohnpeic (PPON), andProto-Pohnpeic-Chuukic (PPC) for which no higher-level reconstructions arenow possible. Consonant correspondences are given in tables 3 and 4. Vowelcorrespondences receive preliminary discussion in Jackson 1983:321-323 andGoodenough 1992.

Work for the future includes a careful review of evidence ofloanwords from Marshallese and Kiribati not only in Kosraean but also in thePohnpeic and Chuukic languages (see Rehg and Bender 1990). The seafaringatoll dwellers of the Marshall and Kiribati islands were frequent voyagers tothe high islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei to their west. There werePolynesian-speaking settlers there as well--or at least there were Polynesiancontacts--attested to by loanwords such as Pohnpeian sakaw ('kava'<PN ta-kawa) and Sangaro ('a god' <PN Tangaroa). There hasbeen, moreover, massive borrowing into Kiribati from Samoan and to a lesserextent, more recently, from Tuvaluan. Kiribati speakers have expanded theirsettlements both southward into northern Tuvalu and northward into thesouthern Marshall Islands in the past few hundred years. Marshallese showswhat are clearly loanwords from Kiribati (Bender 1981). Marck (1994) hasreconstructed some Proto-Chuukic and even a few Proto-Micronesian forms whereirregularities of sound correspondences raise the possibility that theyresult from a chain of borrowings rather than being inherited cognates. Suchdifferences are noted under the forms in question. Complicating the problemare some forms that appear to be preserved as inherited cognates in someMicronesian languages and to have been reintroduced from them as loans intoother Micronesian languages. Doublets, related forms such that one of themfits the pattern of sound correspondences in the inherited vocabulary and theother does not, attest to such internal borrowing as well.

ORTHOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS USED. In order to facilitate comparison, thevelar nasal symbol (n) is used in the protolanguages PMc, POc, PCK, and UAN(Dempwolff's Uraustronesisch), and in the nuclear languages beingcompared in lieu of the ng, g, n, and so forth used in their orthographies.The w of labiovelars in the various languages is made superscript, and thisis substituted for the primes of p' and m' used by Marck (1977,1994) and Jackson (1983). We use #1 to represent the palatal nasal of PPC,PMc, POc and UAN; we use R to represent the retroflex continuant ofPuluwatese, CRN Carolinian, and Satawalese, but otherwise as standardly usedin PEO, POc, PMP or UAN, and PAN. We used, a, and u, to represent the lowfront unrounded, the mid central unrounded, the low back rounded, and thehigh central unrounded or rounded vowels of the various Chuukic languages. Weuse [member of] for the lax mid front vowel of Pohnpeian and Pingelapese;Mokilese e and [[x] are both written as following Harrison and Salich (1977).We use o for the lax mid back rounded vowel that is written oa in all of thePohnpeic languages. For Marshallese, we use the phonemic transcription of Aboet al. (1976), but substitute M for b, [m.sup.w] for m, n for g, [k.sup.w]for q, and we use superscript w to show the rounding of [n.sup.w], {w, and[r.sup.w], For Kosracan, we have rewritten the digraph vowels to make theirphonetic value more transparent, as shown in table I. Our orthography for POcis that of Ross (1988), to which we add S to his s. Our orthography for PCKis that of Jackson (1983), to which we add y. Our orthography for PMc is thatof Jackson (1986), except that we substitutes for his d and S for his z, andwe add y and Z The symbol # marks an entry that we consider to be ananalogical back formation.


PMC *-a (obj.prn.) 'him, her, it': CHK -y, -ye-; -w,-we-; WOL -ya, -wa; PUA -a; PCK *a; KIR -a; PEO *-a; PKB *a; POC *a (Ross1988).

PMC *-a, -Ta 'reality mode marker (suffixed to subj.prn.)': CHK -a; MRT -a; PUL -ya; CRL -a; STW -a, -ya; WOL -sa, -ya; ULI-a; PUA -da; PCK *..a, -Ta; MRS -jali; KIR -a; KSR IA; PEO *-ta (SAA -'a 'present or general time'). Problems here.

PCMC *aa-, aa-ni- 'alienable object (with poss. suf.),acquire an a. o.'; CHK aa- 'general class of a. o.', aa-ni'own or acquire ownership of an a. o.', aaya 'use an a.o.'; PUL yaa-, yaa-ni, yaaya; CRL aa-, yaa -li, yaaya; CRN aa-, aa-ni;STW yaaya; WOL yaa-, yaa-li-(i), yaayaa; PUA yaa-; PCK *yaa.., yaa-ni-,yaayaa; PON aa-, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'a o.'; MRS haha-; KIR a-'a o.', ana-a 'to take or get (s.t.)'. Cf. FIJ kaa'thing'; UAN *kaya 'possession'.

PWMc *[aap.sup.w]a 'no': CHK [aap.sup.w]; PUL[yaap.sup.w]; WOL yeebe;? PON [app.sup.w] 'but'; MRS [yahab.sup.w].

PMC? *[ae.sub.1], 'crawl': CHK a, aa- 'swim, beswimming'; KIR ae 'crawl' and ae-(rake) 'go ashore'.Cf. POc *jaRa 'move, creep, flow, spill' (Ross 1988) (KWAtala-(fafo) 'shallow, swim close to the surface',tala-[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'enia] 'arrive at a place, washup'). Cf. PCMc *afe 'swim'.

PMC ? *[ae.sub.2] 'this': KIR ae 't. here, the onethat'; POC ? aRe (LAK ale 't., the one that'; FIJ [ko]-yaa,[a]-yaa 'that [distant], the one that'). Cf. KIR are 'who,which, that yonder'.

PMC *afafi 'coconut crab': CHK eef, #eefi-; CRL aff,affi-; WOL yaffi; PCK *affi; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]mp; KIR (te)-aai; KSR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i.

PMc *afa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'north': CHK efen,efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'n., trade wind season', efeni-(nap)'due n., n. wind'; MRT efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n) 'towardthe n.', (le)-efe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dry season'; PULyefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], yefe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'n., be n.(of wind or direction), trade wind season'; CRL efu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], afa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; STW effa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'n.', (le)-efan 'winter, trade wind season'; WOLyefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'n., northern direction, trade windseason'; PUA (i)-eda[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK *yafa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i; PON (pali)-epe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], (yi)-ye[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'n.', (ha[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]en)-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'wintertime, dry season'; KIR(me)-aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. KSR epa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] glossed as'south' in dictionary looks like a loan (p unexpected, see PPC*auru 'south'). Cf. Marck's (1994:310-323) PPC*fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'dry season.'

PMC *afara 'shoulder': CHK afar, afara-(n) 's., hiss.', (ewuw)-efar 's. carrying pole', (ewuw)-efara 'carry(s.t.) on a pole'; MRT awufar, awufara-(n); PUL yefar 's.',yayefar 's., load carried on the s.'; CRL aifar, aifar, ayufar,aifara-(l) 's., carry a load on the s., his s.'; STW efar,efara-(n); WOL yefare, yafera-(le); PUA yadala 's.', yadadala'cany on the s.'; PCK *yafara; PON ap[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his s.'; MOK apro 'hiss.'; PNG aper; MRS hayer, hayeray; PEO *qafaRa (Gcraghty 1990); POC*qapaRa, qabaRa (ULA 'apala 's.'; PKB *[kq]apala); PAN *qabaRa(Ross 1988). There appears to have been corruption of the word for'shoulder carrying pole' and its reinterpretation as'shoulder' in MRT, PUL, and CRL. Cf. KSR paelpael 'carry onthe shoulder', polo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'carry (s.t.) on theshoulders with a pole'; ARO abara 'cany under the arm'.

PCMC *afe 'swim': PUL yaf, yafe-; STW yaaf (sic); WOL.yafe; ULI CRL af, afe-; PUA PCK *yafe; MRS haheh; KIR (te)-ae'driftwood'. Cf. KIR uaua 'swim', SAM 'a'au'swim', and PMC ? *[ae.sub.1] 'crawl'.

PMc *[afi.sub.1] 'fire': CHK aaf efi-; PUL yaaf; CRL(a-ghuu)-af 'light a signal fire'; CRN (a-guu)-af 'light asignal fire'; WOL yaafi, yafi-; PUA yaadi. yadi-; SNS yaafi; PCK *yafi;PON aay; MOK oy; PNG [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; KIR (te)-ai; KSR e; POC *api(Ross 1988) (PPN *afi; PNK *havi); UAN *apuy.

PMC *[afi.sub.2], 'pull on a line': CHK ef, efiyef'p. on a l. (as in fishing)', efi-i-(y) 'p. on (a line)';PUL yaaf (sic), yafi-i-(y); CRL afi-i-(y) 'p. it in (as a fish on aline)'; PUA yadiedi 'p. as a rope'; SNS yafiefi 'p. on arope'; PCK *yafi, yafiyafi; PON api-i 'p.' (s.t., usually witha rope)'; MOK oppop, oppop 'p.', opi 'p. at'; PPC*afi, afi-i-; PEO *Raf[ci] 'p.' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. MRS hayik'tow (as a boat), pull, draw', hayik-ey 'tow s.t.'; KIRaa-i 'to tow', aeae-a 'to tow, drag (s.t.)', (te)-aeae-a'a towing'.

PMc *afi, afi-Si- 'carry on the hip or under the arm':MRT afiyaf 'c. under the arm', afi-ti 'c. (a child) on thehip'; PUL yafi-ti-(y) 'to c. (a child) on one's side';CRL aft-ti, afi-ti 'c. (a child or object) on one's side'; STWafiyaf'c. on the hip (as a baby)', afi-ti 'c. (a child) in thearms on the side'; WOL yafiyefi 'c. under one arm';yafi-ti-(i) 'c. it under the arm'; PUA yadi-ti 'c. it underthe arm'; PCK *afiafi, afi-di-; PON api-d 'to c. (s.t.) onone's side or under one's arm'; MOK api-d 'c. (s.t.)under arm'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to hold on the hip',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'hold or carry (s.t.) on the hip'; PEO*afi (BUG avi-ni 'carry in the arms'). Cf. MRS [hab.sup.w]-jayjey'c. tucked under one arm'; BUG achi 'carry under thearm'. Cf. also PEO *[q0]afi-na 'armpit' (Geraghty 1983). Cf.PCK *api.

PMC *-aki 'passive suffix': CRL (ripis)-agh 'to bebroken into pieces, shattered' (ripiiy 'to shatter s.t.'),(piles)-agh 'to become blocked, clogged' (pileey 'to close,cover up, put the lid on s.t.'); WOL (liuwet)-ag 'tossed'(liuweti 'toss s.t.'), ([m.sup.w]ulot)-ag 'crumpled'([m.sup.w] ulot-i 'crumple s.t.', (feshin)-eg 'picked'(feshin-i 'pick s.t.'); PCK *-aki; PON (dier)-ek 'to befound' (diar 'to find'), ([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w]ir)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to be crumpled'([am.sup.w]ir 'to crumple'); MRS ([wek.sup.w]t)-ak 'bechanged' (wiket-ey 'change st.'), (wekj)-ak 'beoverturned, capsized' (wikej 'overturn s.t.'); KIR (arir)-aki'pulled tight' (arir-a 'to pull s.t. tight'); KSR(otwe)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'woven' (otwe 'to weave'),(usruk)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be shaken' (usruk 'toshake'). Reflexes of this suffix that have been recorded for CHK (seeexamples under PMC *aki-ni below) all have it followed by reflexes of *-ni;see the statement about CHK -asi (-esi) in Goodenough and Sugita 1980.

PMC *-aki-ni 'passive suffix': CHK -asi-ni, -esi-ni(suf. to verb bases) 'be ~ because of(s.o. or s.t.). be ~ on account of(s.o. or s.t.), be ~ with (s.o. or s.t.)', (saawa)-asi-ni 'beembarrassed because of him'; PUL -yaki-n-, yeki-n-; CRL(kkapasa)-aghi-li 'to intercede on behalf of some-one' (kkapas'word, speech, talk, language, to speak'), (fasa)agha-li 'tolaugh at, make fun of someone, mock' (ffas 'to laugh');WOL-yagi-li-(i), -agi-li-(i); PUA -aki-ni; PCK *-aki-ni-; KIR -aki-na'transitive suffix' (Bender et al. 1984); KSR -ki-n'fossilized transitive suffix'(Bender et al. 1984); PEO *-aki-ni(SAA -ai-ni [sic]; BUG -agi-ni).

PWMc ? *aki, akiaki 'to hide, hidden': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to be hidden,concealed', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]id-i-(la) 'h. it away'; MRS(til)-yekyek 'h., be obscured'.

PMc *ako 'tie together': CHK ooyo 'strap or ropehandle, carrier made of rope or line'; PUL. yooyo 'coarse sennitused for lashing and calking, to calk'; WOL yagoyago 'to t.together, bind'; PCK *yakoyako; PEO *Rak[ou]t 't., fasten'(Geraghty 1990) (LAK lao-a 'to clasp, have sexual intercoursewith', lakolako 'to stick fast (as adhesive tape)'. Note thatthe LAK forms can also be cognate with Fu rako, rakorako 'fitting orsuiting well'; UAN *Dakep 'join together'.

PMc *ako, akoako 'steer a boat': WOL. (go)-ago; PUA(ka)-ako; PCK *(ka)ako; KSR ikwik 'rudder, tiller, to s.'. Cf. MRS[kahyiyek.sup.w], [kahiyewek.sup.w] 's. directly for'.

Proto-Micronesian reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (1)

PMc *[ala.sub.I] 'path, road': CHK aan, ane-(n)'p.' r., route, p. of'; MRT aol, ala-(n) 'r., hisr.'; PUL yaal, yela-(n) 'p., r., street, his p.'; CRL ad,ala-(l) 'p., r., his p.'; STW yaan, ena-(n) 'r., his r.';WOL yaale, yela-(li) 'p., r., p. of', yen-(nape) (< *yala-lapa)'p., roadway'; PUA yaana, yana-'way, r., track'; SNSyaara 'r., p., way'; PCK *yala; PON aal 'p., r., trail';MOK and PNG al; MRS yiya[l.sub.s], yiyya[l.sub.s]. Cf. PEO *zala'p.' (Geraghty 1983); POC *salan 'p.' (Ross 1988) (FIJsala, PPN *hala; SAA tala; BUG hatha-[utu] 'a way'; LAU tala,'way, p.'; ARO tara-[na] KWA tala; PKB *dala, zala); PAN *Zalan.See also Marck (1994:321) PMC *ala.

PMc *[ala.sub.2] 'to take, get': PON ale 't., g.,(s.t.), alaal-(di) 'be taken or gotten'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'g., t., gather (s.t.)',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'g., t., gather';KIR ana-(a) 'to t.'; POC *ala-(p) 'take'; UAN *ala-(p)'take'. Cf. MRS haley 'provisions, storehouse', hafey'fish caught by encircling'.

PMc *ala[iu], alala[iu] 'long': CHK aney, anney'l., tall, length', aneyi-(n) 'length or height of',-naaney 'l.'; PUL yalay, yelay 'l. (as hair)','length, height', yelaye-(n) 'length or height of',laalay 'be l., tall, last l.'; CRL laalaay 'be l., tall',allay. alaalaay, alaalaay 'be very 1.'; WOL yelai, yelai-(li)'length, length of', yennai 'be 1., extended'; PUA yanai'be 1.'; PCK *yalayi, yalalayi, layalayi; MRS leyelley 'agreat distance, far'; KIR anau, ananau 'l.', (te)-anau,(te)-ananau 'length'; POC *[ao]lau, [ao]lalau PKB *(ma)-laqu'l., tall, far'). Cf. PON aned 'l., tall'; KSR loes'l., tall,' loe-loes 'very l. or tall'.

Proto-Micronesian reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (2)

PCMc *ale 'kind of coral': CHK aan, ani-(n) 'k. ofc. (live, white, and branching), c. of', ane-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o)'a k. of c.'; PUL yaal, yale-(y); CRL yaal, aal; PCK *ale; KIR(te)-ane 'live c.' Cf. PCMc *laxa 'kind of coral' and PMc? *laZe 'kind of coral'.

PMc *alele 'to reckon, sing': CHK annaya, anneya'to read, count (s.t.), reading, counting'; PUL yalley 'tothink about, docide', yalleya 'to read, count (s.t.)'; WOLyanne 'to be wise, smart'; PCK *alle, alle-a; MRS hal 's.,song, music'; KIR anene 'to sing', anene-a 'to sing (asong, hymn, etc.)'; KSR ael[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ll[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'to sing'; PEO *alele (SAA alele 'be jubilant,rejoice in song'; ARO arere 'be joyful', arere-hi 'bejoyful on account of'). Cf. FIJ lele 'dirge'; ARO are, areare'call on a ghost'; KWA lala, bale 'make rustling noises',There is no basis for relating KIR anene to PEO *taReRe rejoice', assuggested by Geraghty (1990). Cf. also PPC ? *kaulu 'sing, song'and PCK *alle count, enumerate'. Cf. also BUG sole 'to sing, asong', sale-a 'to sing (s.t.)'. There may be two differentroots here.

PWMc *-ali, -aliali, [m.sup.w]a-aliali 'circle, circling,dizzy': CHK fa-an 'go in a c.', fa-aniyen 'a c., ring, totalk round a subject', eni-(kes) 'winding the warp threads',[m.sup.w]a-aniyen 'dizziness, be d.'; MRT fa-ali 'form ac.'; PUL fa-aliyal 'a c.', [m.sup.w]a-aliyel 'be d.,confused'; CRL [m.sup.w]a-aliyal 'd.'; CRN fa-aliyel'round, circular, spherical'; STW (a)-fa-an 'make a c.',fa-aniyan 'go in a c.'; WOL fa-aliyeli 'to c., go round',[b.sup.w]a-aliyeli 'go in a c., be round', bba-aliyeli'round', [m.sup.w]a-ali-yeli 'be d, giddy, dazed'; PUAda-anieni 'to c., go around'; PCK *-ali, aliali, fa-aliali,[m.sup.w]a-aliali; PON [m.sup.w]a-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'bed.' [m.sup.w]a-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li 'his brain',sa-ali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'd., mentally ill or retarded'; MOK[m.sup.w]e-eleel 'd.', [m.sup.w]e-eleel-(la)'unconscious'; MRS (hajji)-[m.sup.w]a-halhal 'd., sway backand forth, nod'. Cf. SAA kali 'to surround', kalikeli'around'; LAU gali 'round, around'; KWA gali 'c.,round, around'. See also PCK *ka-falli 'be careful of, attendto', PCK *[m.sup.w]alli 'confused, mistaken'.

PMc *ali-ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'mangrove crab': CHKani-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; CRL ali-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'largesea c. with red orange shell'; PON e1i-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], MOKel-mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] lobster (sic)variety'; PPC*ali-ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; PMP *qali-ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw (Blust1980:39). Cf. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'c.' where we wouldexpect *acl.

PMc *al[iu]ta 'beard': CHK enis, enisa-(n) 'b.,whiskers, mustache, his b.'; MRT alus 'b., mustache,whiskers'; PUL yaaluh, yaluha-(n) (sic); CRL alus, aalis, ails,alusa-(l); CRN aluh; WOL yaluse yalusa-(le); PUA yanuda'sideburns'; PCK *yaluta; PON ails, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lise'b., mustache, his b.'; MOK alij oljo, 'b., mustache, hisb.'; KSR alt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(1) 'his b.', aelut'bearded'. Note PUA d instead of expected t; there may be a problemhere.

PMc *alo 'sun': CHK (nee)-yono-(was) 'midday,noon' (lit. 'high sun time'), (nee-kkunu)-yon 'lateafternoon' (lit. 'sun turning time'); MRT yool, Wool; PULyool, yolo-(n) 's., s. of', (le)-yolo-(wah) 'noon'; CRL.(lee) -alo-(was), (lee)-olo-(was) 'high noon'; STW'(lee)-yolo-(was) 'at noon'; WOL yaalo, yalo-; ULI yal; PUA yaano,yano-; SNS yaaro; PCK *yalo; MRS hal; PEO *qalo (SAA salo 'sky, heaven,clouds'; LAU salo 'cloud, storm'; ARO aro 'sky,heavens'; KWA lalo 'sky'). YAP yaal' 'sun' isprobably a loan from ULI. See also PCK *yalle-p uta 'a tree(Pittosporum)' and cf. PCK *yaado 'legendary woman', PMc*a[sS]o 'time'.

PMc *alo, aloalo, aol-[fo]i 'to wave, beckon': PON olool'to w., to signal', ol[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to w. or signalto'; MOK (jei)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l, (jei)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li'to w., w. at (s.o.)'; MRS (jeyya)-ha[l.sub.s] 'b. withdownward motion of hand or by waving arm'; KIR anoano 'to b.',(te)-anoano 'beckoning', ano-a 'to b. to (s.o.)',ano-i-(a) 'b. him'; PEO *qalo, qalo-fi (FIJ yalo, yalo-va'b.'; TON (ta)-'alo 'to w., b.'; SAA salo 'tob., invite'; BUG athoatho, atho-vi 'to b., signal'; ARo saro'to b.'; BAU karo-lu 'to b.'); PMP *qalep 'b.,w.' (Blust 1989:123). The MOK form appears to be a loan from MRS. Cf.LAU salo-fi 'to prepare, clear a path, sweep'.

PCMc *amata 'undercooked, raw': CHK amas, amasa-; MRTames; PUL yemah; WOL yemate; PUA yamete; PCK *am[ae]ta; PON amas; MRS hamej;KIR amata. Cf. KSR (tael)-[m.sup.w] ek, (taek)-[m.sup.w]ek 'r.,uncooked'. Cf. also POc *mataq (Ross 1988) (PPN *mata; KWA ma'a);UAN *ma(n)taq, mentaq.

Proto-Micronesian reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (3)

PCMc *a[m.sup.w]a 'pertaining to nurture': CHKfa-a[m.sup.w] 'giving birth, parturition, delivery',(a)-fa-a[m.sup.w]a 'deliver it (a baby)'; WOL fa-a[m.sup.w]e'to adopt a child, be adopted, cared for', fa-a[m.sup.w]a-(a)'adopt him/her'; PUA da-a[m.sup.w]a 'to adopt a child, takecare of him/her'; PCK *fa~a[m.sup.w]a; KIR (te)-a[m.sup.w]a-(rake)'food'. Cf. FIJ yaga 'useful, valuable, necessary'.

PMc ? *[a[theta]][m.sup.w]i, [a[theta]][m.sup.w]i-ni- 'towash one's hands': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w]mi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w], a[m.sup.w]i-n; MRS ha[m.sup.w]in,ha[m.sup.w]in-iy; KSR winwin, winwin-i. There may be loans here.

PCMc *a[m.sup.w]ii 'bunch or cluster of nuts': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w]ii 'bunch of it (palm nuts)'; PNG[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][m.sup.w]i; KIR a[m.sup.w]ii 'full bunch orcluster'. Could be loans in PON and PNG from KIR.

PMc *ancane 'to wish, need': CHK anayan, aneyan 'tow.'; PUL yaniyan 'to w.'; WOL yaleyale 'to w.'; PCK*ancane; PON anaan 'be necessary, indispensable', anaane 'ton., require (s.t)'; MOK anaan[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n., want(s.t)'; MRS (k)-enahan 'want, like, w.'; KSRenen[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n. (s.t.), be necessary',nen[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to n. (s.t)'; PEO *ane (FIJ yana'to take another's goods without his consent').

PMc *anitu 'god, spirit': CHK enu, enuu-(n), anu,anuu-(n) 'god, sky spirit, g. of'; MRT anu, anuu-(n) 'ghost,g. of'; PUL yanu 'ancient god'; CRL. anu, anuu-(1)'spirit, ghost, s. of'; CRN anu 'spirit, ghost'; STW anu,anuu-(n) 'ghost, g. of'; WOL yalusu 'god, spirit, ghost';PUA yanudu 'god, spirit, ghost'; 'spirit, ghost'; PCK*yanutu; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ni 'ghost'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ni 'demon, ghost'; PNG eni 'ghost, spirit'; MRShanij 'god', hanijnij 'spell, enchantment, magic,sorcery', hanji(n-iy) 'cast a spell on s.o.'; KIR (te)-anti'god, spirit, ghost'; KSR inut 'god, spirit, ghost', inti'to enchant, cast a spell on (s.o.)'. UAN *anitu; PAN *qaNitu(Wolff 1993). Cf. UAN *qantu and PPN *aitu. See also PCK *fauru-anutu'recite a spell'.

PMc *anu[sS]a 'small, uninhabited island': WoL yalute's. uninhabited i.'; STW yalut 's. uninhabited i.'; PCK*anuda; PON and 'name of an atoll west of Pohnpei; POc *anusa'i.'; PEO * (q)anuza (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ yanuca). Cf. UAN *nusa'island'. Cf. also PMc *fanua 'inhabited land', andMarck's (1994:307) *anu[sz]a 'small island'.

PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub.I], 'to have or take inhand, to handle': CHK a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'hand up, havein hand reaching up', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(y) 'take (s.t)in hand, take hold of', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-([m.sup.w]ann)'take without permission', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-s 'beadept'; a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'work too hard, work to thepoint of collapse', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(kkay) 'handlequickly', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(may) 'catch fish by means of astone fish trap', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(maaw) 'snatch, take inhand roughly', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(mma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])'take in hand slowly', ana-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) handle athing badly or clumsily', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'work', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'put (s.o.) to work', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ffat) 'work without pay'; MRT ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]an[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work'; PUL yan 'to take,,ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta) 'be tired (as from work)',ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ta), ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(ta) 'toreach up', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a-(y) 'to bring, take(s.t.),, ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work, towork'; CRL a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'work, to work',a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(neli) 'to reach for (st.)',a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-eti, a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-eti 'to touch(s.o. or s.t,)'; STW ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'work'; WOL yane 'to put one's hand out, to reach, extendone's hand', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(kkuwe) 'to touchthings constantly', ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(nnaw) 'do s.t.imperfectly, be clum sy, sloppy', ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'work, to work',ye[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-si 'to reach for it, touch it'; PUAya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to reach out for'; PCK*ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a, ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ti-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-'to reach for'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to reach bystretching'; KIR (ka)-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'difficult to do', (ua)-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ua) 'ambidextrous', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(main)'left-handed', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(atai) 'righthanded', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(bai) 'pass loads from hand tohand', a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(ra) 'awkward (as when using theleft hand)'; PEO *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a. a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ti (SAA a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-'i 'to carry, act as aporter'; LAU a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-i 'to lift, carry'; AROa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'a carrying bag, to have in a bag',a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 'i 'to lift up'; KWAa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-[luaa] 'to put back in position whencarrying').

PMC *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub.2] Or *ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'spider shell (Strombidae): CHK ne-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],nne-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'any true conch s. (genus Strombus orgenus Lambis)'; PUL le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(y) 's. s., s.s. of'; CRL li-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'s. S'.; WOL le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ne 'kind of seas.'; PCK *le-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON la-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'spider conch sp.'; MOK le-e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's. withspike-like protrusions'; PPC *le-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; MRS yan's. of family Strombidae'; KSR e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'kindof s.'; PEO *Rana (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ yaga; ARO ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a).


PMC *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'curcuma, turmeric, ginger,yellow': CHK #o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n) (?<*a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-ni) 'C. plant'; CRL o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], yo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'yellow, be colored yellow',o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(shigh) 'leaves and flowers of the gingerplant'; STW yo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'pale light haze on the horizon'; WOL yaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'gardenia, cape jasmine', yaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'ginger', yano-(shigi) 'C. plant', yanoyano 'beyellow, yellowish'; TOB (tene) -on 't.' (Kubary); PCK *yano-,yanoyano; PON [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL], [UNKEYBORADABLESYMBOL]-(n)'t.', [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL]'yellow', [UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL] 'its yolk'; MOK[UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL] 't.'; KIR (te)-a[UNKEYBORADABLE SYMBOL]'a tree (Bender et al. 1984: 'Premna sp.', yellow substancederived from its roots)'; KSR aen 'kind of plant'; PEO *yano'k. of ginger' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ cago 't. plant [C. longa]'; TON a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a ginger [C. longa]; BUGa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'yellow'; PKB-[i]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'yellow'); UAN *(za)Ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aw 'a plant'. Cf. PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'turmeric color'; PCK *yaloyalo. Cf. also LAK lagu 'yellowface paint'; and cf. SAA saosaola 'yellow', aro 'wildginger'; KWA sa'o 'a tree with sweet smelling yellow flowers.

Proto-Micronesian reconstructions-I - Document - Gale Literature Resource Center (4)

PWMC *apara 'make alignment': CHK #para- 'aligned,oriented', apar, aper 'aim, make an aligrment (as with posts orplants)', apara, apera 'aim at, line (s.t.) up, align',#(kk)-aper 'be aimed, aim', #pere-(yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin)'turn on one's side, lean or tip sideways, list, slip betweenthings by turning one's body, sidle', #pere-(yiniin) 'besquare or rectangular'; PUL yepar 'calculation (for navigation),aim (as of a gun), yepare-(kacc) 'to aim well'; WOL yepare 'asign for locating where one is in navigation'; PCK *yapara; MRS hapar'stone markers along road'. Cf. PEO *baRa 'fence'(Geraghty 1990). Note that CHK seems to have reinterpreted this form ashaving a causative prefix and derived the secondary forms marked #accordingly. The WOL and MRS forms cannot be understood as having a causativeprefix.

PMC *apili 'a fish': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pil'goatfish'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pil 'goatfish';MRS yapil 'a f.'; Ksa apil 'a kind of f.' (a probableloan from MRS).

PMc *ara-mata 'person, people': See PMc *mata, ara-mata'person, people'.

PMC *are, are-ki 'haul, pull, tow': CHK ar 'beselected, chosen'; MRS yar 'h. a canoe or vessel up on shore',yare-k 'h. (a boat) up on shore'; Km aeae-a 'to tow, drag(s.t.)', ae-ka 'take (a passenger) ashore in a canoe, to take(food) from the fire'; Ksael[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'to lift,pull, scoop (st.)'. The following forms would indicate a low stem vowelinstead, as PMc *ara: Km aa-i 'to tow'; PEO *ara (FIJ yara, yara-ka'to h., drag'; SAA ara-na 'to move (a thing) on'; BUGjara -ha 'fishing net ten fathoms long drawn between two canoes';ARO ara, ara-si 'to set a net'; KWA ala 'fish by setting largenet with multiple operators', ala-si-[a] 'lift [fish] from water ina large net').

PCMC *ar[eo][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'coconut cream, scrapedcoconut meat': CHK arun, aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(n) 'c. c., c.c. for (a food)'; (a)-aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'breadfruitpudding served with c. c.'; MRT yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c.c.'; PUL yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c. c.',yaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(w) 'mix it with c. c.'; CRLaru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c. c.', aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(w)'add c. c. to (a food)'; WOL yare[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c.c.'; PUA yala[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c. milk'; SNSyale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c. c.'; PCK *yare[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]rin 'ripe c.'; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'brown stage ofc.'; KIR (te) -ao[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'scraped c. mixed withother food', ao[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'seasoned with scrapedc.'. Cf. MRs yal, yali- 'C. milk'; KSR elel 'c.milk'.

PMC *ari 'to scoop up': PUL yeri-(y) 'to s. (s.t.)out (as coconut flesh)'; CRL ari-ti 'to stir (s.t.) from the bottomup to the top (as when cooking), to scoop up from the bottom of thepot'; WOL yariyeri 'to s. up, dig up (from a shell)',yere-ti-(i) (sic) 'to s. it up, dig it out'; PCK *ari; MRS harhar;[harhar.sup.w] 'pick out food from teeth, pick out splinters, extricate(as meat from a clam)', [har.sup.w]i-j(i) 'pick s.t. out'; PEO*ari (FIJ yari, yari-a 'to scrape off the soft flesh of a drinkingcoconut with the thumb'); Cf. BUG jari 'a dug channel'.Rounding in MRS forms unexplained; possible contamination by reflexes of PMC*aru, which are now near homonyms with MRS reflexes cited here. Semantics ofCRL form help explain possible confusion between these two etyma, PMC *ariand *aru.

PMC *aro- 'shore, beach, vicinity': CHK oor, oru-(n)'v., immediate surroundings, environs, v. of; outer surface of skin, hiso. s.', (wini)-yor 'v., neighborhood', oro-(s-set),aro-(s-set) 'shore, coast, seaside'; PUL yero-; CRL aro-'about, around, near'; WOL yaro-(li) 'v. of, near'; PCK*yaro-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 's., landnear the ocean, landing place for boats'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 's.'; MRS har, hare (n)'lagoon beach', KIR (te)-ao-(ataata) 'beach above the highwaterline'; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'his v.', yuru-(n) 'v. of'. Cf. PMC *Soru- 'near,beside'.

PMC *aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a Carangid fish, pompano,skipjack': CHK aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], oro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n) 'sp. of p. f., p. f. of'; CRNaro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fourth of five growth stages of thes.'; WOL yaro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'a kind off. (C.melampygus)'; PCK *aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; PON oro[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'blue jack crevally (C. melampygus); MRS [hare[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'African p. (Hynnis cubensis)'; KIR(te)-ao[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ajackfish (C lugubria)'; PEO*aro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o (TON alo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'kind ofshark with head like that of a stingray'). Cf. KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'a kind off.'; TON lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ashark'.

PMC *aru, aruaru, aru-ti- 'to stir': CHK eruwer'stirring stick, to s. with a stick or spoon', eru-u-(w) 's.(s.t.) with a stick'; MRT aruyar 'be stirring', aru 'stirit'; PUL yaru-(w) 'to s. (a liquid)'; CRL ariar 'utensilto s. with, to s. things', aru-(w) 'to s. it'; CRN aru'to s. (soup or stew)'; STW yariyar 'to s.', yaru-(w)'s. it'; WOL yaruyeru 'stirring stick, to s.'; garu-su'to mix, blend, fuse'; PUA yaluyalu 'to s.', yalu-du'to s. (st.)'; PCK yaruyaru, yaru-ti-; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 'to s., to probe', an-i 'tos. (s.t.)'; MRS harhar 's. or poke food or fire with a stick',[har.sup.w]i-j 's. or poke (s.t.)'; KIR ai-a, aiai-a 'to swing(s.t.) round and round'; KSR aeryaer 'to s.',aer[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 's., poke (s.t.)'. Note that theinitial g of the WOL garusu is unexpected, unless the form is a misrenderingof *(ga)-aru-su with a causative prefix. Cf. MOK oorror 'to dismantle anearth oven', ori 'to dismantle (an earth oven)'.

PMC *asi 'gallbladder, gall': CHK eti-n 'g.'(Kaser 1990:28); PUL yaat 'spleen, g.'; CRL aat, ati-(l) 'g.,his g.'; STW yaat, yati-(n) 'g., his g.' (Bender et al. 1984);PCK *yadi; PON [epsilon]di 'his bile'; MOK and PNG ad'bite' (Bender et al. 1984); MRS hati- 'g.'; KIR (te)-ari'gall, g.'; KSR [epsilon]s 'g.'. Cf. PEO *qas[iu] (TON'ahu 'g.'; NGG ahu 'g.'; ARO asu 'beangry', ahu- 'belly, heart, mind').

PMC *a[sS]a 'to grate, scrape': CHK (ma)-ataat 'berough to the touch (but not to the eye)', (a-ma)-ata 'tog.(s.t.)'; PUL (a-ma)-at 'tog. st. (such as raw taro)',(a-ma)-ata 'tog. it'; CRL (ama)-at 'to g., s., or mashs.t.'; PUA yatata (sic) 'to rub'; PCK * (ma)-ada, (ma)-adaada;PON adaad 'to sharpen, put an edge on st.', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to sharpen (s.t.)'; PPC *ada,adaada; PEO * [q[theta]]aza 'grind' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ yaca,yaca-a 'to g., grind'; SAA sata-/a'i/ 'to chafe,rub'; BUG aaha 'to g., nib down on a stone'; ARO atc, ata-i'to scrape, rub').

PMc *a[sS]e 'jaw, chin': CHK #eet, #eti-n 'c., c.of'; PUL yaat; CRL aat, ate-l; STW yaat; WOL yaate, yate-li; PuA yaate,yate-; SNS yaate; PCK *ate; MRS hat-(lal) 'lower j.',hat-(le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'upper j.'; KIR (te)-are-(i-eta)'upper set of teeth', (te)-are-(i-nano) 'lower set ofteeth'; POC *qase (Ross 1988) (SAA sasate; KWA late; BUG ahe, atheathe'breathe'; PKB *haze 'mouth'). Note the expected CHKforms are *aat, ati-n.

PCMC *asi 'spathe, unopened bud': CHK #eet, eti-(n)'unopened sheath or pod of a coconut or banana, u. s. of'; PUL yat,yati-(n) (sic) 'first stage of formation of certain fruits (as banana),flower (of various taros), s. (of coconut), b. (of hibiscus), s. of';WOL yaati, yati- 'coconut s.', yati to bear flowers or fruit, tob.'; PCK *yadi; KIR (te)-ari 'coconuts.'

PMC *a[sS]o 'time': CHK otu-(n), atu-(n) 't. of orfor (s.t.)'; PUL yoto-(n) 't. of, duration of'; CRL ato-(l)'t. of'; CRN ato-(n) 't. of'; WOL yato-(li) 'timeof, at the t. when'; PCK *yado- PEO *qazo 'sun, day' (Geraghty1983) (TON 'aho 'day'; SAA sato 'sun, sunshine'; BUGaho 'sun'; LAU saso 'sun'; ARO ato-(aa) 'noon'(lit. 'high sun'); PKB *hazo 'sun, day'); UAN *qa(n)jaw'day, sun'. Cf. KIR (te)-aro, (te)-aroaro 'custom, way,manner'; PMC *alo 'sun'.

PMC *a[sS]u 'smoke': CHK eet, etu-(n) 's., s.of', et, etuwet 'to s., be smoky', (a)-atu to smoke or steam(s.t.)'; MRT eet, etu-(n) 's., s. of', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]tiyet 'smoky'; PUL yaat 's.', yatiyat, yatuyat's. foam, be smoky, be foam-coated'; CRL (araa-lu)-ut 'smellof s.', ([b.sup.w]a)-at 'smoky', ([b.sup.w]a)-atiyat 'besmoking lightly'; STW yatuyat 'smoky'; WOL yatu 'tosplash water, dash water about', (gera)-atu 'be smoky, foggy',(gera)-atuyetu 'mist, dust, fog, cloud'; PUA ([b.sup.w])-atu (sic)'be smoky'; PCK *adu; PON adi 'its vapor, s., mist',[epsilon]di[epsilon]d 'cloudy, blurred, smoky'; MRS([b.sup.w]a)-hathat 'to s.', hatiytiy 'to s., dry fish orcopra by heat'; KIR ([b.sup.w]e)-ari 'odor of smoke; odoriferous;fragrant from having been smoked [as in magic rites], scorched, having ascorched smell', ari-(a) 'to inhale a smoky inhalation; to perfumes.o. or s.t.'; PEO *qazu 's.' (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *qahu; SAAsasu, sa'usesu and ULA saisesu; BUG ahu; LAU sasu; ARO asu-[na]'its s.', asu- 'a 'smoky', sasu 'cloudy,smoky'); POC *qasu (Ross 1988); UAN *qasu(h). Cf. KWA lasu's.' See also Marek (1994:324) PMC *asu.


PMC *ata 'upper part, top': CHK aas 'u. p., t.,summit, eastern side', asa-(n) its u. s., above him', -yas, -ya'high, east'; MRT -yas 'up, east'; PUL yah 'be tall,high, upper, easterly', yeho-(n), yaaha-(n) 'above (s.t.)',yeyah 'be easterly'; CRL -as 'high, on t.'; STW yaas't., on land', -yas 'up, cast'; WOL -yase 'up,upside', (i)-yate 'above, topside'; PCK *yata; PON yyasa-(da)'to be risen'; MRS -yei (suffix in place names) 'u.,eastern'; KIR '(i)-eta 'up, on high, above',(te)-ata-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a) 'an u. plank in a canoe',(te-ao)-ataata 'beach above the high water line'; KSR yat'eastern part of a village', (f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]lw)-[epsilon]t 'high, lofty'; POC *qatas 'summit'(Ross 1988) (ARO [ato]-aa 'noon' [lit. 'high sun']; PNK*-ata 'up'); UAN *qa(n)tas. Cf. SAA 'a'a 'rise upclear (of the moon)'. Sec Marck (1994:323) PMC *ata.

PMC *ata-i- 'to know': PON [epsilon]s[epsilon] 'tok., understand (s.t.)', (s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to not k.'; MOK(je)-ej[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to be ignorant of, not to k.(s.t.)' (Bender et al. 1984); MRS (j)-ahjey 'not k.'; KIRata-i 'to k., have knowledge', ala-a 'k. (s.t)'; KSRet[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'k., understand (s.t.)', eta-(twen)'understanding, kind, sympathetic, helpful', (se)-eta-(twen)'not understanding, not perceiving'.

PCMC ? *atarei 'child': MRS hajriy 'c., kid,toddler'; KIR ataei 'c., children'. Cf. PMC *tari'child'.

PMC *ate 'liver': CHK yaaya; MRT waa-(n) (sic)'hisl.'; PUL yaaya; CRL ase-(1) 'his l.'; STW yaayaa-(n) 'his1.'; WOL yaase, yase-; PUA yaade, yade-; SNS yaade; PCK *yate; PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his l.'; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'l., his l.'; MRS yaj 'I., spleen'; KIR (te)-ato (the ois unexpected); KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, esy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'l., his l.'; POC *qate (Ross 1988) (Fu ate; PPN *qate; SAA sae'heart, mind, chest, 1.'; BUG ate; ARO sae 'mind, heart,thought, l. of a pig'; KWA sae-/founa/; PKB *hate); UAN *qatay.

PMc *atu 'tuna, bonito': CHK ewun 't.,albacore'; PUL yawuul (sic); CRL asul-(le) 'small sp. of t.';CRN asul-(ley) 'a small sp. of t.'; STW yaas (Bender et al. 1984);WOL yaule; PCK *atu, atula; Mas hajiy-(lewwed) 'school of b. trapped ina lagoon'; KIR (te)-ati; PEO *qatu (Fu yatu BUG atu; SAA sau; KWA sau);POC *qatun . The *1 of the PCK reconstruction depends entirely on the PUL andCRN forms, which may result from loans.

PMC *aTo 'thatch': CHK oos, osu-(n) 't. section,roof, t. s. of', osu-ni, ossu-ni 'to t., apply t. to (ahouse)'; MRT yoos 't. roof'; PUL yooh, yoho-(n), yeho.(n); CRLoos 't.', ose-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; CRN ooh; STW yoos,yoso- 'roof'; WOL yaaso, yaso-; PUA yaado, yado- 't.,roof'; SNS yaado; PCK *yaTo; PON oos 'ivory nut palm' (asource of t.); MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j 't., roof'; PNG[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s 'dry pandanus leaves used for t.'; MRS haj'thatch'; KIR (te)-ato 'thateh'; POC *qato (PPN *qato't.'; SAA sa'o 'saga palm'; BUG ato 'sago palm,sago t; LAU sao 'sago palm, t.'; ARO ao 'sago palm'; LAKhato 'sago palm, t.'); PAN *qatep 'sago t.' (Ross 1988).

PMC *-au (suf. obj. prn.) 'me': CHK -yey, -yeyi-, -wey,-weyi-; CRL -yay; WOL -yai; PUA -ei; PCK *-ai; PON -y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];MRS yeh; KIR -au; KSR -y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POC *-au (FIJ -au, SAA -au;ARO -au; PKB *au).

PCMc *au- 'appearance, condition, shape': CHK ewu-'width, thickness', ewu-(chik) 'slender, narrow, thin';PUL yawu- 'physical characteristic', yawu-(Rik) 'be physicallysmall', yawu-(RiRRik) 'be thin'; CRL ai-(shigh) 'be thin,skinny, slender'; CRN ai-(Rig) 'be thin, skinny, slender'; STWyau-(chchan) 'atmosphere'; WOL yau- 'a., c., s.',yau-(shigi) 'be skinny, thin, slender, narrow', yau-re 'size(used with long, thin objects), thickness', yau-(chchaali)'atmosphere, weather condition' yau-(libongi) 'atmosphericcondition at night'; PUA yau 'air, climate. condition, a',yau-(siki) 'be long, narrow, skinny, thin', yau-(lani)'weather, firmament, air'; PCK yau-; PON [epsilon]y-(paay)'walking with swinging arms'; MRS hayi-(dik) 'skinny, thin ofbody'; KIR ai-(n-toa) 'powerful, of great muscular strength',ai-(baba) 'foolish'. This does not seem ta be cognate with PEO*[q0]aRu 'dew' (Geraghty 1990). See also L: CHK ewu-ni-yar.

PMC *aua 'k. of fish': PUL yaawuwo-(tur), -(turu-) (sic)'a lagoon f. much desired for faod, probably a milkfish',yawuwu-(chch), -(chchi-) 'k. of small lagoon f.', yawuwa-(tur),-(ture-) 'larger growth stage of latter f.'; STW yawuw 'k. ofmullet'; WOL yauwe 'k. of fish'; KIR aua 'a f.'; PEO*qaRua 'f., juvenile mullet' (Geraghty 1990).

PMC *awo 'fishline': CHK oo, oo-; PUL yoo; CRL yoo; STWyoo, WOL yoo, yoo-; PUA yaawo, yawo-; PCK *yawo; MOK o; MRS yew; KIR (te)-ao;KSR ae; PEO *afo (PPN *afo).

PMC *ayu, ayuSa 'current': CHK ewut, ewuta-'current' and ewu-(we), ewu-(wa) 'river' or'brook'; PUL yawut 'current'; WOL yaute'current'; PCK *yau, yauda; PON aad' MOK aad; MRS hayey,hayet; KIR (te)- aira; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'gush'; PEO*qaRu[cs] (Geraghty 1990); UAN *qaRus.

PMC *-ca '1st pl. incl. pass. prn., of us, our': CHK-ch; MRT-sh; PUL-R; CRL -sh; CRN -R; STW' -R; (suf to n.)WOL -she; PUA-sa; PCK *-ca; PON -t; MRs -d; KIR -ra; KSR -sr; POc *-da (TON ta; FIJ -da;SAA -ka; BUG -da; ARO -ga; LAK -ga-[tou]).

PCMc *ca- 'state of being': CHK che-, che-, cho-, cho-,chche-, -ch; PUL cca-n 'to be'; CRL sha-(apaapa) 'be very flat(as aboard)'; CRN Ra-(apaap) 'be very flat'; WOL sha-(apaape)'become flat, be flat', chchaa-li 'exist, be available';PCK *ca-, cca- cca[a]-ni; MRS de-(pakpak) 'wide, broad',de-([kem.sup.w][kem.sup.w]) 'noisy'; KIR ra-(itiiti)'glitter' ([te]-iti 'lightning'), ra-(baba)'broad'. Cf. PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-or t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n in such honorificexpressions as t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]mpala,t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nsik. Sec PCMc *cafifi'twisted, tangled', PCK *ca-riwariwa 'be shiny, glossy,bright, glitter', PCK *ceeu 'continuously widespread', PCK*cappa 'be turned face down', PCK *coro[eta]o 'noisycondition', PCK *caapaapa 'flattened'.

PMC *caa, cacaa 'blood, be bloody': CHK chcha, chchaa-;MRT shshaa (sic); PUL cca, ccaa-; CRL tcha, tchaa-; STW chcha, chchaa-; WOLchchaa; PUA ssa; SNS ssaa; PCK *ccaa; PAN nta ntaa-; MOK insa, insaa-; PNGinda; MRS dah, ddah; KIR (te)-raraa; KSR srae; PEO *draRa (Geraghty 1990);POC *nraRaq (Ross 1988) (FIJ draa; PKB *dara); UAN *[dD]aRaq.

PCMc *cafifi 'twisted, tangled': CHK -chef'classifyer far counting tentacles of octopus or squid'; WOLshaffi; PCK *caffi; KIR raai (sic) 'twist and tangle easily'. SeePCMc *ca- 'state of being', PCK *ffi, fiffi 'tangled'.

PCMc *cai 'to spread': WOL shee 's. out (as news),be announced (of s.t. that had been lost), get through an object,discover'; KIR rai-a 'to s. over (s.t.)'. Cf. KIR rakerake'to s. about (as an odor)'.

PCMc *cakai 'stone, coral': CHK chee 'kind ofsmall, sharp c.'; PUA sakai 'egg'; PCK *cakai; PON takay's., rock', takay-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t) c.head'; MOK sakay 's., rock, c.'; MRS dekay 's., rock,gravel'; KIR rakai 'c. shoal in lagoon, reef'. The KIR formalso reflects PMC *sakau 'reef', the two reflexes apparently havingbecome homonyms closely similar in meaning, as noted by Marck (1994:317), whoreconstructs this as PMC *t'akau.

PMC *calo, calocalo 'dark, black': CHK chon, chochchon(<*conocon) 'd., b.', chono-(kkich), chonu-(kkich),chone-(kkich) 'very d., jet b.'; MRT shol 'b.'; PUL Rool,Rulu-(n) soot, s. of', Rolo-(kiiR) 'be b.'; CRL shol 'bed., b. all over', shotchol 'b.'; CRN Rol 'be d., b. allover', dotchol 'b.'; STW' Rol; WOL soolo, chchochchoolo'be b.'; PUA saano, sano- 'charcoal', sano 'mark onit, write on it'; PCk calo, (<calocalo); PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'coal', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l(<t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l,<*t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l) 'b.'; Mok sol 'b.'; MRS dawal 'dye';KSR srdl 'paint', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lsr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'b.'.

PMc [cam.sup.w]a 'forehead, brow': CHK [channm.sup.w],[cham.sup.w],a-(n) 'f., brow, his f.'. -[cham.sup.w] 'countingclassfier for foreheads, brow': visors, etc.', (ewu)-[cham.sup.w]'cross-beam of house'; MRT [shame.sup.w]e-(n) 'his f.';PUL [Raam.sup.w] 'f.', (yee)-[Ram.sup.w], (yeeyi)-[Ram.sup.w]'cross-beam of house'; CRN [Raam.sup.w], [Ram.sup.w]a-(n) 'f.,his f., house gable'; WoL (geu)-[sham.sup.w]e 'tie beam ofhouse'; PUA (kau)-samu (sic) 'end purlins of house'; PCk*[cam.sup.w]a; PON [taam.sup.w], t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f., his f'.; MoK[som.sup.w], [some.sup.w]e, [som.sup.w]o-(n) 'f., his f., f. of'.[sam.sup.w.] 'gable'; MRS [dam.sup.w], [dem.sup.w]a- 'f.,brow, gable; KIR (te)-[ram.sup.w] a 'f., gable end'; KSR (moton)sro-(n) 'f. of'; PEO *[dam.sup.w]a (FIJ daga 'throw the headwell back as in shaving or putting drops in one's eyes'; LAK gama'head'). Cf. SAA dara 'f.'; LAU dara 'f'.; AROdara 'f',; KWA dala 'f'.: and c. Poc *[dram.sup.w]a'f.' (Ross 1988). Cf. Also PCK *kau-[cam.sup.w]a 'tiebeam'.

PMc *[cam.sup.w][ai], [cam.sup.w][ai]-ti 'to lick': PON[tam.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]] 'to 1. (s.t.)'; MOK [sam.sup.w]'to 1.', [sam.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to 1.(s.t.)'; PNG [sam.sup.w]e 'to 1. (s.t.)'; MRS [dam.sup.w][dem.sup.w] 'to 1.', [dam.sup.w]i-j 'l. (s.t.)'. Cf. FIJdrami, drami-ca 'to lap, l.'.

PMc canu-, cacanu, canucanu 'fresh water': CHK chaan,chenu- 'f. w., liquid', chchen (<chechen) 'wet',chechchen (<*chenchen) 'wet'; MRT shaan; PUL Raan, rani-; CRLshaal, shalu- 'w., clear liquid'; CRN Ran 'w., clearliquid'; STW Raan, Raal, Ranu-; WoL shaalu, shalu- 'liquid, f.w.', (le)-chchalu 'in w.', chechchalu 'filled withw.'; PUA saanu, sanu-; PCK *canu, ccanu, caccanu; MRS dan, dandan'w., liquid, juice'; KIR (te)-ran 'f. w., sap', raran'leaky', ranran 'juicy, full of sap'; KSR srono-; POc*nranum (PPN *lanu; FIJ dranu; SAA sanu 'draw w.', danu-'I'sprinkle with w.'; PKB *naLu); UAN * [dD]anum. Cf. KWA talu-Seealso Marck (1994:309) PMc *t'anu 'f.w., nonsaline flowing liquidsin general'.

PCMc *cana 'move quickly': CHK chan 'to fly, beflying (as a bird)'; PON tan 'to run, to flee, to swim (as afish)', tene 'to run to (s.t.)'; KIR ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-ti 'move fast', ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-la 'tohasten (s.o.), make (s.o.) walk fast'. Cf. SAA ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'to rise (of the moon)'.

PCMc *cani 'be loved, dear': CHK chen 'be l.,cherished', (e)-cheni 'to love him-her', (a)-chengicheng (loanfrom another dialect) 'love, favoring cherishing, to be dear'; PUL(a)-Ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'to love him/her'; WOLsha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'be l.', (ge)-sha[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]jishe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'be loving'; PCK*ca[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; KIR (ka)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'flattery, engage in flattery'.

PCMc *cao 'group, group member': CHK choo, choo-'group, member (of group)' choocho 'be heavilypopulated'; PUL Roo-(n) person of'; CRL shoo 'clan, workforce, team, member of a group'; CRN Roo clan, work force, team, memberof a group'; STW Roo- 'group, person of'; Wol shoo, shoo-'person, crew'; PUA saao, sao- 'people'; PCK *cao; PONtoo-(n) 'member of'; MOK soo-(n); MRS dewe-(n) 'followersof'; KIR rao-(na) 'his companion, friend'. Cf. YAP choo(n)'member of'. Cf. Also PEO *joRa 'mate, partner' (Geraghty1983) (PPN *soa 'friend'; AO hoa 'friend').

PWMc *capa, cacapa 'adhere': see PWMc *paca, papaca.

PWMc *capi 'beginning, origin, bse': CHK chaap.chepi-(n) 'genitals, his g., (nee)-chepi-(n) '(at the) b. ofit'; PUL Rapi-(n) 'its lower trunk (of a tree)', Rapi-(nppalu) 'an initiated navigator'; CRL shaap, shepi-l 'base,trunk, source, core, b. of'; CRN Raapn Repi-n 'base, trunk, source,core, b. of'; STW Rapi-(n) 'b. of'; WoL shaapi, shapi-'b., origin, ancestor, base, bottom, foundation', shapi'begin, start', shapi-I-(ye) 'begin it'; PUA saapi, sapi-'trunk'; PCK *capi; PON tapi 'its b., base (of a tree)',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'to begin, start'; MoK sap, sapi-(n)'small of the back'; MRS dapi-'base, foundation, bottom, stem,trunk'. Cf. KSR sropo-9n) 'trunk of'.

PMc *cau 'leaf': CHK chee, chee-; PUL Ree; CRL shee; CRNRee; STW Ree; WoL shee, shee-; PUA saau, sau-; SNS saawu; PCk *cau; PONt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; Mok so; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; KIR (te)-rai'flat board'; KSR sra; PEO *nrau, rau (PPN *lau; FIJ drau; SAA rauused as food wrapper'; ARO rau; PKB * Lau); Poc *ranu and PAN *daSun(Ross 1988), but PMP *Dahun (Dyen 1953). Cf. PMc *cau-, cau-lapa 'wide,width'.

PMc cau-, cau-lapa 'wide, width': CHK chee- 'width(of flat objects)', chee-kis 'narrow', chee-nap 'w.,broad', chee-(peep), che-(peeh), chee-(cheep) 'borad'; PULReeRee-(lo) 'spread far (as news, people)',Ree-(paap)(<*Ree-apaap) 'be flat (as a fish)'; Wol shee-giti'be narrow', shee-lape 'be w., broad, spacious'; PCK*cau-, cau-kiTi, cau-lapa; PON t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(tik)'narrow', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lap 'w.'; KSRsra-(laep) 'wide'. Cf. MRS de-(pakpak) 'w., broad'; PKB*Lau 'far'; PMP *Za[h[theta]]uq (Dyen 1953). Cf. PMC *cau'leaf'.

PMC *cawa 'slow, late': CHK chchaw; PUL Raw, ccaw; PUAsawa; PCK *cawa, ccawa; KIR rawa 'to refuse'; KSR ra'linger'.

PMC *cawu, cacawu, cawucawu 'heavy, heaviness': CHKchchow, chchowu- 'h., heaviness, angry', chowuchow 'pressing,weighed down'; MRT shshaw; PUL ccowo, ccowu- (sic); CRL tchow; STWchchow; WOL chchau PUA ssau; SNS ssawu; PCK *ccau; PON towtow 'h.',taw-r 'weigh down'; MOK sowsow; MRS ddew; KIR rarau'swoon', rarau-(aki) 'be satisfied, have enough food'.Note also KIR rarai 'sulky'.

PMC *cece, cecece 'shake, tremble': CHK chcheech,chechche-(n) 'quake, tremor, q. of, shake, shiver, tremble'; MRTshesh; PUL ceec, cece-(n); CRL shetch; CRN detch (sic); STW cec, ceccec; WOLchchechche; PCK *cec, cecce; KIR rere 'to dart quickly'; POC *dede(SAM tete). Cf. also PPC *cee, ceecee 'move quickly', PMC'tremble', PMC *rere 'tremble (with fear)', PCK *caka-i-,ccaka-i- 'chase, pursue'.

PMC *ceni, ceceni 'strand tree': CHK chchen; PUL ccen'a t. (Messerschmidia argentea)'; CRL tchel; CRN tchen; STW chchen;WOL chcheli; ULI chel; PCK *cceni; PON titin; MOK sisin; MRS (ki)-den; KIR(te)-ren 'a tree'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n 'a kind of tree'. Note that the vowel e in the CHK form isunexpected (we expect i). YAP cheen 'a beach heliotrope' appears tobe a loan from a Chuukic source. Cf. FIJ danidani 'a shrub (Nothopanaxfruiticoston)'.

PMC *cepa, cecepa 'Carangid fish': CHK chchep 'kindof pompano f.'; PUL ccip (sic) 'stage in growth of skipjackf.'; CRL tchep 'smallest of five stages of growth of theskipjack'; WOL chchepe 'a kind of f.'; PCK *ccep[ae]; PONt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'a skipjack (Caranx)'; MRS ddep 'af.'; KIR (te)-rereba 'a young jack (Caranx)'; KSR srap'skipjack'.

PMC *cia 'give voice': CHK chi 'g. v., utter',chiye-(ta) 'be begin (as a vocalization)'; WOL shii-(tage)'begin, start (as a prayer)'; PCK *ci[ai]; PON tia-k 'to starta song'; KIR (te)-ria 'a lip'; KSR sriasra 'to lead orstart a song'.

PMC *cici 'tremble': MRS (wi)-diddid 't.,quake', ddi-(pikpik) 'flutter, flop around', ddi-(pinpin)'throb'; KIR (ma)-riri 'feel cold' (but see SAM lili'shiver, t.' from which it may be a loan); POC *didi (LAK [ma]-gigi[<PNK *(ma)didi] 'to shake as in epilepsy'). Cf. SAA ariri't.'; BUG ariri 'shake'; LAU ariri 'be shaken';ARO ariri 't'; KWA alili 't.'. Cf. also PMC *cece, cecece'shake, tremble', PMC *cucu 'tremble, shake', PMC *rere'tremble (with fear)'.

PMC *cicini 'inscribe, tattoo': PON nti[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to write, to t.', nti[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i 'towrite or t. (s.t.)'; MOK insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'letter of thealphabet, mark, t.', insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n daip)'printing', insi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to write, mark, ort. (s.t.)'; PNG iisi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'writing'; KSRsrisri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't.', srisri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'mark (the skin) with a t.'.

PMC ? *ciilee 'swelling': PON tiil[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'sty, have a sty'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'lump, mass, clot'. See also PMC ?*cili 'have a sty in the eye'.

PMC *ciki 'small, little': CHK -chik, -chis, -sich,chikichiiki-; PUL Rik, (ya)-RikiRik; CRL -shigh; WOL -shigi; PUA -siki; PCK*ciki; PON tikitik, MOK siksik; MRS dik, (wi)-ddik; KIR (wa)-riki'narrow'; KSR srik, srisrik; POC *nriki, riki (PPN *riki'small'; LAK [gu]-liliki, [gu]-likiliki 'child, children butnot one's offspring'); UAN *Diki[hq]. Cf. KIR (ua)-rereke'small'.

PMC ? *cili 'have a sty in the eye': CHK chin 'h. as.', chini-(n maas) 's. of the eye'; MOK sil 's.';KSR srol 's., have a s.'. There seems to be a problem with thevowel of the KSR form. See also PMC ? *ciilee? 'swelling'.

PMC *[cim.sup.w]e 'tip up, raise up, nod, bob': CHK[chiim.sup.w], [chim.sup.w]a-n 'head, his h., [chim.sup.w],[chim.sup.w][echim.sup.w] 'n. the head', [chim.sup.w]e-(ta)'t. the head back, look up in the air'; PUL [Riim.sup.w]'head', [Rim.sup.w][eRim.sup.w] 'n. repeatedly, toss up anddown (of a canoe)', [Rim.sup.w]o-(ta) 'get up (as in themorning)'; CRL [shiim.sup.w], [shim.sup.w]a-l 'head, his h.',[shim.sup.w]e-ri 'greet or signal (s.o.) by nodding or raising thehead'; CRN [Rim.sup.w] 'n. or r. the head', [Rim.sup.w]e-ri'greet or signal (s.o.) by nodding or raising the head'; WOL[shiim.sup.w]e, [shim.sup.w]e- 'head, convex shape',[shim.sup.w][eshum.sup.w]e, chchich-[chim.sup.w]e 'move up and down, bein balance'; PUA [siim.sup.w]a, [sim.sup.w]a- 'head',[sim.sup.w]a 'n. the head', [sim.sup.w]a-(take) 'to getup'; PCK *[cim.sup.w]e, [cim.sup.w][e-cim.sup.w]e, [cim.sup.w]e-(dake);MRS dim-(tak) 'jerk a fish line to hook a fish'; KSR srim'bow', srimsrim 'n., bob'. Cf. KIR (te)-rimwa 'ridgeat the sid e of a plank caused by its having a greater thickness than theadjoining plank', [rim.sup.w]a 'be thicker than the adjoiningplank'.

PMC *[cip.sup.w]a, 'curve, bend inward': CHK[chip.sup.w][echip.sup.w] 'c., arch, bow', [chchip.sup.w] 'bewarped or bent by fire', [chiip.sup.w] 'divination by bending(breaking) the midrib of a coconut leaflet back and forth across the palm ofone's hand', [chip.sup.w]e-yi 'divine for it',[chip.sup.w]a-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'be tired, weary (fromwork)'; WOL shiihe, shibe- 'bay, inward curve, kind ofdivination', shibe be 'be embayed, c. inward', shiba-a'divine for it'; PCK *[chip.sup.w]a; PON [ntip.sup.w] 'bebroken (of any long object)', [tip.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'break it (a long object)', [cip.sup.w]e-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-(n pee) 'crook of the arm'; MOK [sip.sup.w],[sip.sup.w]e-(n) 'bend (as in a road), joint, j. of'; PPC*[cip.sup.w]a, [cip.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PEO *[ntip.sup.w]a (AROdiwa, didiwa 'the u-shaped groove at top of the main post in which theridgepole rests'; KWA dikwa. [ma]-dikwa 'broken, break'). Seealso PMC *[cip.sup.w][a.sub.2] 'tongs'. Cf. PMC *[kup.sup.w]e,[kup.sup.w]e-li 'be bent, to bend (s.t.)'.

PMC *[cip.sup.w][a.sub.2] 'tongs': CRL [tchib.sup.w]'t., poker, animal prod, stick used in the roasting of breadfruit',[tchib.sup.w]e-e-y 'to nudge, prod, or poke (s.t.)'; WOL shibeshibe'to take up with a fork', shibe-i-(e) 'take it up with afork', shibe-t-(agi) 'be lifted up'; PUA [sip.sup.w]a 'topick up with chopsticks or forks, [sip.sup.w][asip.sup.w]a'chopsticks'; PCK *[cip.sup.w]a, [cip.sup.w][acip.sup.w]a'lifting sticks'; PON [tiip.sup.w] 'pair of sticks used topick up hot rocks from an earth oven'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f'pliers, pincers, t.', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ft 'hold orpick up with pliers, pincers, t.'. Reference may originally have been toa green stick that was bent (broken) to make tongs. See also PMC*[cip.sup.w][a.sub.1] 'curve, bend inward'.

PMC *ciwa 'pertaining to the ear': see PMC *cua, cuacua.

PCMC? *co[w[theta]]a-. 'a fish': see PCMC *tawu.

PMC *cowu, cowu-ki 'hand net': CHK cheew, chuu-,#cheewi- 'hand net, constellation Corona borealis, month name',chuu-ni 'catch (fish) with a net'; PUL Roow, 'hand net, starand month name'; CRL sheew, shoow 'dipping net', shoow'star and month name', shoo-ghi 'dip up (small fish) with anet'; CRN Reew 'dipping net', Reu-ni 'dip up (small fish)with a net'; WOL shoou, shou- 'scoop net, Corona borealis',shoushou 'be capturing, scooping up', shou-gi-(i) 'capture it,scoop it', shou-gegi 'be captured, scooped'; PUA soou, sou-'net'; PCK *ceewu (?), cowu-, cowu-ki-; PON towtow 'scoopout'; MOK sooso 'scoop up with a net', soo-k 'to scoop(s.t.) up with a net'; PNG sowsow 'catch with a net'; MRS dew'net for washing arrowroot and soaking breadfruit'. Cf. BUG jau'fishnet; ARO tau 'small handnet'.

PMC *cua, cuacua or *ciwa 'pertaining to the ear': PULRuwa- 'possessive classifier for earrings', RuwaRu 'wear asearrings', Ruwa-ni(y) 'own as earrings'; WOL shuwa-'poss. cl. for earrings', shuweshuwe 'wear in one'sears', shuwe-li-(i) 'have as one's earrings' ; PUA suue,sue-earrings', suesue 'to wear earrings'; PCK *cuwa-,cuwacuwa, cuwa-ni; PON tia-ti 'to wear earrings', ti[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'classifier for earrings'; MOK si, sio, sie-(n) 'ear,his e., e. of', siasi 'classifier for things worn in the ear';MRS diyedey 'wear earrings', diye- 'possessive classifier forthings worn on the ears', die-k 'wear (earrings)'; KSRsrw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'ear, poss. cl. for ear decorations',srw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sra 'put flowers behind the ears', srwe'wear it behind the ear'.

PMC *cucu 'tremble, shake': CHK chchu-ni 'topossess him/her (of a spirit)', chchu-no 'shade, shadow(representing a person's bad soul)'; PON ti 'to possess orinhabit a human body (of a spirit)'; KIR ruru, rurururu 'tot.', ru-a 'to change, alter, take the place of (s.o.)'; KSR(ku)-srusr 't., quake, vibrate'. Cf. MRS tiwey 'be possessed(by evil spirit), to possess'; KSR sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sruo-k'hold, catch'. Cf. also PMC *cece, cecece 'shake,tremble', PMC *cici 'tremble', PMC *rere 'tremble (withfear)'.

PWMc *cuu, cuu-ni 'meet, encounter': CHK chu 'meet,come together', chuu-ri 'meet, encounter, or join him/her';MRT shuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PUL Ru, Ruu-ri; CRL shuu'meeting', shuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'meet, encounter(s.o.)'; CRN Ruu, Ruu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; STW Ruu,Ruu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, Ruu-Ru 'meet with (s.o.)'; WOL shuu,shuu-ni-(i); PCK *cuu, cuu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PON tu; MOK su 'bemet, reached', su-o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'meet (s.o.)'; PNGsu-o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS diw 'gather to dance'. KSR su-'to meet (s.o.), arrive at (a place)' is presumably a loan.

PMC *cuyi- 'bone': CHK chuu chuu- 'bone';chuuchu 'bony, skinny'; PUL cuu; CRL shuu; STW Ruu; WOL shuu,shuu-; PUA ssi 'bone, thorn'; SNS sii, PCK *cuyi; PON tii 'hisbone'; MOK si, sii-; MRS diy, diyi-; KIR (te)-rii, rii-; KSR sri; PEO*duRi (Geraghty 1990). Cf. PEO zuRi (Geraghty 1983) and *cuRi (Geraghty 1990)(Fu sui; SAA suli; BUG huli; KWA suli-[na]); POC *suRi (Ross 1988). Cf. UAN*[dD]uRi. See also PCK *cuyicuyi 'yard, boom (of canoe)'. Note thatthis example, along with PMC * [m.sup.w]otu, [m.sup.w]otu-Si 'cut,sever, break off', shows that pre-POC * ns merged with Pre-POC *nd and*nt as POc *d, contrary to present reconstructions for POC (Grace 1969, Ross1988). For further discussion and examples, see Goodenough (1992 fn. 6,1997).

PMC * e- 'he, she, it (subj. marker)': CHK e-, i-(before high vowel); MRT e-; PUL ye-; CRL e-; STW e-; WOL ye-; PUA e-; PCK*e.; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS ye-; KIR e-; PEO * e (SAA e-; BUG e-;LAU e-). Cf. KSR el 'he, she'.

PMC * ecieci 'stinging, smarting': see PMC *[f[theta]]eci[f[theta]]eci.

PMC * ee 'here, this near speaker': MRT ye 'n.s.'; STW ye 'this n. s.'; WOL yee 'this n. me'; PUAye 'this by s.'; PCK * yee; PON -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'thisby me'; MOK -e, -i 'this'; MRS yey 'this'; KIR (nakomai) ee'(come here) by me'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'thisn. s.', (in)-e 'this, here, now'. Cf. LAK-e 'here'.

PMC * ena 'this, that': CHK een 't. (near personaddressed and speaker or next to come up)'; PUL yeen; CRL yeel 't.close to speaker', (i)-yeel 't. one (emphatic)'; CRN (i)-yeen't. one (emphatic)'; WOL yeele 't. here near me'; PUAyena (sic) 't. here'; PCK * yeena; PON -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n'that, by you'; MRS yen 'that'; KSR (i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'that, those'.

PCMC * epaepa 'lee platform of sailing canoe, platform onside opposite to outrigger float': CHK epeep, epeepe-(n) 'l. p., l.p. of'; PUL yepeep, epeepa-(n); CRL epeep, epiyep; WOL yepeepe,epeepa-(li); PCK * epeepa; KIR (te)-ebaeba 'a raft or float'. Cf.TON 'epa 'mats given to a bride'; SAA epa-si 'to spreadover (s.t.); ARO eba 'to spread (as news)', eba-si 'to extend,overspread (s.t.)'; KWA eba 'sleeping mat', eba-a 'spreadout taro dough for pudding'; PEO * qeba 'sleeping mat'(Geraghty 1983).

PMc * etieti 'to peel with the teeth': MOK ejjej'to p. with the t.', iji-r 'to husk (a coconut) with thet.'; PNG esies 'to p. or husk with the t.', esi-r; MRS yejyej'use mouth to husk coconuts, strip off or p. one layer at a time';KSR esyes 'p. with the t.', esyesi 'p. (s.t.) with thet.'. See also PCK * [k[theta]]aTe-i-, [k[theta]]aTTe-i- 'tear orpeel with the teeth'.

PMC * fa- 'reciprocal': CHK fe-, ffe-'m.',ffe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]een, ffe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]en,fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]enni- 'toward one another, together',fe-seen, fe-senni- 'away from each other'; MRT fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]en; PUL fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ann, fe-ha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];CRL fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]all, fe-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; CRNfe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ann; STW fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]an; WOL fe-,fe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]anni, fe-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK * fe,fe-nganni, fe-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]]i; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'away from eachother', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'towardeach other'; PPC * fe-, fe-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]]i; KIR a-(ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a) 'mutual friendship';POC * pa (PKB * va 'do m.'). Note CRL sefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],sefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and CRN hefa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] aremetathasized forms of fe-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and * fe-hangrespectively. Cf. LAU fai 'do with, help'; BUG fai- 'pref. ofreciprocity'; ARO hai-, hei-, hi- 'mutual action'; KWA fa-(na)'for; with, to him', fa-(i) 'for it'. Cf. also PEO * faRi'reciprocal action' (Geraghty 1990).

PMC * -faa 'where?': CHK i-fa i-faa-; MRT -fa'which (located where)?'; PUL i-fa; CRL i-fa; STW i-fa; WOL i-faa;PUA i-daa 'which?; PCK * i-faa; MOK ? i-paa 'near him, with him, inhis possession'; KIR i-aa; KSR o-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. PPN * fea 'where?'. Cf. Fu e-vei; SAAi-hei; BUG i-vei; LAU i-fai; ARO i-hei; KWA I-fai; LAK -ve. See also PCMC *iaa 'where?', PCMC * maia 'from where?.

PMC * faa- 'underside, under': CHK faa-(n), faa-(n)'his u. or under him, u. of, under'; MRT faa-(n) 'underit'; PUL faa-(n), faa-(n); CRL faa-(l); STW faa-(1); WOL faa-(le),faa-(li); PUA da-(ni) (sic); PCK * faa-; PON paa, paa-n; MOK paa, pee-(n);MRS ? yaw-([m.sup.w]i-), yew-([m.sup.w]i-); KIR (i)-aa-(na), (i)-aa-(n); KSR(y)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l), (y)-e-(n). Cf. PEO * fafa 'u.,under' (SAA haha 'down side', [i]-haha 'below,underside'; KWA [olo]-fa-[na] 'under, underneath'); PAN babaq'u.'. Cf. also POC * paqal 'thigh, leg, stem' (Ross 1988)(PPN *paqa 'thigh'; FIJ yava-[na] 'foot, leg'; LAK vaha'leg, foot'); UAN * paqa 'leg, stem'; and cf. LAU(i)-fara- 'underneath'. Cf. also PMc * faa, faa-[sS]i 'applythe sole of the foot', PCK * fa[ae]fa[ae] 'footbrace in the form ofa stationary block of wood under the warp beam of a loom', PCK *faa-raki 'use one's foot'.

PMC * faa-, fa- 'four' (prefixed to classifier): CHKfa-, fe-, fo-, f-; MRT faa-, fee-; PUL fa-, faa-,fe-,fo-, f-; CRL faa-; STWfaa-; WOL faa-; PUA daa-, PCK * faa-, fa-; PON paa-; MOK paa-PNG paa-; MRSya-; KIR a-; KSR ae yo-; PEG * faa, fati (cf. Geraghty 1983); POC * paat, pat(Ross 1988) (PPN * faa; Fu vaa; SAA hai, BUG vati; LAU fai; ARO hai; KWA fai;PKB * vaa); UAN * epat, empat. See also PMC * fani 'the numberfour' (in serial counting).

PMC * faa, faasa 'string, be strung': CHK ffaat 'bes. (of fish)', -ffaat 'strings of fish' (counting classifier),ffaate-(n), faate-(n) 's. of', faate-ni 'to s. it on aline'; MRT faat 's. for hanging fish'; PUL faate-ni-(y)'to pierce it, penetrate it, s. it (as fish)'; CRL ffaat, faat,ffati-(l) 'stringer of fish, s. of f. of'; WOL faa 's.,cord', -faat 'numerical classifier for strung objects,,faata-li-(i) 's. it'; PUA data (sic) 's., to stab through as.', -data (sic) 'counting classifier for strings of s.t.';PCK *faa, faada, faada-ni; KSR ae 's., fishing line, rope, cord',aet 'dangle, hang', aetaet 'dangling, hanging'. Notealso: WOL faate 'special food (including fish) set aside for achief'; PUA data (sic) 'special food, chief's food'. Cf.PMC *awo 'fishline'.

PMC *faa, faa[sS]i 'apply the sole of the foot': CHKfaa- 'pertaining to the s. of the f.', ffa, ffu 'kick with thes. of the f.', faa-ti 'kick it'; CRLffa 'to kick,, faa-ti'kick (s.o.)'; WOL faafaa 'kick,, faa-ti-(i) 'kickit'; PCK *faa, faa-ti; PON paa-d 'to push with one'sfoot'; MOK paa-d push with the feet', paa-dek 'push (st.) withthe feet'; PPC *faa, faa-di; PEO * [pvlaRa-z 'tread on, stepon' (Geraghty 1990:66) (FIJ vaa, vaa-ca 'tread softly'). Cf.Km wae 'foot, leg, walk'. Cf. also PMC *faa- 'underside,under', PCK *fa/ae/fa/ac/ 'footbrace in the form of a stationaryblock of wood under the warp beam of a loom', PCK 'use one'sfoot'.

PCMC *faa-i-lani, faa-ni-lani 'lower region of sky': CHKfaa-n naan, faa-yi-nen 'lower heaven'; WOL faa-i-leni 'theearth, the globe, the world'; PCK *faa-i-lani; KIR aa-n-nan 'theatmosphere just below the clouds'. See PMC *faa- 'underside,under' and PMc *lani 'sky, heaven, storm'.

PMC *faca 'pandanus': CHK faach, fache-(n) 'p., p.of'; MRT faash; PUL faaR, faRa-(n); CRL faash, fasha-(l), #faasha-(l);CRN faaR, fara-(n); STW faaR; WOL faash, fesha-(li); PUA daasa, dasa-; PCK*faca; MRS yed-(wahan) 'wild p.'; KIR ara- 'p.' (invariety names); PEO *fanra (PPN *fara; FIJ vadra); PAN *panDan, paneDan(Blust 1984-85).

PCMC *faco 'constantly': CHK -ffoch 'c., all thetime, always'; PUL foRofoRo-(lo) 'do c., do steadily'; CRL-ffosh 'all the way to a destination'; WOL ffasho 'to gothrough to the end, be complete, come to an end'; PCK *facofaco, ffaco;PON potopot 'everlasting, constant, permanent'; Km (te)-aro'way, manner, custom'.

PMC *fafia 'firewood': WOL fafiye 'f.,, fafiya-(a)'putt in it'; KIR (te)-aia; PEC *fafi[ae] (PPN *fafie'f.'). See also PUA dadia and SNS fafia 'uncultivatedland'.

PMC *fai, fai-a 'rayfish, stingray': CHK ffey, ffeyi(n)'s., s of', feyiye-(nap), fayiye-(nnifaro),feyiye-(p'uk)'species of s.'; MRT faye; PUL fayi; CRL feyi,feey, ffey, fayi 'r., skate'; STW fayi; WOL faiye 'r.',faiye-(getafe) 'kind of r.' faiye(li-shee-li-gilife) 'kind ofr.'; PUA daila; PCK *fai-a; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(porok) 'alarge r.', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we)'manta ray'; MOK po; MRS yayi-([b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]iy) 'kind ofr.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] a kind of fish'; PEO *faRi(Geraghty 1990); POC *paRi[q[theta]0] (Ross 1988) (PPN *fai; Pu vai; SAAhali; ARO had; KWA fali; LAK pai-[le-kava] 'spine [of the s.]');PAN *paRiS (Blust 1984- 85). Note that the l of PUA form is unexpected. KSR(sii)-f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'devilfish, ray' is an apparentloan. Sec also CHK farayap 'manta ray', PUL faariyap, WOLfairiyape, PUA daila.

PWMC *fai-To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'kiss by rubbingnoses': CRL fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and CRN fei-ho[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'k., r. n.'; STW fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'k., r.n.'; WOL fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'k. by rubbing n,together', fai-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(we) 'k. him'; ULIfa-so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (sic); PCK *fai-To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; MRsya-[te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'smell (s.t.)'. Note PEO*faRi- 'reciprocal, plural action' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. PPN*so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'touch noses, smell'. Cf. PMc *fa-'reciprocal'. MRS t is unexplained.

PMC *faifine 'woman': CHK feefin; WOL faifile; PUAdddine; SNS feyifini; PCK *faifine; PON peyn 'woman',peyna-([kap.sup.w]) ([kap.sup.w] 'new') 'young w.'; MOKPeyn, peyn ([kap.sup.w]); PNG (sere)-peyn 'girt'; PPON *peine; KIR(te)-aiine; KSR En; UAN *bayi and *binayi. Cf. PPN *fafine; POC *papine (Ross1988).

PMc ? *faiSa 'do what, what?': CHK feet 'dowhat'; PUL feet; CRL ([b.sup.w]e)feita 'why? (in disagreement),what happened?; WOL feitaa (sic) 'what happened?; PUA deita 'how isit? what happens?'; PCK *faida; PON payd 'who else?'; MRS yet'do what?'; KIR aera 'what ... doing?'; KSR ewhat?', Note KIR e instead of expected i. See PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa'interrogative suffix'. Note also PPC *fec 'engage in sexualintercourse, perform an action'. Cf. FIJ cava 'what?'; BUGhava what?'; LAK rova 'what?'. See also PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa'interrogative suffix'.

PMc *fakaafi 'evening': CHK faaf, faafi- 'e.',(nee)-faaf 'time of e. meal'; MRT (lee) -faaf; PUL faf, fafi- (sic)'e. meal', (lee) -faf (sic) 'time of e. meal'; CRL faaf,faafi; WOL fagaafi; PUA dakadi; SNS fakafi; PCK *fakaafi; KSRek[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] Cf. PEO *Rafi 'e.' (Geraghty 1990); POC*Rapi (Ross 1988) (SAA /sau/-lehi; PKa *Lavi); PAN *Rabi 'e. meal'(Blust 1989:160). See also Marek (1994:312) PMC *faka-afi.

PMc *fale 'meeting house': CHK faan, fani-(n),'meeting house, m. h. of'; PUL faal; CRL fala- 'in names ofmeeting houses'; WOL faale, fale-(li); PUA daane. dane-; SNS faane; PCK*fale; PEO *fale (PPN *fale; FIJ vale; SAA hale 'shed'; BUG vathe;ARO hare); Pre-POC *pale (Ross 1988); UAN *balay. Note: MRS pal'house' and KIR bare-(aka) 'boathouse' are apparentloans, in the KIR case clearly from a Polynesian source.

PMc *fali 'taboo, sacred': CHK fen 't., restricted,engage in worship,, faan 'church worship'; MRT fel 'be t., toworship traditional gods'; PUL fel 's.'. faal 'churchworship'; STW fal 'to worship traditional gods'; WOL fali'be restricted, t.'; PCK *fali; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'be in a t. relationship'; KSR ol-(kin) 'place (s.t) undert.'; UAN *pali.

PWMc *fa-liku, fa-liku-ri- 'turn away, ignore the presence ofothers': WOL fa-lugu 'to be isolated, face away from society, t. a.from people'; MRS ya-[lk.sup.w]i-r 't. one's back on(s.o.)', #yal[k.sup.w][irk.sup.w]ir 'to t. one's back ons.o.'. See also KIR (tina)-niku-a 'sit or stand in front of (s.o.),ignore (one who was once a friend)'. See PMC *liku 'outside'and UAN *likud.

PMc *falu 'bruised': CHK fen, feffen 'be b.,bleed', (e)-fen 'boxing, striking with the fist', (e)-fenu'strike him with the fist'; PUL faal; CRL faal 'abruise', fall 'be b., hurt', falla-(lo), fal(lo) be veryswollen, severely infected'; WOL falu 'be scratched, to bruise,(ge)-falu-(u) 'hit him, scratch him'; PCK *falu, fallu; UAN *palu'strike'. Cf. PWMC *[falu.sub.2] 'prick, pointed object'.

PWMc *falu 'prick, pointed object': CHK fen, fenufen'any instrument used to strike a thorn or sharp object and cause it topuncture,, ffen, ffenu-(n) 'thorn, t. of', fenu-u-(w) 'prick,tattoo'; MRT falufal 'tattooing'; PUL faal, falu-, falufal'spur (on a rooster), burr, thorn, spine on a fish'; STW falu-(w)'pierce (st.), tattoo (s.o.)'; WOL #faale #fela- (sic) 'spur(on a rooster)', (ge)-falu 'thing with spines, blades,thorns', falu-u-(we) 'pierce it, tattoo him'; PUA danu (sic)'tattoo it, write it', danudanu 'tattoo, writing'; PCK*falu, falufalu, falu-u-; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lip[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'tattoo, to tattoo', pali-i 'to tattoo'; MRSyiliy 'to pierce' (vowel raising of the sort in first syllablehappens sporadically). Cf. MRS yel 'cult that tattooed and practicedmagic' (with unexplained heavy l), PMC *[falu.sub.1]'bruised', PCK *cuyi-falu 'nail (in carpentry)'.

PCMc *fanaa 'a kind of needlefish': CHK fana, fanaa-(n)'a small n. f., n. f. of'; PUL fana 'a lagoon f., probably an.f.'; CRL fela 'halfbeak'; CRN fana 'halfbeak'; WOLfelaa 'a kind of n. f.'; PCK *fanaa; KIR anaa 'a f.'.

PMc *fanau 'advice, instruction': CHK #ffen, #ffena-(n)'a., correction, scolding, a. to him', fene-e-(w) 'advise,correct scold him', ffene-(neni) 'instruct, correct, admonish(s.o.)', (a)-fanafan 'formal talk, lecture, sermon, speech'(a)-fanafana 'deliver or give (a talk, etc.)'; MRT ffan'advise, instruct', fane 'advise him'; PUL #fene-(y)'my punishment (that I suffered)', fene-(w) (sic) 'discipline,punish, advise, (so.)', fenu-we-(er) (sic) 'punishment given bythem'; CRL #ffel 'give a. or instruction, lecture or preach',fele-e-(w) 'advise, instruct, counsel (s.o.)'; CRN #ffen 'givea, etc.', fene-e-(y) 'advise, etc, (s.o.)'; WOL felau'sermon, discipline,, felau-(we), foloo-(we) 'advise or preach tohim,, fala-(aute) 'talk, discipline, tradition', fala-(auta-a)'talk about it'; PUA danau and SNS fanau 'lesson, precept,commandment'; PCK *fana, fanau; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w 'be advised, panawi-i 'to advisehim'; MOK p""w 'give advice', ""'advise (s.o.)'; MRS yenaw, yenaw 'to scold, punish,spank', yen-ak 'to susp ect'. There may be two different rootshere, or the East Chuukic languages have developed *fana- and *ffena- asanalogical derivations. Cf. FIJ vunau 'admonish, harangue, make aspeech, preach'; TON fono 'give strict or solemn instruction,charge, command, direct, enjoin'; PPN *fono 'deliberativeassembly'; LAK vulo 'customs'.

PMc *[f[theta]]ani[f[theta]ani 'to bail': MRs yanyen;KIR anan (sic) or (Bender et al. 1984) annan; KSR enyen.

PMc *fanua 'inhabited land': CHK fenu, fenuwa-; MRTfanew, fanuwa-PUL fanu, fanuwa-; CRL faluw; CRN fanu; STW falu, faluwa-; WOLfaluwe; PUA danua; PCK *fanua; MRS yaney, yeney; KIR anna (<*ania)'dry l.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; POc *panua (PPN *fanua; FIJvanua; SAA hanue; LAK valua 'men'); UAN *banua Cf. PMC *anusa'small island'. See also Marck (1994:307) PMC *fanua 'land,island'.

PMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'hand over, give': CHKfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be handed over', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(na-) 'thing handed over, gift', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(no) 'hand or give away', (ni)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'gift', (ni):ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(ni) 'make a giftto'; MRT fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(la) 'give away'; PULfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'give, allow', (li)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'gift'; CRL fan 'to give, send',(li)-ffa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'gift, present'; STWfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(lo) 'give away'; WOL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e 'give, allow'; PUA da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'gift,give'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(la) 'betray, give away'; KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(ni) 'give to'. Cf. BUG va[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'to eat, vegetable food'; ARO ha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a,ha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ni 'to feed, nourish'; KWAfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'to eat, food', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-li-(a) 'to feed'. KSR (li)-pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'give to cuny favor' is presumably a loan from a Chuukic language.

PCMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to preserve bysmoking': PUL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y)'to smoke (as fish or copra)'; WOL fani 'to be smoked (asfish)', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(ye) 'smoke it'; PUAda[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ida[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to smokefish'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(bue) 'warm', aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'to warm (s.t.)'.

PMc *fani 'the number four' (in serial counting): CHKfaan; MRT faan; PUL faan; CRL faal; CRN faan; STW faan; WOL fani (sic); PCK*fani; PON ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; MOK([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; MRS -ya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'four (suf. to pronouns); KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'eight (in counting by twos); KSR ae[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. See alsoPMC *faa-, fa'four' (prefixed to classifier).

PCMc ? *f[ao][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][ou]-si 'blow (one'snose)': CHK fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-ti 'b. (one'sn.)', fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-([p.sup.w]eet) 'b. one'sn.'; MRT fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-ti, fo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-([p.sup.w]oot); PUL (yo)-fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]efo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; CRL (o)-fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ofo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ''s n.', fu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-ri 'to b. (then.)'; PCK *fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, fo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-di-;PON pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-d 'to b. (one's n.)',p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nid-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to b.o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e's n.'; KIR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ra'to b. (the n.)'. Cf. PPN *f[ae][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'b.through one's n.'. Cf. KSR paenosr 'disease of the n., speakthrough one's n.'. Problems here. Cf. also PCMC *wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][iu]-si 'wring out', PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu-, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu-ri- 'to snort,blow one's nose'.

PWMc *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'be loved, well liked':CHK fe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(n) 'love of/for him or her'; PULfa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]g 'be loved', fangu-n 'love of/forhim or her'; CRL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be very popular withthe opposite sex, be a Don Juan, be sexually promiscous (of a woman)';CRN fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be proper, well behaved, well liked (ofpeople)'; WOL fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(we) 'to love him orher'; PCK *fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; MRS ? [we[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'be homesick'. Note that we expect WOL*fangu-u-(we).


PMc *fara 'core (of breadfruit, coconut, pandanus)': CHKfaar, fara-(n) 'c. of a breadfruit, its c.', fare-(seyin)'spongy c. of ripe coconut'; MRT faar 'copra sponge'; PULfaar, fera-(n) 'c. of breadfruit, sponge of coconut, c. of'; CRLfaar, fara(l) 'c., heart, pit of a fruit, c. of'; WOL faare,fera-(li) 'c. of a breadfruit, c. of', (shoo) -far 'sproutedbrown coconut'; PUA daala, dala- 'copra sponge'; PCK *fara;PON paar 'spongy center of sprouting coconut',par 'to sprout(of coconuts)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri-(n maay) 'breadfruittree sprout'; MOK par 'sprouting coconut'; MRS yar'pandanus c.'; KIR (te)-aa 'thee, base of the pandanusbunch'; PEO *fara (Fu vara). MRS per 'small sprouted coconut ispresumably a loan from PON or MOK. Cf. PMC *far[ae] 'lungs'.

PMc ? *[fp]ara? 'hoarse': PON par 'abnormalsounding (as of the voice or an instrument)'; PEO *faRa 'h.'(Geraghty 1990) (PPN *faa); PAN paRak (Blust 1970:135). Cf. PCMc *pekopeko or*kopekope 'cough, to cough'.

PMc *far[ae] 'lungs': CHK fara-wa; PUL fara-wa; CRL fare-wa, fare-wa, fare-waa-(l); WOL fare-waa 'native sponge',fari-yawe; PUA dale-wa; PCK *fare-waa; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r; MRSyar; PEO *faRa (Geraghty 1990). Cf. YAP war-rum, wor-rum 'sponge,I.'. Cf. also PMC *fara 'core (of breadfruit, coconut,pandanus)'.

PWMc ? *farafa 'windward platform on outrigger booms next tohull of sailing canoe': CHK faraf, farafe-(n) 'w. p., w. p.of'; PUL faraf, farafe-(n); CRL peraf; WOL perafe; PCK *[fp]arafa; PONparap; MRS yerey.

PCMc *fari- 'less than ...': WOL fari- 'pref. thatshifts meaning in the opposite direction or makes it less than it wouldotherwise be' (e.g., [fari-m.sup.w][odhom.sup.w] osho 'become tollor long', lit. 'other than or away from short'); KIR ai-'prefix to kin terms for ascending and descending relationships toindicate non-lineal connection' (e.g., tina-u 'my mother, my femalerelative one generation senior' and ai-tina-u 'my mother's orfather's sister'). Cf. PCK *[fari.sub.1] 'already, justnow'.

PCMc *faro, faro-ki, faro-ka 'hold tightly': CHKforo-(pach), fara-(pach) 'to embrace', foru-si 'embrace him,strangle him, hang him by the neck'; CRN fore-y 'to hangoneself'; WOL ffaro 'be tight', (ge)-faro-(o) 'make ittight'; faro-gi-(i) 'tie it tight, bind it, hug her'; PCK*faro, faro-ki-; PON paro-k 'to catch s.t. animate, to arrest'; MRShare-k 'miserly, covetous, greedy, stingy,'; KIR ao-ka 'todeny or refuse (a request)'. KSR faerfaer 'hold, embrace' andfaero-s 'embrace or hug him or her' appear to be loans from CHK.MRS should have rounded r.

PMc *fa[sS]ua 'child of sibling of opposite sex': STWfatuw; WOL fatuwe; PCK * fadua; PEO *vasu + a (FIJ * vasu 'child ofman's sister'; TON fahu 'child of a man's sister').Cf. LAU fasusu 'give suck to'; and cf. KWA fasu 'segment,sprout, shoot off'.

PMc *faSale 'walk, move around': CHK fatan, fatanatan'walking, movement, course, progress, w., proceed, going on and on (asverbal suffix)'; MRT fetal 'w. about'; PUL-fetal 'hereand there, everywhere'; CRL fetal 'around, somewhere, randomly,(fara)-fetal 'about to take a w.'; CRN fatal 'to w., journey,take a w.'; STW feta, fetan 'w.'; WOL fetale 'move by itsown power, go, around and about (as verbal suffix)'; PUA datane 'tow. around'; PCK *fadale; MRS yetal 'w'. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l 'march, parade'.

PMc *faSo, fafaSo, faSo-ki, faSo-ka 'planted, to plant, aplanted thing': CHK foto-'planting', flot be p.', fotu-ki'p. it', fota-a- 'thing p. (by s.o.)'; MRT ffot, fato-ki;PUL fot, foto-ki (y); CRL ffot, foto-ghi, foot; CRN fato-gi; STW ffot,foto-ki, foot; WOL fato, ffato, fato-gi (i), fato-go; PUA dato, dato-ki,dato-ko; PCK *fado, fafado, fado-ki, fado-ka; PON pod, podo-k; MOK podo-k;MRS hathat 'p., vine'; KIR aro-ka 'cultivated plant'; KSRyok 'to p.', ikwi, yuki 'to p. (s.t.)' Cf. Poc *pasoq'p., tuber' (Ross 1988). Cf. also KSR o-ki, o-ki 'set up,ercct'; PMP *pacek 'drive in (as a post)' (Blust 1986:66).

PMc *faSu 'eyebrow': CHK faat, fetu-; MRT fatu-; PULfaat, fatu-; CRL faat, faat, fatu-; STW faat, fatu-; WOL faatu, fatu-; PUAdaati, dati-; PCK *fadu; PON padi-; MOK padi-; MRS yat; KIR (te)-ari; KSR(inn)-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POC *pazu (Fu vacu, PKB *vazu'forehead'); PMP * pasu 'cheekbone' (Blust 1983-84:93).

PMc *fata 'platform nest': CHK faas, fasa-(n) 'n.,its n.'; PUL faah 'n.'; CRL (a)-fasafas 'n.'; CRN(a)-fahafah 'n.'; STW fasefas 'n.'; WOL ffate'n.'; PUA dadata 'n.' daata, data- 'shelf'; PCK*faat, fata-; PON paas, pese 'n., its n., litter or rack for carryinglarge yams', pasapas 'p., shelf'; MOK paj, paji-(n), paje-(n)'n., of'; PPC *fata; PEO *fata (PPN *fata 'shelf', FIJvata 'shelf'; SAA ha'a 'p. for storing yams'; BUGfata 'tier'; ARO haa. 'p.'; KWA faa-[lani] 'raisedplank floor'). Cf. PMC *fata, fata-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'treetrunk'.

PMc *fata, fata-na 'tree trunk': CHK(nee)-fasa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'torso, trunk'; PUA daata,data-; PCK *fata, fata-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; POC *pata[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].

PCMc *fato, fato-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'to call,summon': CHK fowu-(no), fewu-(no) 'be much talked about, befamous', fewu-(n) 'spoken of, known for', fewu-ni 'to c.or speak the n. of (s.o.), to talk about (s.o.) positively'; PUL(yite)-faye-(lo) be famous, well known', fayi-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(y), fayi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(a) 'to c., s., invite(s.o.)'; CRL ffay 'to c., beckon', fai-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'to c, or beckon to (s.o.)'; STW fay 'to c.';WOL ffaso (sic) 'to c.', fase-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-u 'toc. (s.o.)'; ULI fesa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'c. (s.o.)'; PUAdadadada 'to c.', dada-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to c.(s.o.)'; SNS fada-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c. (s.o.); PCK*ffat[eo], fat[eo]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu]-; KIR ato-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'to utter, to say (s.t.)'. Cf. PON pasap[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n 'to respond, to answer'.

PMc *fatu 'stone': CHK faaw, fewu-, -few, -fey 's.,rock, coral, globular object (as classifier)'; fewufew'stony'; MAR faaw 'stone, rock'; PUL fawu (sic) 's.,coral, rock', fawu-(ma) 'dead coral'; CRL faay, faau,fayu-(l)'s., rock, seed, testicles, s. of'; STW faay 's.,rock'; WOL faau, fau-, faasu, fasu- 's., rock'; PUA daadu,dadu- 's., rock coral',-dau 'round object (in counting)';PCK *fatu, -fau; PON paay 'coral', peey 'big seed (as in amango)', pey-(t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l) 'big flat poundingss.', pay 'the stone used in an earth oven'; MRS hajji-(kad)'throw stones repeatedly'; KIR (te)-ati 'seed, s. heated forcooking', (te)-ati-(i[b.sup.w]u) 's., coral stone', ati-ati'full of seeds'; KSR yot; POC patu (PPN *fatu; FIJ vatu; SAA hau;LAU fou; ARO hau; KWA for PKB * vatu); UAN *batu. KSR paet'cornestone' must be construed as a loan. Cf. MOK pej'pandanus cud'. See also Marck (1994:315) PMC *fatu 'rock,stone'.

PMc *fatu, fatufatu 'to weave, plait': CHK fewufew'plaiting, do plaiting, be plaited', fewu-wa-(n) 'thingplaited by her', (a)-ffew 'unifying or joining two things so as tomake one (but not groups of people), splicing rope, translating,interpreting', (a)-ffewu 'to unify, join, splice (s.t.)'; MRTfaWufaW 'do weaving or plaiting', faWe 'to w. (s.t.)';PUL fayi fayifayi (sic) 'to p.', (ya)-ffewu (sic) 'tointerpret, translate, to splice (as rope)'; CRL fayfay 'w., doweaving', fayu, fau, fayi 'to w, or p. (s.t.)'; STW fayfay'to w.', fayu 'w. it'; WOL faufau 'to w.',fau-(we) 'w. it'; ULI fasfas, fasefase 'to w.', fasu-(y)'w. it'; PUA dadudadu 'to w.'; SNS fadufedu 'tow.'; PCK *fatu fatufatu; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y 'to w.', pa 'to w. (s.t.); MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'to weave', pa 'weave(s.t.)'; MRS yaj 'w., darn, knit'; KIR ati 'w.', ata'to w., braid (s.t)'; KSR otwot 'w.', otwe 'w,(s.t)'; PEO *fatu (PPN *fatu 'w., compose'; SAA ha'uha'u-si 'to p.'; ARO hau, hau-ri 'to p.'). The r inthe PNG form per 'w.', repo rted by Bender et al. 1984 isunexpected. Cf. BUG vao 'to p.'; LAU fao, faofao 'to w.,p.'; KWA fao 'w., knit, p.'; POC *pai 'w.' (ROSS1988). See also PMC *fau, fau-Si 'tie, bind'.

PCMc ? *fatuku 'head': PUA daduku; SNS faduku; KIR(te)-atuu. Note loss of k after t rather than expected loss of t before k inthe KIR form. Cf. PEO *[b.sup.w]atu 'head' (Geraghty 1983) (SAAqa'u; BUG pau; LAU gwau, gwau ARO [b.sup.w]au; KWA gou).

PMc *-fau 'hibiscus': CHK (sini)-fe, (sini)-fee-,'hibiscus'; PUL (kili)-fe; CRL (ghulu)-fe, (ghili):fe; STW(kili)-fe; WOL (gili)-fee, PUA (kini)-dau; PCK *(kili)-fau; KIR (te-ki)-ai-ai'a tree'; PEO *faRu (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *fau; FIJ vau; ARO haru'tree sp.'); PMP *baRu (Blust 1984-85).

PMc *fau, fau-Si 'tie, bind': CHK feefe, fee-ti; PULfeefe, fee-ti-(y) CRL fee-tagh and CRN fee-tag 'set an anchor, tie up aboat'; WOL feefee, fee-it(i)-; PUA daudau 'to weave'; SNSfaufau 'to weave; PCK *faufau, fau-di-; PON pei 'be tied up (ofboat)'; MRS yawyew 'bind, lash', yawi-t 'bind or lash(s.t.)'; KIR (te)-aiai 'ribs of a craft's hull'; KSRay"" 'tie, bind', awi 'tie it'; PEO *faqu-z'tie, bind' (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *faqu; FIJ vau, vau-ca). Althoughit might appear that MRS pawpew 'bind, tic',pawi-t 'binds.t.' and KSR pip 'bind', [p.sup.w]i 'bind (s.t.) couldbe loans from a PN source such as SAM faufau 'bind', the MRS pairsyawyew/pawpew and their transitives yawi-t/pawi-t have the marks of ancientdoublets, with the reduplicated pair exhibiting an ale alternation, somethingnot found in PN, but expected in MRS *CaCu or *CaCi reduplication, and alsofound in KSR (Bender 1973). Other y/p doublets in MRS include yewyew'stroke, caress', pewpew 'sweep, brush off' and yir'deviate', pir 'slip down'. These doublets point to anorigin as oral/nasal grade alternants (*p/mp) in POC. KSR ay"" /pipand awi/[p.sup.w]i could have this same origin (Bender 1973:463). Cf. PNK*avu, avu-a 'to wrap, bandage, medicate'; UAN *Rapus. See also PMC*fatu, fatufatu 'to weave, plait'.

PMc *fauru 'do, make': CHK feeri 'do it, makeit', feer, feera-(n) deed, action, his d.', ffeer, ffeeru-(n)'making, manufacture, production, m. of (a place)'; MRTfeeR[epsilon], PUL feer, feeri-(y); CRL ffeer 'to do, m.', ffeeru'to do or m. (s.t.)'; STW feeri; WOL foori-(i) 'm. it, do it,build it'; PUA daulu 'behavior, deed, to behave, do, m.',daulu-(aki) 'be made'; PCK *fauru; KSR or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'do, m., perform'. See also PCK *fauru-anutu 'recite aspell'.

PMc *fawo 'surface, on': CHK foo-(son) 'region ofslightly higher, fairly level ground back from the shore', foo-(nu-pi)'Pohnpei Island'; PON poo-(n) 'on', powe 'on it,above it', poo-(n pey) 'Pohnpei Island'; MRS (yi)-yewe-, yewe-'on, upon, top, s., over'; KIR (i)-ao-(na) 'on top of it, onit'; POC *papo (PPN *fafo 'exterior, outside'; SAA haho'above, top'; ARO haho- 'above, upon, over'; KWA fafo-'on, on top of'; PNK *vovo 'skin of entire body'); UANbabaw. Cf. BUG popo above, top'. See also PCK *wawo- 'face,surface, upside, on'.

PMc *faxo 'to punt, punting pole': CRL foo 'polefor pushing boats and canoes'; PUA daao dao- 'pole', dao'to pole a canoe', dao-(data) 'a raft'; PCK *fao; PON-por 'counting classifier for long thin pieces or strips of s.t.';KIR (te)-ao 'punting pole', aoao 'to engage in propelling acanoe with a pole', aoao-a 'to propel (a canoe) with a pole';KSR aek 'pole, stick', aeki 'to pole (a canoe)'; POC*pago (PKB *vago 'to pole a canoe', v-(il)-ago 'puntingpole').

PMc *[f[theta]]eci[f[theta]]eci 'stinging, smarting':MRS yidyid 's. s., to sting'; KIR (ta)-erieri be smarting,stinging' (ta- 'of its own accord'); KSR isrisr 'burningor s. s., be smarting, pricking, stinging'.

(Video) Symposium—Surrealism Beyond Borders | Surrealism and Place

PMc *feraki, feraki-ni- 'to spread': CRL feragh 'tobe s. out (of mats and cloth)', fferagh 'to s. out flatthings', feragha-li 's. it out'; WOL feragi 's.,unfold', feragi-li-(i) 's. it, unfold it', fferagi 'bes., unfolded'; PUA dalaki-ni and SNS falaki-ni 'to be scattered,sp., to scatter or s. (s.t.)'; PCK *f\ae\raki, f\ac\raki-[ln]i-; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to unroll (as amat)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki 'tounroll (s.t.)';

MRS yerek, yerak 'to s. mats'; KSR elak 's.',laki-n 'to s., unroll (s.t.)' Cf. PON par 'be fecund, s.about, sprout (of coconuts)'; MOK par-(pijon) 'be s. around'.

PMc *fi- 'mutually': CHK fi- 'do m.', fi-(ti)'to go with or accompany (s.o.)', fi-(yuuw) 'to fight';PUL fii-(yoow) (sic) 'to fight'; CRL fi-(ti) 'to go with oraccompany (s.o.)', fi-(yoow) 'to fight s.o.'; WOL fi-(tii)'to go with, accompany'; PCK *fi-; PON pi-(siken) 'push eachother'; KIR i-(tau) 'to box, to fight with the fists'; POC*pi- (LAK vi-[lapu] 'take hostages from one another as part of peacesettlement'). See PMC *fiSi 'accompany', PCK *fi-di-'wrap, mix', PWMC *fini-[sS]i 'to twist, twirl'.

PMc *fia[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'story, tell a story':PUL fiyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], fryo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(n) 't. as., a s., s. of'; STW fiyo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.' WOLfiya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 's., legend'; PUA dia[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 's., t. a s.'; PCK *fia[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; KIR(te)-iano 'consideration, deliberation', iano 'to reflect,consider, ponder, meditate', iano-a 'to think about, consider,ponder, meditate on (s.t.)' KSR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we 'to say,tell'. Cf. MRS yine[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]", yine[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]" 'legend, folkloristic s.'.

PCMc *fica 'a strip of fiber for plaiting': CHKfiche-(n) 's. of (pandanus, coconut, or other palmleaf prepared forplaiting mats',-fich 'counter for such strips'; MRTfisha-(n)'s. or leaf used in weaving'; PUL f-R 'counter forblades'; PCK *fica-; PON pit, pit[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n)'classifier for strips and strands'; MRS yid 'strands forweaving garlands or stringing leis'; KIR (te)-ira 'a pandanus leaffor braiding, a hair'.

PM *fici, fici-ki 'snip, cut, snap, flick': CHKfichi-i-(y) 'snip it, c. it (with scissors), snap it (of aphotograph)', fichi-(paat) 'be continually snipping', ffich'scissors, camera trigger, be c., snipped, or snapped (of apicture)'; PUL fiRifiR 'to c. (as hair), knock, thump, snap',fiRi-i(y) 'to c. it, knock it, thump it, snap it'; CRL ffish'scissors, to have a sudden sharp pain, rise suddenly withoutwarning','fishi 't' c. (s.t.), to play or strum a(stringed instrument), to strike (a light), to shoot (aweapon)';'CRN ffiR 's'issors','fiRi't' play or strum (a stringed insgtrument), to strike (a light), toshoot (a weapon)'; WOL fishi-i-(ye) 'pierce or lance it (of aboil), knock it, snap it', ffishi 'be unbuckled, snap off from whatit was tied to (as a rope), be knocked', (lligaa)-fishi-i-(ye)'spear it, lance (a boil)'; PUA disi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'break it in two'; PCK *fici; MRS yidi-k 'to shake (ahand)'; PEO *fidi-k (PPN *fiti 'spring up'; FIJ vidi, vidi-ka'jump, spring, fly up'; KWA fidi [obs.] 'slap, smack ').There appear to be two homonymous PMC roots here bearing a relationship inmeaning associations like that in English between snip (with scissors or aknife) and snap (a picture or one's fingers). Cf. PMP *bitik 'jerk,spring up suddenly' (Blust 1980:55). See also PMC *pici, pici-ki'snap, vibrate'.

PMc *fili, filifili 'choose': CHK (ni)-finifin 'amatter of choice, a choosy person', fini 'c. it, select it',ffin 'be chosen'; MRT fili 'c. him', fil[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'c. (s.t.)', ffil 'make a choice'; PUL(li)-filifil 'matter, be fussy, choosy', fili-(i-y) ''; CRL ffil 'to c., select', fili 'c. it',(li)-filifil 'be choosy', (seli)-filifil 'does notmatter' ('not a matter of choice'); STW fil 'c.',(li)-filifil 'choosy', fili-(y) 'c. him'; WOL fili-(i)'c. it', ffili 'c., decide'; PCK *fini, ffini; PONpilipil 'c., select', pil 'c. (s.t.)'; MOK pilpil'c.', pil 'c. (s.t.)'; MRS (kka)-yalyel 'c.';PEO *fili (PPN *fili 'select, c.'; ROT hili, hil-hili 'pickout, choose, select'; SAA hili, hili-si and ULA ili-si 'c.';BUG vili 'c.'); VAN *piliq. KSR fil-(wel) 'guess, conjecture,random choice' is a loan or unrelated.

PWMc *fini-[sS]i 'to twist, twirl': PUAdi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti 'to twist, wring, squeeze (s.t.)';SNS fi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti 'to twist, wring, squeeze(s.t.)'; MRS yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'twirl, turn round and round, wind, be kinky (of hair)',yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-tek 'be twisted, squirm',yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-tek 'wiggle,wriggle'. See PMC *fi- 'mutually'.

PMc *fira, fira-[kx]i 'to twist': CHK fire-s, fure-s'a braid, to braid', fire-si-(ni) 'braid it', ffire-s'a braid, be braided', ffire-si 'braid it'; PUL fira-k'strong rope (as used for caulking)', fira-ki-(lo) 'to spreadout (as a mat), to braid a rope'; WOL fire-gi 'string, thin ropeused to connect or secure the sides of a canoe', fire-gi-(i) 'toweave it (as a lei)', ffire 'to weave (a lei or a strap)'; PUAdila 'to braid'; PCK *fira, fira-ki; PON pir 'to turn, tospin, to twist', pir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r 'to turn, spin, twist(s.t.)', pirapir 'to tie, to wear a belt, a belt'; KSR wor'to turn, wriggle' worwor 'wiggle', uro-k 'to turn,twist (s.t.)', wirwiro-k 'to turn (s.t.) continuously'. Note,also, MRS pirekrek, 'to braid (of hair or handle of a basket), plait,pirekey 'braid (s.t.)'; KIR bira 'to braid (something, as hairor rope)'; KSR pirak 'braid', piraki 'braid (s.t.)',Of these the KIR form can be accounted for as a loan from SAM *fili (PPN*firi) 'to braid, plait', and the MRS and KSR forms ad loans fromassoc iated KIR forms *biri, biraki. The other MC forms can be acounted foras formed from the passive and transitive (with object expressed) forms of aPEO *fri; POc *piri 'twist' (Ross 1988) (PPN *fri; SAA hiri'to lap with a string, to bind'; BUG fri 'lap with string,bind', fifri 'to twine', vin 'twisted, tangled'; KWAfli-si-[a] 'braid together'; PKB *vi[rz]i 'to twist, windup'). YAP freg, frgiy 'weave' are loans from a Chuukic sourceas is CHM flak 'braid, plait, weave'. Cf. UAN *bilin 'turn,twist' and PAN *pi[dDr]i[Ct] 'twist, plait' (Blust 1970:135).

PMc *f[sS]a- 'how many': CHK fte-; MRT fte-; PUL fte-;CRL fta-, fte-fti-; STW fta-; WOL fta-; ULI fetha-; PUA dite-; PCK *fda-; KIRira-; PEO *viza (Geraghty 1983); POC *pija (Blust 1978:108) (PPN *fha; FIJvica; PKB *viza, ziva); PAN *pija (Blust 1978:96). Cf. POC *pican (Ross1988).

PMc *fiSi 'accompany': CHK fti 'go with him/her, a.him/her, attend it, join it', fti-(pach) stay with one anotherconstantly'; PUL fti-(y); CRL fli; WOL fli-(i); PCK *fdi; PON pid'to pertain to, to concern (s.t.)'; KIR in 'to go incompany', ira 'to a., go with (s.o.)'; KSR wi 'a., travelby'. Cf. MRS yijyij 'sexual intercourse', yijiy 'havesexual intercourse with (s.o.)'. See PMc *f-'mutually'.

PMc *fiSiko 'flesh': CHK futuk, futuke-n, futukotuk'flesh, f. of, be fleshy'; MRT futuko (final o voiceless); PULflik, ftiko-; CRL ftug, ftugh; CRN futug; STW ftuk; WOL ftigo; PUA ditiko;PCK *fdiko; PON uduk; MOK uduk, uduko-; MRS [yitek.sup.w] 'whalemeat'; KIR (te)-iriko; KSR iko[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'fleshof' (showing metathesis); PEO *fziko; POC *pisiko (Ross 1988) (FIJviciko). Cf. SAA hasi'o 'body f.'; ARO hasi'o; KWAfasi'o-(na).

PCMc *fitaki 'to struggle': WOL ftegi 'war,fghting', (ga)-ftegitegi 'to compete'; PUA diteki and SNSfteki 'to work'; PCK *f[dt]eki; PON pidek 'to go around',pideki-i 'go around (s.t.)'; MOK pid[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'move around, surround', pid[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki surround(s.t.)'; KIR iakiaki 'act of struggling (as a child), greatactivity in work, to struggle to free oneself, to be in spasms, to strikeagain and again on a shoal, to pound' (showing loss of *t before *k).

PMc *fiti 'flash (of light)': CHK f 'f., throw aspark (of lightning, electricity)', fif 'flashing, sparkling,lightning, radiance, to be flashing (as a light or lightning)',(e)-fifi) 'shock a person with taboo language',fi-si 'totransfer fire to (s.t.), set (s.t.) afire', (ine)-f'lightning'; CRL fif 'to do buming', fi-ghi 'to burnor set fire to (s.t.)'; CRN fi-gi 'to burn or set fire to(s.t.)'; WOL-ffusu 'to spark, blink (as light), make a shortinterval (as of falling rain), be lighted', (ga)-fusu-(u) 'lightit, make it f.'; PUA didi 'flashing'; PCK *fti, fiti-ki-; PONipup 'lightning without thunder (metathesis?)'; KIR (te)-iti'lightning'; PEO *viti (BUG viti-li 'to flash through').Cf. PON pir 'to f.'; MRS yit 'strike a match'. Note thatKSR saerom 'light, electricity, lightning' and MOK jorom'lightning' are loans from MRS [jar.sup.w] an 'electricity,lightning, electric shock, punch, hit'. See also PCK *fti, fti-ki'apply fire'.

PMc *fit[ou]u 'star': CHK fuu, fuuwe-(n), fuu-(n)'star, s. of'; MRT fuu; PUL fuu, CRL fuu, fuu-(J); STW fuu,fuu-(n); WOL fuus, fusu-(li); PUA didi; SNS fdi; PCK ? *futuu; PON usu; MOKuju, ujuu-(n) MRS yijiw; KIR (te)-itoi; KSR iti; POC *pituqun (Ross 1988).See Marck (1994:307) PMC *ftuu. Cf. PPN *fetuqu; UAN *bituqen. Cf. also SAAhe'u; ARO hi'u KWA bo'u

PMc *fitu, ftu-ua 'seven': CHK fuus, fuu-, fusu-uw,fsu-uw 'seven' and fi-k 'seventy'; MRT fuus, fuu-,fusu-uw; PUL fuus, fuu-, fehu-uw and fi-k; CRL fis, fsu-, fsu-, fsi-,flsa-,flsu-uw and fsi-igh; STW fuus, fsu-uw; WOL fisi, fsi-, fsu-(uwe) andfsi-ige; PUA didi-, didi-(ow) and didi-iki; SNS fdu-; PCK *ftu, ftu-uwa and*fti-ike; PON (e)-is, isi-, isu-u MOK iji-, iju-w; KIR iti-, itu-ua, iti-ua;KSR it; POC *pitu (Ross 1988) (PPN *ftu; ROT hifu; FIJ vitu; SAA hiu; BUGvitu; KWA fu; PKB *vitu) Note that the e instead of u in PUL fehu(uw) isunexpected.

PMc *fou 'feel cold': CHK ffeew 'c., be c.',feffeew 'chills', (a)-ffeew 'be c. to the touch',(a)-ffeewu 'make c., chill'; MRT ffeew 'c.'; CRL ffooy,ffeey 'f. c.'; STW feey 'c.'; WOL feeu 'be c., cool,shiver', (gari)-ffeeu 'be c., chilly'; PUA ddeeu 'to bec. (the whole body)', (kali)-ddeeu 'c. (of things)'; SNS ffeeu'c'.; PCK *ffeeu; PON pow 'feeling c., cool, chilly',(ko)-pow 'c., cool, chilly'; MOK pow 'feel c.', (ko)-pow'feel c. (of people)'; MRS (pi)-yaw, (pi)-yawyew 'chilly,cool'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'c., chilly'.

PMc *futu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'; PON wii; MOKwi; POC *putu. Cf. PMC ? *[tT]upa 'fsh poison', *PMc *upa'derris vine', PMC ? *iwu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'.

PMC *i- 'at (locative)': CHK i-(no longer productive,used with demonstratives); MRT i-;

PUL yi-; CRL i-; STW-yi-; WOL i-; PUA i-; PCK *i-; PON i- 'w.pointing demonstratives'; MRS yiy, yi-: KIR i-; KSR i-; PEO *i (SAA i-;BUG i-).

PMc *-i- 'of': CHK -yi-; PUL -yi-; WOL -i-; PUA -i-; PCK*-i-; MRS (waytiwe)-y 'land tract of'; PEO *i (FIJ i). Possibledoublet of PMc 'of, pertaining to': generic elements in MRS placenames show alternation: [bek.sup.w] e-n, [bek.sup.w] e-y 'sandspitof', wede-n, wede-y 'coral head of', etc.

PCMc *i 'I(1st sg. subj. marker)': CHK wu-; MRT i-; PULwu-, yi-, CRL i-; STW i-; WOL i-; PUA i-; PCK *j; PON i; MRS yi-; KIR i-,n-(na). Now a prefix; earlier a citic.

PMc *ia 'he, she, it (independent pronoun)': CHK iiy;MRT yiiy; PUL yiiy; CRL ii; STw iiy; WOL iiye; PuA iia; PCk *ia; PON ii; MOKii; MRS yey; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a)-ia; POc *ia (Ross 1988) (PPN *ia,BUG iia 'she', in-[ani] 'this'; PKa *ia); UAN *iya Cf.KSR el.

PCMc *iaa 'where?': CHK iya, iyaa-(n) 'w., itswhereabouts'; PUL yiya; CRL iya, WOL (i)-iyaa; PuA (i)-iyaa; PCK *iaa;PON yya; MoK yya; MRS yi'yah; KIR ma. See PMc *-faa 'where?',PCMc *maia 'from where?'.

PCMc *iTo 'a float on a net, light wood': CRt. uus, usa-'f. on a net'; STW wuus, wuso-(l), wusu-(l) 'a f., any kind ofwood that floats well, 'its f., f. of'; PCK *wuTo; PON uus ' for a fishing net'; MOK uj-(pey) 'f. for a net'; MRS wej,wij 'balsa driftwood, cork'; Km (te)-ito 'very lightdriftwood'.

PWMc *ii- 'proceed': CHK ii- 'to head, tend, have acourse (as the wind or a boat)' (used with dir. suf., ii-[no] 'heador tend away', ii-[ta] 'head or tend up or east', ii-[tiw]'head or tend down or west', ii-[to] 'head or tendhither'); PON ii- 'to come or go directly', ii-(la)'directly go away', ii-(do) 'directly come hither'; MRSyi-(lakw) 'go away (of humans)', yi-(tak-[lak.sup.w]),yi-(tah[lak.sup.w]) 'go eastward', yi-(tew) 'gowestward', yi-(tew)-yi-(tak) 'travel, go back and forth';yi-tekw 'come here (of humans)'.

PMc *ika, ika-na- 'fish': CHK iik, ike-(n), ike-ne-(n)'f., f. of'; MRT iik, ika-(n); PUL iik, ika-(n); CRL ugh; CRN iig;STw iik; WOL uge, iga-(li), iga-le, ige-la-(li); PUA iika, ika-(ni); PCK*ika, ika-na-; PON ik- (in cpd.s. only); MOK ike-, iko- (in cpds. oaly); PNGik- (in cpds. only); MRS yek, yike-(n); KIR uka, (te)-ika, ika-(ni-); KsR ik,ike-(n); POc *ikan, ikan-a (Ross 1988) (PPN *ika; FIJ ika; SAA i'e; ULAi'a; BUG iga; LAU in, KWA i'n, PKB *iqa); PAN *ikan (Ross 1988).

PCMc *ika-ni-[p.sup.w]oni 'any fish that can be caught atnight': CHK ike-n i-[p.wup.w] in; WOL ige-li-boni; PCK*ika-ni-[p.sup.w]oni; KIR ika-ni-[b.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'akind off.'. See PMc *ika, ika-na- 'fish', PMc*[p.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'night'.

PCMc *i-ka- 'at place' (as designated): CHK i-ka-, i-ke-'at p.', i-ka 'here (by me)', i-ke-ey, i-ke-y 'here(by me)', i-ka-na, i-ke-na 'there (by you)', i-ka-an'here (near us)', i-ka-naan, i-ke-naan 'there yonder',i-ke-[m.sup.w]uun 'there (not far from us)', i-ke-we 'there(out of sight, in the past)'; PUL yi-ka, yi-ke-ey, yi-ka-na, yi-ke-nn,yi-ka-nnan, yi-ke-naan, yi-ko-[m.sup.w]uun; CRL i-gha i-ghe-ey, i-ghi-la,i-gha-al, i-ghi-laal, i-ghi-[m.sup.w]uul, i-ghi-we; WOL i-ga-a, i-ge-iye,i-ga-ale, i-ge-laale, i-ge-[m.sup.w]uu, i-ge-[m.sup.w]uule, -i-ga-wee; PUAi-ka-ana, i-ka-nann; PCK *i-ka, i-ka-iy[ae], i-ka-ana, i-ka-naa, i-ka-naana,i-ka-[m.sup.w]uu, i-ka-muun[ae], i-ka-wee; KIR i-ka-i 'here',i-ka-nne 'there (not far)', i-ke-kei 'yonder'.

PMc *iku 'tail': CHK wuuk, wuku-(n) 't., itst.'; MRT uku-(n); PUL wuuk, wuku-; STW yuku(l); WOL uugu, ugu-; PCK*uku; PON iki 'its t., end'; MOK ik; iki-(n); PNG ik; KSR ikwik'rudder, tiller, helm'; PEO *ikuR (Ross 1988) (PPN *iku; BUG iuigu;PKB *iku); PAN *ikuR (Ross 1988). Cf. POC *siku (Blust 1993:286). Cf. SAA'u'u'i, KWA 'i'i, ki'i. Cf. also PPC *uku'end', PCK *ukuuku, uku-fi 'cut off, chop off'.

PWMc *ila 'come to land': CHK in, ine-(no) 'bedocked, brought to land'; PUL yil, ile-(lo); WOL ile; PCK *ila; PONila-(pas) 'make a nest'; MOK ilail 'make a nest'; PNGilail 'nest made by pigs'; MRS yel 'nest'. Cf. UAN*qila[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'vanish, disappear'.

PMc *ili 'sprout, shoot (of plants)': CHK ini-, -in'young shoot (counting classifier)', iniin 'offspring,scion'; CRL ilil (? *ili-(l)) 'young taro sprouts', ili-(ns)'head hair' (respect usage, lit. 'high sprout'); WOLiili, iii- 'young shoots surrounding an old plant'; PUA inni'banana shoot'; PCK *ili; PON iii 'its sucker (of banana,breadfruit, tarn)'; MRS yil, yili- 'taro sprout'; POC *qili(LAK hili 'get sprouts for planting'). Cf. PMc *[tT]ulu-'young shoot, sprout'.

PMc *[im.sup.w]a 'house': See PMc *[im.sup.w]a,[im.sup.w]a.

PMc ? *inu or *uni 'coconut cloth': PUL wuni-(i-nu); WOLuulu, ulu- 'coconut screen, coconut husk, leaf of a tree'; ULI ul;PUA uunu 'c. c., leaf of a tree'; PCK *unu; PON ini-(pal); Mokim-(pal); MRs yin-(pel); KSR in-(pal) (loan from MRS?); PEO *Runuk (Geraghty1990). Cf. KIR (te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fibrous, porous envelopeat the base of the coconut leaf or frond'. Cf. also FIJ vulo 'c.c.'.

PMv *inu, (i)nu-mi, (i)nu-ma 'drink': CHK wun 'todrink, smoke', wunu-mi 'd. it, s. it', wunu-ma-(n) 'histhing to d. or s.'; PUL wun, wunu-mi-(y), wunu-ma-(n); CRL ul,ulu-mi-ulu-ma-; CRN un, unu-mi; WOL ulu, ulu-mi-(i), ulu-ma-(le); PUA unu,and-mi; PCK *unu, unu-mi, una-ma; PON ni-m, ni-me; MOK ni-m 'tod.', ni-m 'd. (s.t.)'; MRS ni-me-, li-me- '(one's)thing to d.'; KIR ni-ma, nini-ma 'to d. (s.t.)', (te)-nini-ma'a d.'; KSR nimnim 'to d.', ni-rn 'd. (s.t.)',ni-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'his d.'; PEO *inum (PPN *[iu]nu;SAA inu, inuinu; LAK liu, which Geraghty [1990] misassigns to PEO*[q[theta]iRu-f 'sip, sup'; PKB *inu); UAN and PMP *inum. Cf. FIJgunu. Cf. also PMC *nima 'drinkable object: possessive classifier'.

PMc *ini 'dorsal fin': CHK ini-(n) 'its f. (of afish)', ini-([m.sup.w] aan) 'd. f.' iniin 'ridge,edge', (pere)-yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin 'be square orrectangular in shape', (pere)-yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iin "be onone side, lean or tip sideways'; MRT yii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PULyii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'd. f.', yi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'side (as of a person)'; CRLii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(l) 'd. f.',i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top of a gorge,precipice, sharp slope, ridge, rafters supporting the ridgepole in ahouse'; CRN (pare) -i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'top of a gorge, precipice, sharp slope, rafters supporting ridgepole ofa house'; WOL ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-'f. of a fish', i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'be sharp (of edges), have many corners'; PuA ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i, i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; SNS yii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PCK*i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i;; PON i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'its pectoralf.'; MOK i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dorsalor anal f.'; MRS ye[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ye[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'f., d. f.', yi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'spines ona fish'; KIR (te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(eta) 'd. f.'; KSR? [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'f. of'. Cf.LAK iri-(le-kova) 'spine of the stingray'.


PMc *ira 'they (independent pronoun), them (suf. obj. prn.),their (suf. poss. prn.)': CH K iir, -:r, MRT iir; Put. yiir; CRL iir;STW yur; WOL iire, -:re; PuA iila; PCK *ira; PON iir; MOK iir; MRS yer; Km([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a)-iia, -ia; PEO *ira (FU ira, ra; SAA [ik]-ire; ULA[ik] -ira; Buo iira 'they', ira-(ani) 'these'; ARO ira).UAN *siDa

PMc *iraira 'part, portion': PUL ireer, ireera-(n)'parts (as of the body), goods, articles'; WOL ireire 'partsof one's body'; PCK *iraira; PON irayr 'portion, event,topic'; MOK irayr 'limited, restricted, divided, partitioned';KSR il[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to part, separate',il[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'part (the hair), separate (things),spread (things) out, shift (things) around'.

PMc *iri, iriiri 'rub, scrub': WOL iriiri 'r., s.,daub'; PCK *iri, iriiri; PON iriir-(la) 'be erased', iri-s'r., erase (s.t.)', iri-sek 'r., erase'; MOK iri-j'r., erase (s.t.)', iri-jek 'r., erase'; MRS yiryir'r., friction, scrape', yiriy 'r. it'; KIR ii-a 'tograte, grind'; KSR il, ilil 'grind, grate, whet, r.', ii'r., erase, wipe (s.t.)'. Cf. UAN *qiriR 'stir, move,fan'; LAK isi 'grate coconut, r. smooth'. Geraghty's(1990) equation of KIR ii-a (his ia) with PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kuRu isnot supported, but sec PCK? *fa-ia 'file, nib, sharpen'. Cf. alsoPCK ? *faiira 'to grate'.

PMc *iri, iri-pi- 'to fan': MRT uru-(pe); STw uru-(pe);ULI ru-(peu); PUA ulu-(pau); PCK *uni-(pau) PON irur 'to f.', iri-p 'to f. (s.t.)'; MOK iri-p 'to f.'; PPC *iri, iri-pi-;PEO *irip (FU iri, iri-va 'to f.'). Note that KIR iri-bi 'tofan', iri-ba 'to fan (s.t.)' is an apparent loan from a PNsource, e.g., SAM ili 'a fan'. YAP ripoy 'to fan' ispresumably a loan from ULI. Cf. SAA tere-hi 'to f.'; BUG veiveri'to f.'; LAU tere-fi 'to move as a f., to f.'; ARO tere,tere-lu 'a f., to f.'; KwA telu-fi(a) 'to fan (a flame)'.Cf. PMC *pahu, L: CHK a-ani-pe.

PMc *isa, isa-ni- 'to press down': CHK iteyit 'p.,weigh down', ite-ni 'to press or weigh down on (s.t.)',it[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(tiw) 'to p. d.'; MRT ite-(tew) 'p.d.', ita-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'p. on it', it[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-a-(tew) 'p. d. on it'; PUL yite-(tiw) 'apply pressurewith the hands' yite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'p. d. lightly on(s.t.)'; STw ite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p. d. on it',ite-e-(y) 'p. on it'; PCK *ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON idayd'to be under pressure, to be mashed', ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to apply pressure to, to mash (s.t.)'; MOK and PNG idayd 'top.', ida-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top. (s.t.)'; KSRel[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t 'to p., smear', it[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to p. on, run over, overcome(s.t.)'. Geraghty's (1990) deriving this from his PEG *Ra/es/i isquestionable. Cf. also PCMc ? *iso 'make fire by fire plow method'.

PCMc ? *isi-ft, esi-fi 'dip it up, dip it out, scoop itup': CHK etu-fi, atu-fi, iti-fi, eti-fi; PUL. yati-fl-(y); CRL iti-fi'to fetch it (of water)'; WOL itiiti 'spoon, scooper, to s.,d., draw, take tip or out with a scoop', iti-fi-(i)'s. it out,, draw it (water)'; PuA ititi (sic) 'spoon made of fishbone orturtle shell'; PCK? *idi, idi-fi; PON idi-p 'draw or fetch(water)'; MoK id, edded, idi-p 'draw or fetch water'; KIReri-a 'a spoon or s., to s. up (s.t.), take up with a spoon orscoop'. Cf. CRL ifi-i-(y) and CRN ifi fi 'to pull up or dip(water)'; also PON iid 'to fetch or draw (liquids)' MRS ite-k,itite-k 'draw (water)'; KSR yAyA 'to s.', yAu-k 's.(s.t.)'; SAM asu 'to ladle, s.'; UAN *[h[theta]]ansu. Cf. alSoPAN *qidus 'ladle, dipper' (Blust 1980:78). Note that KRI iti-a([isi-a]) 'to s. up (water), to d., to ladle' is presumably a loan(we do not expect them).

PCMc ? *iso 'make fire by fire plow method': CHK wutuut'f p., m. f. by the f. p. method', wutu-u-(w) 'in. (af.)'; PUL. wutuut 'rub sticks torn, a f. with a f. p.'; PCK*udu uduudu; PON id 'to m. f. by rubbing a stick in a trough ofwood', idi-n 'to m. (f.)'; PNG idi-(kal) 'm. f. byrubbing sticks'; MRS yit 'strike a match'; KIR iro 'toignite', ire-(ai) 'in. f. by rubbing sticks', ireire 'torub, wash', ire-a 'to rub, wash (s.t.)'. See also WOL utuutu'be erased, wiped out, effaced'. Cf. PMc *isa, isa-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i- 'to press down'.

PMc *iSa, aSa 'name': CHK iit, ita-, ite-; MRT ita-; PULyiit, yita-, yita-; CRL iit, ita-; STW ita-; WOL iite, ita-; PuA iita, ita-;SNS iita; PCK *ida; PON aad, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-; NGK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; MOK ad,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; PNG ad; MRS yat; KIR ara-;KSR e; PEO *[q[theta]]iza, qaza; POc *[q[theta]]ican, qacan (Ross 1988) (Fuyaca; BUG aha; SAA sata; KWA lata; PKB *isa); UAN *[h[theta]ajan). Cf. PEOaza (Geraghty 1983); PAN *najan (Blust 1978).

PMc *ita, itaita 'deposit, pile up': CHK iseyis 'bedeposited, stored, put away', ise-ni 'd. it, store it, put itaway'; MRT isena-a-(tew) 'put it down; PUL yihayih 'keep save,d.', yiha-ni-(y) 'to keep, save'; hyihel-lo 'keep, storeaway'; CRL isiis 'to save or keep s.t. for future use',isa-li(i-1o) 'put or store it away'; STW isen-(tiw) 'putdown'; WOL iseise 'put away, keep, store', ise-Ii-(i)'put it away, keep it, store it'; PUA ite(tio)] 'put itdown'; PCK *itaita, ita-ni; PON isays 'pay tribute, repay a serviceor good deed, tribute, gift, reward' ise 'to pay (tribute), torepay or reward (a service or good deed)'; MRS yejyej 'build tip,pileup, erect, build'; KSR etDt 'pileup stones'. Cf. PCK*itano 'deposited, put away'.

PCMc *-itaki 'counter for tens': PON -is[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'c. for t.', (e)-is[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'ten', (rie)-isek 'twenty', (sili)-iSEk'thirty'; MOK -ijek, (e)-ijek, (rie)-i jek, (jili)-ijek); KIR(ua)-iaki 'twenty in counting fish and rolls of dried pandanuspaste'. Cf. PMc *-nawulu 'unit of ten (in counting)', PPC*-ik[ae] counter for tens'.

PMc ? *itau 'Callophyllum inophyllum': PON isow; MOKijew; MRs jijew; KIR (te)-itai; KSR itn. Cf. ROT hefau 'C. tree';FU vetau, uvitao 'Calysaccion tinctonan tree'; PMP *bitaquR'C. i.' Blust 1984-85).

PCMc ? *i[t[theta]]i 'hand of bananas' (countingclassifier): CHK -i, iye-iya-(n); PUL -yii (sic); CRL isi-i-(y) and CRN eyi'to cut off or break off (fruit that grows in bunches)'; WOL -isi;PCK *it[ei]; PON ii 'hand of bananas'; KIR (te)-ii-(na) 'one(counting divisions of pandanus)'. Cf. MRS hajjen 'h. of b., bunchof pandanus keys'.

PMc ? *iwu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica): CHK (wuwaa-nu)-uw'B. a., whose fruit is used as fish poison and to cauterizewounds'; UAN *ipuq 'tree used for arrow poison'. Cf. PMc?*[tT]upa 'fish poison', *PMC *upa 'derris vine', PMC*futu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica)'.

PWMc *iyaa 'rainbow': MAP yya; PON aaya, yaaya; MOKyaaya; MRS 'yiyah 'r.', yiyahyahyey 'r. colored'.See also Marck (1994:310) PWMc *iaa. Cf. KIR wirara 'rainbow'.

PMc *ka- 'causative prefix, pref. forming ordinalnumerals': CHK a-, a-, e-, e-, o-, o-, ka-, kka-, akka-, a kaa-, ekke-,ekke-, akko-, okko-; PUL ya-, ya-, ye-, yo-, -ka-, kka-, kaa-, akka-; CRL a-,a-, o-, kka-, akka-; WOL ga-, ge-, kka-, kke-, kkekka-; PUA ka-, kakka-, PCK*ka-, kka-, kakka-; PON ka-; MOK ka-; MRS ka-; KIR ka-; PEO *ka (Fu ka-'pref. forming o. n.'). KSR aekis presumably from PMc *fa-ka.

PCMc *ka, kaka- 'p1. pref. for dem. prns.': CHK kka-;PuL kka-; CRL kka-; STW kka; WOL kka-; ULI kka-; PuA ka-; PCK *ka, kka-; PONka-; MRS keyin 'these' (cf. yin 'this'); KIR (a)-ka(nne)'those' (cf. a-nne 'that one').

PWMc *ka[a[theta]]mami, -kamami 'we (exclusive)': CHKaam 'we (excl.)', -keem, -kem, -keem-, -kemi- 'us(excl.)'; MRT yaamem; PUL yaamem; CRL yaamem, -ghamem; CRN aam, -gem;STW yaamem, kaamem; WOL gaamami, -gemami; PuA kamami, -kamami; PCK*ka[a[theta]]mami, -kamami; MOK kam; MRS kemmem (eastern dialect). Cf. FUkeimami. Cf. also POc *kami (SAA 'ami; LAU gami; BUG gami; LAKami-[teu\). See Jackson 1986:206. Cf. PWMC *kami 'we (exclusive),us'.

PMc *kaaSu, kakaaSu 'to scratch'; CHK kkeet 'itch,s. an itch', (a)-kettu, (e)-kettu 's, it', (fisi)-keet,-kettu- 's. a lot, scratching'; PUL keet 'to itch'; CRLkkeet, 'to be scratchy, itchy,'; WOL kkeetu 'be itchy (fromeating raw a kind of nonswamp taro)'; PUA kkatu (sic) 'itch, anitchy feeling'; PCK *kkaadu; KIR kaari-(a) 's. it, scrape it';KSR kakA 'to s.', kawi 'to s. (s.t.)'. Cf. PON pitikiida'be itchy from s.t.'.

PMc *kacawa 'open space between': CHK achaw'basaltic rock' (presumably from fewu-n achaw 'rock ofheaven'), achaw 'place in the sky world' (latterly identifiedwith Kosrae), (sowu)-kachaw 'Lord of Achaw' (a powerful spirit anddynastic ancestor), (tona)-achaw 'basalt peak' (a place on Weenethat was sacred to the cult of sowukachaw); PUL yaraw 'volcanicrock'; CRL ashaw 'hard basaltic rock, rocky cliff', ashaw'place in the sky world' (now identified with Kosrae); CRN araw'hard basltic rock, rocky cliff'; WOL geshaweshawe 'big flatrock at seaside' (i.e., beachrock); PCK *kacawa; PON kataw'mythical placenow identified with Kosrae', (dau)-kataw 'a skygod'; KIR karawa 'sky'; KSR kasrao 'heaven', (pe)kushra 'horizon'; PEO (ka)-dawa (FIJ dawa-[ka] 'to extend asfar as'); Pre-POC *nsawan; PAN *sawan 'atmosphere, distance'(Blust 1970:141).

PCMc *kacawu 'cloud, rain': CHK kuchu, kucluu-(n)'c., c. of'; woshow 'c.'; PUL woRow 'white c.';CRL ushow 'r.'; STW woRow, oRow 'r., r. c.'; WOL goshou'r., rainfall, shower, downpour'; PUA kosou 'r. c.'; PCK*kocou; PON ketew 'r., to r.'; MOK kasow 'c.'; MRS kedaw'c., overcast'; KIR karau 'to r.', (te)-karau'rain-water, r.'. See also Marck (1994:344) PMC *kat'awu.There is a problem with the CHK forms.

PCMc *kace 'throw': CHK ache-e-(y) 't. it';MRT ashe; PUL yaRe-(y); CRL akkesh, akkash, akkesh 'to t.',ashe-(y), ahse-e-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; CRN akkaR 'to t.',aRe-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; STW yaRe-(i); WOL gashe-e-(ye); PUAkase-di; SNS kase-fi (sci); PCK *kace, kace-ti-; PON kat[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to stone, it. Rocks at'; MOK kaskas 'to t.',kaso 't. (s.t.)'; MRS kadkad 'use a throwing net', kad,kadey 't. (a net)'; KIR kare 'engage in throwing', kare-a't. (s.t.)'. Cf. KSR osrwosr, osrak 't'. Cf. Aslo PCK*kace 'to tack (in sailing)'.

PMc *kaci 'a large black ant': CHK wu-kech, wu-kechi-(n)'species of 1.a., a. of'; PUL wu-keR, wu-keRe-(n); CRL wu-ghesh;CRN u-geR; WOL u-geshi; PUA u-kesi; PCK *wu-keci; PON kaat 'a.',keti-(tik) 'a small a.'; MRS kal-(lep) < *kad-(lep) 'big b.a.'; KSR kasr-(kin), kasr-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p) 'a kind ofa.'; PEO *kadi (FIJ kadi 'a large kind of b. a. that stings').

PMc *kai, 'bite': CRL ghey 'to tear off the husk ofcoconut or sugarcane with the teeth', ghei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i,ghei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to husk (s.t.) with the teeth'; WOLgeigei 'to b. with the teeth, husk coconuts into smaller layers';PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'to b.'.it'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'to b.,(s.t.)'; PPC *kai; PEO *ka-i (PPn *kai 'food, to eat'; SAA'a-[na] 'his food to eat'; BUG ga-[gna] 'his food toeat'; KWA 'a-[na] 'a piece for him'); UAN *ka. CRN ahey'to husk (s.t.) with the teeth' is an apparent loan from CRL. Cf.PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ei-di 'bite it (of meat)'. See also PMC*kani, PMC *kana.

PMc *[kai.sub.2], 'to inform': PON kai-r'news', kai-reeki 'to inform'; PNG kai-reki-n 'tonotify'; MRS kahyi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, kahyi-ni 'send acommand to, inform', key-ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'announcement'; KSR kai 'to warn, advise, admonish(s.o.)'. There is a possibility that some of these are loans. Cf. FIJkai-naki 'be said', kay-a 'to say', i-kaikai 's.t.said'; TON 'ai 'tell, inform'. Cf. PCK *kae- or *kaya-'speak, tell', PCK *yari 'a fish'.

PCMc *kai-peti 'driftwood': CHK a-piipi 'driftwood,flotsam'; PUL ya-peyipeyi (sic) 'd.'; CRL a-peipey'd.' peipey 'flotsam, d.'; STW 'ya-peyipey'd.'; PUA ka-peipei 'd.'; PCK *ka-peipei; PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'd.'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-peepe 'd.'; KIR (te)-kai-beti'd.'. The KIR form makes sense as kai 'wood' and beti'drift'. The PCK form has reinterpreted the initial element meaningwood as a causative prefix and shortened the vowel accordingly. See PMC*peti, pepeti, pe(t[theta])ipeti 'to float'.

PMc kaila 'be strong: PUL kkel (sic); WOL kkaile 's.,healthy', (ge)-kkaila-(a) 'strengthen it, make it s.'; PCKkkaila; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'strength', k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]layl (<*kailaila) 's., healthy, powerful'; PNG keel'strength'; KIR kaina-(matoa) 'implaccable'; PEO *kaila's., firm' (SAA 'a' aila-['a] 'firm, s.';ARO 'a' aira-[/a]'s., firm'). Cf. BUG kakai 'befirm, steady, faithful'.

PMC? *[kaka.sub.1] 'cracked, split': CHK (sa)-kkak'to split, crack, check (of wood or skin)' (sa 'of its ownaccord'); MRS kek, kek c., s., chink'; PEO *kaka (FIJ ka-ca'c., s,', kaka-ca 'c. or s. in many places'; ARO kaka'to split', kaka-si 'to s. (s.t.)'). Cf. PMc*[kaka,sub.2] 'to make an intruding or internupting sound'.

PMC *[kaka.sub.2] 'to make an intruding or interruptingsound': CHK kak kkaka, kakkak 'ring (as a bell), caw (as a bird),break (as a voice in speaking), sound of ringing'; MRT kaak 'soundof cracking'; PCK *kaka, kkaka, kakka; KIR (te)-kaka 'a kind ofbird'; PEO *kaka (FIJ kaka 'to stammer, stutter', kakaa'any of several sp. of parrot'). Cf. PMC? *kaka, 'cracked,split'.

PMC *kaka, ka-si, kaka-Si 'tie thatch': CHK kket'tie t. to rafters', kketi 't. it, tic t. to it'; PULkati-(y) 'tie (as sennit tot.)'; CRL kkat, kket 'stringersused to tie t. to a roof'; WOL kkati 'be tied, tie, bind';kkati-i-(ye) 'tie it, bind it'; PCK *kkadi; MRS keykey 'tosew, stitch', kketahak 'attachment, joint'; KIR kakari'to sew or tie on t.'; KSR kaek 'tie t. to the roof', kA'tie (it)'; PEO *ka-si (FIJ kasi, kasi-na 'tie a lot of thingstogether, string things together'); UAN *ka(n)cin 'fastener'.


PMC *kala, ma-kala 'break, cut, scatter': CRL ma-ghal'to s. in different directions, disperse', ma-ghalaghal 'to besmashed', ([b.sup.w]iti)-ghalle-(lo) 'to be mangled, torn, smashed,shredded (of flesh, meat, rotten vegetables)'; CRN ma-galagal 'tobe smashed; WOL me-gale 'split, c., divide, b., be dispersed',me-galegale 's., disperse, be cracked up, be broken into pieces';PUA ma-kana 'be destroyed, broken, destroy, b.'; PCK *ma-kala; KIRma-kanakana 'easily broken, not firm, weak, frail'; KSR kal, kalkAl'c., shear, scissor, clip', kalk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'fence, to separate or divide with fences'; POC *kala (SAA'ala 'b. off, lop, bite'; LAU ala 'bite'; ARO kara'to c.'; KWA 'ala 'bite'; LAK kala-(hoho) 'bitedown [hard.sup.1]). See also PEO *kaRa-t 'bite, hold in teeth'(Geraghty 1990). Cf. MRS (peda)-kilkil 'crumbled, shattered, broken inbits'.

PCMC *kalo 'roll or twist fiber into rope': CHK ona'r. or t. (fiber) into cord or rope', kkon 'to r. or be rolledon the thigh (of fibers)', kunne-e-(y) 'to r. or t. (fibers)together'; Put. yolool 'sennit rope, to braid sennit',yole-e-(y) 'to braid (sennit)'; WOL galogalo 'sennitrope', galo-o 'make it into sennit'; PUA kanokano 'sennitcord'; PCK *kalo, kalokalo; PON kal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to make(sennit)'; MOX kolkol 'tot. strands of coconut fiber to makestring', kol[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tot. (strands), r. (acigarette)'; MRS [k.sup.w][k.sup.w]al 'coconut fiber sennit, makesennit'; KIR kanoa 'engage in twisting strands', kanoa-a'to t. (strands of rope) together'. There is a problem with theadded final a of the KIR form. Cf. UAN *galin 'to roll, twist'. Seealso PWMc *kalo 'loin cloth, skirt'.

PWMC *kalo 'loin cloth, skirt': CHK on-([nom.sup.w]),on-([nam.sup.w]u)-(n) 'men's l. c., 1. c. of (a given type)([nom.sup.w] 'stripping skin, bark, or leaves'); PUL.wol-([low.sup.w]) 'woman's 1. c.', wol-([lom.sup.w]o-in-y)'to use or own as a 1. c.'; PCK? *[k[theta]]alo-([lom.wup.w]O); PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'grass skirt worn by men',k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to wear a grass skirt'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'skirt made of leaves or grass'; MRS kal'1. c., diaper'. Cf. YAP gaal' 'hibiscus tree, l. c. orany cloth made of hibiscus bark'. Sce also PCMC *kalo 'roll ortwist fiber into rope'. MRS final consonant would call for final a inreconstructed form.

PWMC *kami 'we (exclusive), us': CHK aam; CRN aam; PCK*kami; MOK kim- (root for dual and trial series); MRS kem (western dialect),[kem.sup.w] (eastern dialect). See Jackson 1986;206. Cf. PWMc*ka[a[theta]]mami 'we (exclusive), us'.

PCMC *kamii 'you (pl.)': CHK aami 'y. (pl.)"-kemi, -keemii- 'y. (pl. object)'; MRT kaami, -kami; PUL yaami; CRLaami, -ghami; CRN aami, -gemi; STW kami; WOL gaamii, -gamii; PUA kaamii,-kamii; PCK *kaamii, -kamii; MRS kemiy; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-kamii'y. (pl.)', -kamii 'y. (pl. obj.)'. Cf. also PMC*[kam.sup.w]u 'you (pl.)'.

PMC *[kam.sup.w]u 'you (p1.)': PON [kom.sup.w].[kom.sup.w]i 'y. (honorific)'; MRS [k.sup.w][em.sup.w]; KIR[kan.sup.w]; KSR kim; PEO *kam[i[theta]u (Geraghty 1983) (BUG gamu'y.'). Cf. POC *kam[i0]u (FIJ kemu-(dou), kemu-(ni); SAA 'amu,LAU gamu; BUG gamu; LAK amu-(tou)). Cf. PON [kum.sup.w]a 'y.(dual)', [kam.sup.w]a-(il) 'y. (pl.)'; MOK kim"'a'y. (dual)', [kam.sup.w] ai 'you (pl.)'. See also PCMc*kamii 'you (pl.)'.

PMC *kana 'food', *kani 'eat (s.t.)': CHKana-(n) 'his cooked f. (to eat)'; PUL yana-(n); CRL ala-(l); CRNana-(n); WOL gala-, gan-(ne); PUA kana-; PCK *kana; PON kana- 'poss. cl.for f.'; MOK kana-(a), kene-(n) 'his f., f. of'; MRS kan'e. (s.t.)', #kkan 'f.'; KIR kana-(na) 'hisf.'; kina 'e. (s.t.)', kann-a (<*kani-a) 'e. it';POC *kana, kani (PPN *kani 'e.'; FIJ kana 'e.'; BUG gani'e.'; LAU ani 'e.'; KWA 'ani-[a] 'e.[s.t.]'; PKB *qani 'e.', [il]-ali 'f.'). Cf. SAA'a-(na) 'for him to e.'; BUG ga-(gna) his f. to eat'; UAN*ka, kaen). Cf. PMC *kani 'eat (s.t.)', PMC *kai, 'bite'.

PCMC *kana, kai 'habit, tendency': CHK kan, kayi'be wont to, be in the habit of, be one's lot to, happen to';PUL kan, kay 'ordinarily, commonly, for the moment'; CRL ghal andCRN gan usually, regularly, habitually'; STW kan 'usually';WOL galega 'usually, habitually, only'; PUA kae 'often,usually', kana 'be only'; PCK *kana, kai; MRS ken, kkeyin'used to (former habit)', kkay 'repeatedly, usually, tend to,apt to', kkeyiniy 'to frequent, stay in touch with (distributive inform)'; KIR kan 'nearly, almost, soon', kan, kani 'wantto, wish to', kai 'easily, without difficulty, soon, readily'.There are problems here.

PMC *kanawa 'a tree (Cordia subcordata)': CHK anaw; PULyaanaw; PCK *[k[empty set]]anawa; MOK kanaw 't. sp.'; MRS kenew;KIR (te)-kanawa 'a t.'; PMP *kanawa 'Cordia spp.' (Blust1984-85). Cf. KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ny[epsilon] 'banyantree'. Cf. L: CHK anne.


PMC *kapa 'bundle of s.t.': WOL gaape, gepa-(li) 'akind of woven cloth that has only two stripes and is not well woven';PON kapakap 'bundle, sheaf'; k[epsilon]p[epsilon]-(n) 'b.of', k[epsilon]p[epsilon] 'to carry a b.', -kap'classifier for b. or sheafs in counting'; MRS kap 'roll orbolt of cloth'; KSR kaep 'b., sheaf, faggot'.

PMC *kapi 'bottom, butt end': CHK epi-, -kepi-; MRT aap,api- 'b.'; PUL yaap, yapi-; CRL aap, api- 'buttocks, hip, keelor b. of a canoe'; STW yaap, yapi- 'b., buttocks'; WOL gaapi,gapi- 'keel or b. (of canoe), hip (of person)'; PUA kaapi, kapi-'end, hip, buttocks'; PCK *kapi; PON kapi-; MOK kap, kapi-; PNGkapi- 'b., end, south'; MRS kapi-; KIR (te)-kabi; KSR kapi-(n)'b. of, end of'. See also PCK *kapilipili 'elbow, heel'.

PCMC *kapi-sa, kapi-si 'oil for skin or hair, anoint':CHK epi-t, epi-ta-(n) 'hair o., his/her h. o.', epi-ti 'a.him/her with o. or perfume', kkepi-t 'be anointed, perfumed';MRT api-te 'to oil, a.'; PUL yapi-ta- 'hair o.',yapi-ti-(y) 'a. him/her'; CRL api-ti 'a. (s.o.)', kkapi-t'be anointed', akkapi-t 'o. for anointing the body orhair'; WOL gapigepi 'coconut o. for anointing', gapi-ta-(le)'his/her anointing o.', gapi-ti 'o. the body, a.',gapi-ti-(i) 'apply lubricant to it, a. it'; PCK *kapi, kapi-da.kapi-di; PON key 'to a., apply to the skin as lotion', key[epsilon]'to a. (s.o.)'; MRS #pitpit, kkapi-t 'rub with oil as amedical treatment, massage', kapi-t 'rub (s.o.) with o.',kapi-te- 'oil' (with possessive suffix); KIR kabi-ra'anointing o., to a. (s.o,)', kabi-ri-a 'a. him/her'.Irreg. loss of [sS] in PON. Cf. Fu kabi, kabi-ta 'adhere, stickto'.

PCMC *[kap.sup.w]u, [kakap.sup.w]u 'dull': CHK[kkop.sup.w], [kkop.sup.w]u-; PUL [kop.sup.w]; CRL [kkoh.sup.w]; CRN[kkoh.sup.w]; WOL kkabu; PCK *[kap.sup.w]u, [kkap.sup.w]u; MRS [kkeb.sup.w];KIR [kah.sup.w][ub.sup.w]u.

PMC *kara, kakara, 'burnt': CHK kkar 'be b.,scorched', (a)-kkar 'sun' (lit. 'scorcher'),(a)kkara 'cause it to be b.'; PUL kkar; CRL kkar; WOL kkare; PUAkkala; PCK *kkara; PEO *kaRa-t 'burn (s.t.)' (Geraghty 1990); UAN*ga(rR)a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].

PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape': MRS kar's.', karkar 'cut out copra meat from the shell', kera-t'cut (it) out'; KIR kaa-ra 's., cut with a draw knife, graveor groove (s.t.)', kaa-ri-(a) 's. it'; KSR ?karw[epsilon]r[epsilon] 's., sharpen, scratch', kare-t 's.,sharpen, scratch (s.t.)'; POC *kara-si 'to peel (a sweetpotato)' (Ross 1988) (SAA kara, kara-si, 'ara-si 'to s.';KWA 'ala'ala 'rough, scratchy' 'ala-si-a 'tos., scratch'; PKB *ka[rz]a 'sharp, piercing'). Cf. UAN*karkar. Cf. also PMC *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'scraped, to scrape',PMC *kari 'to scratch', PMC *karu 'to scrape, grate'.

PMC *karakara 'tern': CHK araar 'white t.';PUL yaraar 'a king or sooty t.'; CRL araar 'species of small,black bird'; WOL garegare 'gray-backed t.'; PCK *karakara; KIR(te)-kaakaa 'a bird'; PEO *kaRa 'parrot' (Geraghty 1990).Cf. MRS keyyar 'crested t.'; FIJ kara 'to scold, to cry (of aparrot), to bark (of a dog)'; SAA 'a 'a 'large greenparrot'.

PCMC *karani 'near, close': PON k[epsilon]r[epsilon]n'n., c.', karani-i 'be n. or c. to'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n; KIR kaan 'n., c. to', kaani-a'to approach (s.o. or s.t.)'. Cf. CHK kkan 'be n., c.'(?<*kanni <*karni); MRS karwahan 'be with, accompany'; ROT'ele, 'ele-a 'be near, be near to'.

PCMC *karau 'heron': CHK ere, eree-(n) 'h., h.of'; WOL geree; PCK? *karau; KIR (te)-kaai.

PMC *kari 'to scratch': CHK erikeri 's. it',(fa)-ariker 's. lightly on a person's leg (as a signal)',([p.sup.w]eyi)-ker 'coconut grater'; MRT aiker 'bescratched', aikare 's. (s.t.)'; PUL yariker, keriker's.', keri-(y) 's. it'; CRL gherigher, gheregher 'tos.', gheri 's, or grate (s.t.)'; STW keriker; WOL gerigeri's., rub'; PUA kelikeli; PCK *karikari; PON keri-([p.sup.w]ud)'s. (as when itching)', kari([p.sup.w]ude) 'scratch (anitch)'; MOK kari-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d) 'to s.',kari-([p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 's.(s.t.)'; MRS ? kar 's., scrape' (but see PMC *kara, kara-si,kara-sa 'to scrape' and PMC *karu 'to scrape, grate');POC *karis (Ross 1988) 's.' (FIJ kari 'to scrape, especially acoconut'; BUG kari 'to scrape, of coconut; a rasp'); UAN*garis. Cf. PKB *kasi 'to scrape, scratch'; KWA koli 'toscratch'. Cf. also PMc *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'scraped, toscrape', PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape', PMC *karu'to scrape, grate', PWMC *nani 'to, toward'.

PCMC *kari 'tired, exhausted': CHK er, kker 'be t.of doing s.t.', (kka)-ar 'running race', (kka)-ari-(nwaa-fetun) 'paddle-canoe race'; CRL ghar 'be very t., e. (asfrom carrying a heavy load)', kkar, kker 'give up, surrender (aswhen tired of arguing), be fed up, frustrated'; CRN gar 'be t., e.(as from carrying a heavy load)'; WOL gari 'be t. of, be sickof'; PCK *kari; KIR kai 'be in trouble, in straits, indifficulty'. Cf. KWA (kwaikwai)- 'ali-i 'to race, compete with(kwai 'mutually'), 'ali-a 'to best in competition,outdo'.

PMC *karu 'to , grate': CHK (a)-aru-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i) 'grind one's teeth'; PUL yaru-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iy) 'click one's teeth', keruker 'g. or s. (ascoconut or breadfruit), shave', keru-(u-w) 'g., s., shave(s.t.)'; CRL ghurn, gheru 'scrapeto s. or g. (s.t),' ghurughur'to s. or g.'; WOL geru-(u) 'grind it, shave it, crushit', geru-geru 'grind, be ground, shave, crush'; PUA kalukalu'coconut grater'; PCK *karu; PEO *karu (SAA karu, karukeru 'toscratch with the nails'); UAN *garus 'scratch'. Cf. KIR keru'make a gnawing sound', (kama)-kerukeru 'grind the teeth'(presumably a loan from a PN source). Cf. also CRB (aha)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uru 'to grind (s.t.) with the teeth'. Cf. also PMc *rau,ka-rau, ka-rau-si 'scraped, to scrape ,PMc *kara, kara-si, kara-sa'to scrape', PMc *kari 'to scratch'.

PMC *karuki 'white sand crab or ghost crab': MRT(li)-kkeruk; PUL yarik, yarike-(n) 'a kind of small edible c.'; CRLarigh, arigh and CRN arig; WOL garipi 'beach c.' (given as garikiin Bender et al. 1984); SNS kaliki 'kind of c.'; PCK *karuki; MRS[karik.sup.w]; KIR kauki; KSR kuluk; PEO *kuRuiki 's. c.' (Geraghty1990); PAN *kaRuki (Blust 1983-84:64). Cf. CHK ni-kke 'w. s. c.'.

PMC *kaseki 'a fish': CHK etik, etiki-(n)'lethrinid f. (good eating), f. of'; CRL atigh 'sp. of ediblef. found outside reef'; PCK *[k[empty set]]ad[ei]ki; PON kadek 'f.sp.'; MOK kadek 'f. sp., kind of emperor f.'; MRS katek'wrasse (Epibulus insidiator)'; KSR kaet[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'a kind off.'. Cf. CHK feyisiyuu 'a fish (Epibulusinsidiator)'.

PMC *ka[sS]i[sS]ifa 'spit, spittle': CHK ottif,otiffa-(n) 'saliva, spittle, to spit, spit at, his s.' (var.:ottuf, attof, ottof), ottifa, attofa, attufa 'to spit at it',ottife-(yiti), ottofe-(yiti) 'to spit on him/her'; PUL yottuf'saliva, sputum', ottufe 'to spit', ottufe-(yiti-y)'to spit on it'; CRL ottuf 'saliva, to spit'; PCK*kaddifa; PON kendip 'to spit'; MOK andip 'to spit'; PPC*kadidifa; POc *kasip + a (FIJ kasivi 'to spit', kasivi-ta'spit on or at'; KWA 'asi 'to spit on, spray'). Cf.ULA asihe 'to sneeze'; ARO 'asihe 'to sneeze'.

PMC *ka[sS]o 'rafter': Mar oot 'pole or beam usedin building a house'; Put yoot 'verticle house rafter'; STWyoot 'diagonal rafter'; WOL gaato, gato- 'thatch rafter of ahouse'; PCK *kado; MOK kad-(dal) 'rafter' (loan from MRS?);MRS kat-(tal) 'horizontal rafter'; POc *kaso (Ross 1988) (PPN*kaso; FIJ [i]-kaso 'outrigger boom'; SAA 'ato; BUG gaho; KWA'ato; LAK aro); UAN *kasaw

PMC *kata 'talk loudly': CHK kasakas 't.aloud'; MRT kasakas 'loud talking'; CRL kkas kkasa-(l)'language, speech, his language'; WOL kkase 'foreign language,speak a foreign language'; PCK *kata; PON kaas (sic) 'speak inanger, boast'; MRS kaj, kkajkaj 'idiom, language, motto, pun,saying, slang'; KIR kaka-(rabakau) 'conspire, plotinsurrection' (showing *t to k after *k); KSR kaes 'word, speech,language, chirp, cheep', kaeskaes 'talk, chirp repeatedly; PEO*kata (PPN *kata 'to laugh'). Cf. PUA kada-(mmani) 'be funny,amusing' (mmani 'laugh'); MOK kojoi 'a story'; FIJkara 'scold, object, rebuke'; LAK (vi)-kara 'to speak,language'; PAN *kaRi 'speak, language' and PAN *keraq'chattering of monkeys' (Blust 1970:129). Cf. also BUG gaegahe'to boast'. YAP gaas 'speak a foreign language' appearsto be a loan from a Chuukie source.

PWMC *katama 'doorway, entrance, gateway': CHK asam; MRTasam; PUL yaham; CRL asam, CRN aham; STW asam; WOL getame PUA kadama; PCK*katama; MRS kejam.

PMC *katea 'lee side of a sailing canoe': CHK asa; PULyaha 'I.s. of a s. c.', yaha, yakkaha steer before he wind';STW akkasa 'canoe helm, rudder'; WOL getaa; PCK *katea or *katae;PON kasaa 'its (canoe's) side opposite the outrigger'; MRSKejah, kejaha-(n); KIR (te)-katea; PEO *katea (PPN *katea). Cf. CRL. asa'a voyage by canoe, to sail a canoe or voyage by canoe' (intepretedas a causative constructed firm saay). Note hat the KIR form could be a loanfrom a PN source as well as directly inherited from PMC. KSR (fa)-kata'turn a ship to port' is an apparent loan.

PMC *katuu 'mast (of a canoe)': see PMC *kautu

PWMC *katuu, kakau, kau-ri, kakau-ri 'call, call to':CHK kke kkee-(wu), kekke 'c., cry, shout', kkee-ri 'c. to,shout to'; PUL kekke 'to c., crow'; CRL. ghekke kkekke and CRNgekke 'to crow (of rooster)'; WOL kkee, kkekkkee 'crow (as arooster)'; PUA kkaa 'salute, greet'; PCK *kkau; PONk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r 'to c. (as in to give so. a bad name), tobadmouth'; MOK kee-re 'to bow to, pay homage to (s.o.)',kee-reek 'bow, pay homage'; MRS kki-r 'c., crow, invitation,summons'. Cf. PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'to c., to summon'. Cf. also BUG kuakuala 'cry out, c.'.There are problems with the MRS vowel.

PMC *kau, kau-ti, kau-ta 'fishhook, catch with hook':CHK ee. ee- 'f.', ee-yi 'hook it'; PUL kee yee'f.' yee-yd-(d-tiw) 'hook it down (in pickingbreadfruit)'; CRL ghee; CRN gee; STW kee; WOL gee, gee- 'f.',gee-si-(i) 'hook it', gee-tagi 'be hooked'; PUA kaad,kau-; SNS kaau; PCK *kau, kau-kau-ti; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s,k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f., hook it';MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s; MRS kaya-j, kay-ji-'f'., kaw-jek'caught on a hook'; KIR (ua)-kai 'two t'; KSR ka'f.', ka-i 'catch with a hook'; PEO *kawi~t (BUG kau'be caught, hung up, entangled'; ARO 'awi 'a hook');UAN *kawit. Cf. PAN *kawiN or *kawil (Wolff 1993). Cf. also PCK ? *kauta'sibling-in-law of same sex, affinal relative'.

PCMC *ka-uae 'whistle': See PCMC *uae ka-uae 'towhistle (of humans)'.

PCMC *ka-uae 'a pelagic fish': CHK owuta 'sp. oftuna (skipjack)'; CRL owuta 'sp. of edible f. found outsidereef'; PCK *[k[theta]awudaa; KIR (te)-kairaa 'a f.'.

PMC k[ao]ut[ae] 'blanket, coverlet': CHK kuus,kuusa-(n)'c. or cover of woven material, sheet, b., her c.'; PULwoowuh.woowuha-(n) (sic) (?*wowuh) 'b., sheet, loomed cloth used as acover'; CRL ous 'cover, b.', ouse-(y) 'to cover(s.o.)'; CRN ouh 'cover, b.'; WOL gouse 'lavalava thatcovers a dead person, covering'; PCK *kout[ae]; MRS kawaj, kawje-'b., b. of (poss. classifier)', kawajwej 'use a b.'; KSRkaeot 'c., b., sheet'. Note that KIR (te)-kaui 'small mat wormover the shoulders' appears to be loan from English coat.

PMC ? *kautiwa 'east': CHK eetiw 'e.', eetiwa(afen) 'northeast'; PUL eetiw, eetiwa-(afan); WOL gootuwe,gootuwa-(afa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i), PUA kaluwa (sic); PCK ?*ka[u[theta]d[iu]wa; MRS kawtew 'northeast tradewind'; KSRk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL](l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p).

PMC *kautu or *katuu 'mast (of a canoe)': CHK ewu,ewuu-; MRT aWu; PUL yaawu(sic), yaayuw (sic); CRL ayu; STW yau'; WOLgausu; PUA kaudu; PCK *kautu; PON keew; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w, MRSkajiw. kijiw; KIR kautu 'top part of a tree, a chief of high rank';KSR [k.sup.w] esu. MRS and KSR reflect the second reconstruction; note thatthe KSR form may be a loan because KSR lacked a local sailing tradition.

PMC *kawa-, kawakawa 'a fish': MRT awaaw 'a reeff.'; WOL gawegawe 'a fish (Chlorurus pulchellus)'; PCK*kawakawa; PON kooko 'dolphin' f. (Coryphoena hippurus)' (loanfrom MRS?); MOK kooko 'dolphin f.' (loan from MRS?); MRS kewkew'dolphin f. (Coryphoena hippurus)'; KIR (te)-kawa-(riki) 'af.'; KSR kw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]we-(n lot) 'dolphin';PEO*kawakawa(PPN *kawakawa 'a sp. of f.'). Cf. PUL yawe 'snapperf.'. Cf. also PMP *qawa? 'milkfish' (Blust 1984-85).

PCMC *ka[w[theta]o 'newly born, infant': CHK (ni)-kko'baby girl', (wu,kko 'baby boy', kooko 'baby (up tothree mos.)'; PUL (li)-kko, (wu)-kko; CRL ghoogho; CRN googo; WOL(li)-kkoo, kkokkoo; PCK *-kkoo, kookoo; MRS kaw 'fetus, embryo,still-born baby'; KIR (te)-kao 'umbilical cord'.

PWMC ? *kaye 'hurry, move quickly': CHK kkay, kakkay'be fast, be quick, h.', kkaye-(no), kkdyi-(no) 'h.away', kkaye-(to), kkayi-(to) 'h. hither'; PUL kkay 'befast', kkayi-(to) 'come q.'; CRL kkay and CRN kkay 'beprompt, fast, quick, rapid'; WOL kkeye 'travel far, fly (by theforce of some agent)'; PCK *kkaye; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y-(do)'move toward speaker', kay-(do) 'move (s.t.) towardspeaker'; MRS kay 'turn, shift, change (as of wind)'. Possibleproblems here.

PMC *kayi 'we (excl.,subj. marker)': CHK ayi-; PUL yay;CRL ay; STW yay; WOL gai; PUA kai; PCK *kayi; PEO *kai (FIJ kai- 'we[excl.] [Geraghty 1983]. See PCK *kawu 'you (pl., subj. marker)'.

PMC *kayinana 'clan, folk, tribe, stock': CHK eyinan,eyinana-(n) 'matrilineal c. or sib., c. of'; MRT ainana-(n); PULyayinan; CRL ailan; CRN ainan; STW ailana-(n); WOL gailane 'clan, tribe,tribal division'; PUA kainana 'family, land, home, village,estate'; PCK *kayinana; PEO *kainana (HAW 'ainana; TIK kainana).Cf. PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yn[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'lineage,extended family, clan'. Note that KIR kaaina 'ancestralresidence' is a loan from SAM, as is KIR kaaina 'inhabitant,occupant, citizen'.

PMC *kayu 'wood, pole': CHK eyi-(ni-wow) 'pole forcarrying', ewu-([cham.sup.w]) 'crossbeam of a house'; PULyee-([Ram.sup.w]), yee-yi-[Ram.sup.w] 'house beam'; CRL ghayi-,ghaya- 'penis' (men's talk); WOL gaai, gai- 'penis',geu-([sham.sup.w]) 'tie-beam of a house'; PUA kaai, kai-'penis'; PCK *kai, kayu-; MRS kaya-n, keyi-n 'tree, treetrunk, torso'; KIR (te)-kai-(ni-) (in cps.) 'stick for','(te)-kai-(na) 'pandanus tree' (the important food treehistorically); PEO kayu 'wood' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ kacu'wood' [Geraghty 1983]; SAA 'ai 'a tree'; BUG gai'tree, spear shaft'; ARO 'ai 'tree'; KWA 'ai'tree, branch, stick'; PKB *qai 'tree'); UAN *kahiw(Dyen), *kayu (Dempwolff). Cf. YAP gaak'iy 'tree, wood, shrub,plant'.

PMC *keli, keli-ni- 'dig': CHK ssin 'dig up rootcrops', sin-ni, sini-ni 'dig it up (of root crops)'; PUL kel,keli-ni-(y); CRL kkel dig a hole with a digging implement', kkeli-ni'dig (a hole) with an implement', gheli-ni 'dig up(s.t.)'; STW kkel 'dig'; WOL keli, keli-ni-(i); PUA keni-ni,PCK *keli, keli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; KIR keniken 'dig','KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'dig, turnup', kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'dig(s.t.)'; POC *keli (PPN *keli, FIJ keli, keli-a, keli-ca; SAA 'eli'dig', 'eli-na 'digging'; PWM *Keli). Cf. LAK oli,oli-a 'dig with a shovel'.

PMC *ki, kiki 'move, be moved': CHK ki, kii- 'belifted, moved', kkik 'm., change location'; PUL kiki-(tiw)(sic), 'slip and fall'; WOL kki 'happen, occur, show up,come', kki-(togo) 'come (to speaker)'; PCK *kki, kikki; KIR ki(sic) 'go', ki-(wati) 'stand away, give place', ki-(mai)'come here'; KSR ki 'm.'.

PCMC *kiakia 'white or fairy tern': CHK esiyes, ekiyek(showing metathesis); PUL kiyekiy; CRL ghiyeghi; CRN giyegi; WOL giyegiye;PUA kiekie 'butterfly'; PCK *kiakia; KIR kiakia 'a bird'.

PMC *kiaZo 'outrigger boom': CHK kiyo, kiyoo-; MRT siye;PUL kiyo; CRL ghiyo, ghityo, kkiyo; STW kiyo; WOL giyoo; PUA kiao; PCK *kiao;PON kiay 'strut supporting outrigger'; MOK kia 'struts onoutrigger'; PNO kia; MRS kiyey; KIR (te)-kiaro; KSR ki[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]es; POC *kiajo, kiado (Ross 1988) (PPN *kiato). Cf. UAN *katiR. Fordiscussion of POC *j (there *z), see Goodenough (1992, fn. 8). See also Ross(1988:79, 344).

PMC *kica 'we (inclusive), us': CHK kiich, -kich; MRTkiish, -kish; PUL kiiR, -kiR; CRL ghiish; CRN giiR; STW kiiR, -kiR; WOLgiishe, -gishe; PUA kiisa; PCK *kica; PON kiit, -kit; MOK kiis; PNG kiis, KIR(na)-ira; PEO *kida (PPN *kita; FIJ keda). Note that MRS kej and KSRk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t, kite-(l) indicate a PMC doublet *kita; PEO *kita(Geraghty 1983) (SAA ki'e; ULA ki'a; BUG gita); POC *kita (Ross1988); UAN *kita. Pohnpeic reflexes are for 'we (exclusive)'.

PMC *kie, kiekie 'plaited mat': CHK kiyeki, kiye-,kiya-'plaited pandanus mat, m. of'; MRT kiyeke (sic); PUL kiyeki,kiye-; CRL ghiye-; CRN giya-; STW kiyeki; WOL giyegiye; PUA kiia, kia-; PCK*kiye; PON ki[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'thing to sleep on'; MOK kio,kie-(n) 'his m., m. of'; MRS ? kiyi- 'side of a house,wall'; KIR (te)-kie; KSR ki[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-, kia-ka; PEG *kiRe(Geraghty 1990) (PPN *kiekie 'pandanus'; SAA ile 'Pandanusodoratissimus'; ARO kire 'pandanus'; KWA 'ile'pandanus variety'). Cf. SAA 'i'e-li 'toplait'.

PMC *[kiep.sup.w]u 'spider lily': CHK [siip.sup.w],[#sip.sup.w][p.sup.w]e-(n), [kiyop.sup.w], [kiyop.sup.w]u-(n) 'varietyof s. l., s. l. of'; MRT [kiyop.sup.w]; PUL [kiyop.sup.w],[kiyop.sup.w]u-(n) 'a broad-leafed s. l.'; CRL [ghiyob.sup.w]; CRN[giyob.sup.w]; STW [kiyop.sup.w]u; WOL giyedu 'a land plant(Crinumsp.)', giyobu 'broad-leafed s. l., white 1.'; PUA[kiyop.sup.w]u 's. l.'; PCK *[kiep.sup.w]u; PON ki[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][p.sup.w] 'l.sp.'; MRS [kiyeb.sup.w] 'a plant (Crinumasiaticum)'; KIR (te)-[kidb.sup.w] 'a l.'; KSRkiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f's. l.'. Note that CHK [kiyop.sup.w] isan apparent loan from MRT or PUL.

PMC ? *kiiV, kiV- 'adze': PON kii 'shell a. madefrom the shell of the giant clam'; PEO *kiRa (Geraghty 1990) (SAA'ile 'stone axe'; BUG kiekile 'tomahawk set on a longhandle for fighting, axe, a.'; LAU kila 'stone axe'; ARO'ira 'stone axe or a'; KWA 'ila 'flint, flinttool'; PKB *qila 'a.'). Cf. CHK kii- 'pertaining to shellfish or other marine life'.

PMC *kila, kila-a, kila-I 'to know': CHK sine ' (to do s.t.), be skilled', sine-e-(fichi-i-y)'k. itwelle', sine-e-(y)'k. him/her/it (a person, idea, intention)',sine-e-(ya-n) 'his knowledge (based on verbal explanation)'; MRTkule-e-(y) 'k. him'; PUL kule-e-(y) 'find it, k. it,understand it'; CRL ghule 'to k., learn', glude-e-(y) 'tok. (s.o. or s.t.), be acquainted with (s.o.)', (a)-ghule-e-(y) 'tolet (s.o.) k. s.t.', (yake)-kkule-e-(y) 'teach (s.o.)'; CRNgule 'to k., to learn', gule-e-(y) 'to k. (s.o. or s.t.), beacquainted with (s.o.)'; STW kule-e-(y) 'k. him'; WOL gile'be clear, seen clearly, recognized'; PCK *kila, kila-i; kula,kula-a, kula-i; PON kila-(n) 'to see, discern, look at, observe,examine'; MRS kiley 'recognize, realize, distinguish, be familiarwith, identify, notice, perceive'; KIR kina-a 'recognize, k.',kina-i-(a)'r. him'; KSR (a)-kile.(n) 'notice' (tr.),(se-a)-kile-(n) 'unable to recognize'; PEO *kila (FU kila, kila-a'to know, understand'); PAN *kilat, kulat 'open the eyeswide' (Blust 1989:145). Cf. PAN *keNa 'recognize at a glance,understand' (Wolff 1993). Cf. also PMC *kilala 'sign, symbol'.

PMC *kilala 'sign, symbol': CHK sun, sissun 'knownas fact', (e)-sissin, (e)-sissinna-(n) 's., symbol, s. of it',(e)-sinna, (e)-sissinna 'signify it, symbolize it, guess it(of ariddle)', PUL kikkill 'mark with a taboo'; WOL ginne'mark, visible symbol', (ga)-ginne 'omen'; PCK *killa;PON kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l's., mark, picture',kil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'photograph it';MOK kilel 'picture, photograph', kilele 'take a pictureof', kilele-e-(di) 'mark for reciprocal bad treatment'; MSR(ka)-kelley 's., symbol'; POC *kilala (SAA ilala 'take anaugury'; LAU inala 'discern by casting lots'; BUG githatha'to know, be aware of, recognize'; ARO 'irara 'to know,understand, perceive, divination'; LAK ilila 'time or date of anevent'). Cf. also CRL ghilighil and CRN giligil 'be marked forlater use or recognition'. Cf. also PMC *kila, kila-a, kila-i 'toknow'.

PMC *kima 'tridachna clam': CHK siim #siime(n),#simme-(n) 'medium sized t. shell, t. shell of'; PUL hiim,hima-(n); CRL siim (said to be loan from CHK); WOL. suume, suma-(li); MOK kim'c. sp.'; KIR kiima, (te)-kima; PEO *kima (SAA 'ima'bear's-paw c.'); UAN *kima. It looks as if the CHK, MOK, andKIR forms are inherited reflexes of the UAN, whereas the PUL, CRL, and WOLare loans from CHK. Cf. YAP' kiim 'giant c.'; PAL kim'type of large c.'. Cf. also MRS kkim 'close tight (as ac.)', kimi-j 'close it tight'.

PMC *kina, kina-ta 'cut, wound, sore, scar': CHK kinas'a c., c. w., be c. or wounded', (e)-kinasa 'c. or w.him'; PUL kinah 'open sore, w., scar, be c. or wounded'; CRLghilas 'a w., c.'; CRN ginah 'a w., c.'; WOL glare'be wounded, injured'; PCK *kilata; MRS kine-j 'w.,scar', kinej-nej 'be wounded, marred'; KIR kina 'nicked,marred, defaced', kinaka 'disease of the skin, be afflicted withthis disease' (*t> k after k); KSR kind 'w., c., scar'.

PWMC *kinia 'coarse mat': CHK sini, kini (in cps. only)'made of coconut frond matting', kini, kiniye-(n), #kinii-(n)'kind of m. (made of coconut leaves with midribs down the middle of them., m. of, to be made of such matting'; PUL kinjy, kiniya-(n)'coarse matting of coconut leaves, in. of'; CRL ghili and CRN gini'type of woven coconut leaf m.'; WOL giliye 'outdoor m.,coconut leaves used as outdoor m.'; PUA kinie- 'poss. classifierfor mats'; PCK *kinia; MRS kiniye- 'poss. classifier formats'.

PMC *kinia. kini-ti, kini-ta 'pick, pinch off': CHK kin'be cut, separated, segmented, picked (of fruit)', kinikin'partition, division, section', kini-i-(y) 'cut it, divide it,p. it'; PUL kinikin 'part, section, division', kini-(y)'divide it, slice, break it into pieces, break it off'; CRL ghill'to p. fruit from a tree', ghili 'to harvest or pick (fruit orleaves from a tree)'; CRN gin 'to p. fruit from a tree'; WOLgili 'to p., pluck with the hands' giligili 'divide into smallpieces, slice, apportion, woman's cutter for banana fibers',gili-i-(ye) 'cut it, slice it, apportion it'; PUA kini 'to p.up (fruit)', kini-(e) 'section of a house marked off by apartition', kini-di 'p. it up'; PCK *kini, kini-ti; PONkinikin 'to pinch' kini-(i) 'to pinch (s.t.)'; MOK kin,kinkin 'pinch with the nails, cut grass, pluck feathers, pickflowers', kini 'pinch ,etc. (s.t.)'; MRS kin-ji-(y)'pinch with fingernails'; KIR kini-ka, kinikini-ka 'to nip(s.t.)' (*t > k after k); KSR kin 'p., pinch', kini-s'p. or pinch (s.t .)'; POC *kinit (FIJ kini, kini-ta 'pinchwith the nails'; SAM 'ini 'pinch, nip'; SAA 'ini'pinch, pluck'; LAU ini 'to pinch'; KWA 'ini'pinch, squeeze'; PKB *qini 'to p. leaves, to weed'); PAN*kinit (Blust 1986:51). Cf. POc *kinit 'pinch' (Blust 1978:59).

PCMC ? *kio, kio-ri 'burn': CHK ku 'catch fire, belit (of a fire), glow (of a coal)', kuu-ri 'burn it, scorchit', (e)-kuu-w) 'light it (a fire), cause it to glow'; MRT(a)-ku 'tend afire'; PUL ku 'be burning but not flaming';CRL ghu and CRN gu 'be alight, smolder, be burning'; WOL guu'burn, glow', (ga)-guu-(we) 'set fire to it, light it';ULI ? gus 'burn' (Bender et al. 1984); PUA kuu 'burn';PCK ? *ku[t[theta]]u, ku[t[theta]]u-ri; KIR kio-i 'burn furiously withleaping flames'. The s of the ULI form is unexpected.

PMC *kisi 'small, little': PuL kitikit; CRL ghit,ghikkit, ghitighiit; CRN git, gitigut; WOL giti, gitiguti, kkiti 's.,I.', -giti 's. piece (counting classifier)'; PCK *kidi; PONkisi- 'small piece, fragment'; MOK kij 'bit, piece'; KIRkirikiri 'fine gravel'; KSR kiti-(n) 'a little, a few,some'; PEO *kisi (TON kihi 'stunted, dwarfed'). See also PPC*-ki[st][ai] 'little bit'.

PMc *kiSa 'strong': CHK kit, kitekit 's., firm,steady', (e)-kita 'make a s. effort at (s.t)', (e)-kitekit'persevere, be zealous'; MRT kitakit; PCK *kida, kidakida; MRS kket's,, great capacity'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.,healthy, well, powerful, stout'. Cf. SAA 'ite 'to find faultwith, reject'.

PMC *kita 'we (inclusive), us': Sec PMC *kica 'we(inclusive), us'.

PMc *ko-, koe 'you (sg. subj. marker)': CHK ke-, ke-,ko-, ka-, ka- ko- and ko, wo (vocative honorific); MRT o-; PUL. wo- and ko,wo (voc. hon.); CRL gho- (archaic), u-; WOL go- and go (sentential voc.); PUAko and ko(e) (polite); PCK ko-, koe; PON K[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] and koo,kow[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (independent prn.); MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (independent prn.); MRS[k.sup.w]e- and [k.sup.w]ey (independent prn.); KIR ko' and[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-koe (voc. and independent prn.); PEO *ko, koe (PPN*koe; BUG -go 'thee'; PWM *Koe), UAN *kaw.

PCMC *koca 'coconut fiber': CHK kochokoch 'shorthairs on top of forehead (especially of women)', (more-ni)-koch'thread of any kind used on a loom'; PUL wooR, kooR, koRo-(y)'c. f. prepared for rope making, c. f. of'; CRL giwosh 'f.from c. husk used in making rope', ghoshoosh 'stringy pulp thatdevelops in old yams and sweet potatoes'; CRN ooR, gooR 'f. from c.husk used in making rope'; WOL goosho, gosho- 'dry c. f. used formaking rope'; PCK *koco; PON koot 'hibiscus f.'; MOKk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]si-(n) 'a weave,f.'; MRS [k.sup.w]ed 'coconut husk, fiber'; KIR (te)-kora'c. f. rope', kora-n 'thread or f. of a c. husk'. Cf. PMc*koco, 'to cut', PMc *kota 'cut, break', PMC? *koo,koo-na 'tentacle, strand of hair or fiber'.

PMc *koca, oca 'eat raw food': CHK wochooch,woche-e-(y), wocha-a-(n)) 'eat (of fish, meat or uncooked food), eat it,his food'; MRT woshe-e-(y), wosha-a-(n); PUL woRaaR, woRe-e-(y),woRa-a-(n); CRL ushoosh, ushe-e-(y); CRN uRooR, uRe-e-(y); STW oRa-(n) (sic);WOL goshwshe (< *goshaosha), gosha-(a-le); PUA kosa-; PCK *koca MOKwasaus, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; KIR oraora,ora-(ia); KSR osraesr, osre; PEO *koda, qoda (FIJ koda, PPN *qota); UAN*qo(n)ta. Cf. SAA oko 'eat raw food'. It is evident that we havedoublets in PMc as well as PEO, reflecting both PEO initial *k and initial*q. See discussion by Geraghty (1983: 161).

PMC *[koco.sub.r] 'to cut': CHK woche-e-(y) 'c. aslice off of (the bound coconut spathe in making toddy', woche-(ni)'noteh it, c. notehes in it'; PUL woRo-(n), woRe-(e-y) 'sliceoff (the end of a coconut spathe to c. toddy)'; CRL ghosh 'to c. acoconut spathe in making toddy', ghoshe-e-(y) 'to c. (aspathe)'; CRN oR 'to c, a coconut spathe in making toddy'; WOLgoshe 'to c. a toddy tap', goshe-(e-ye) 'c. it (in cutting fortoddy)'; PUA koso 'to slice thinly', koso-di 'slice itthinly'; SNS koso-fi 'slice it thinly'; PCK *koco; PON kotokot'(honorific) be given a haircut, a haircut', kote 'c. agirl's hair straight across at the bottom, to c. down',kot[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p) 'first feast ofthe yam season'; MoK koskos 'c. into st.', koso 'c. intoit'; Km korokoro 'engage in cutting', kore-a '', koro-(atuu) 'engage in hair cutting' (atuu'head'); KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'sharp edged, sharp', k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sri 'tocircumcize (s.o.); POC *konso, koso (FIJ koso, koso-va 'to c. with abivalve shell'; LAK korokoro, koro-a 'to c.'). Cf. PEO *koti(PPN *koti, kokoti 'c., clip'; ARO 'oi 'c. off tops oftaro for planting'). Cf. also PCMC *koea 'coconut fiber', PMc*kota 'cut, break'.

PMc *[koco.sub.2] 'slow growing, durable': CHK woch'well preserved, long-lived, durable', woche-(n) 'durabilityof'; WOL gosho 'to endure, be resistant, last long'; PCK*koco; PON kot 'in good condition, young looking, slow in maturing,stuck'; KIR koro-(ubu) 'unripe'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]srk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr 'be preventing, blockading,blocking, obstructing', k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sre 'to prevent,block, obstruct, blockade (s.t.)'.

PCMc *kona 'to arrive, be able': CRL ghola, ghula'to reach it, reach and touch (s.t.), arrive at (a place)'; WOLgola-a 'to arrive at, reach, land at, come to (shore)'; PCK*ko[ln]a; PON k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to catch upwith (s.o.), be on time for (an event)'; KIR kona 'can, beable', kona-(a) 'be able to do'. See also PMC *kona 'acatch (as of fish), to catch'.

PMC *kona 'a catch (as of fish), to catch': PUL kon'to c. fish', kono-(n) 'a c. of'; CRL ghola ghula'(for a disease) to take (a person)'; STW kona 'to c.(s.t.)'; WOL gola-(a) 'c. it. grab it, capture it, seize it',gola-a-ya- 'thing caught by (s.o.)'; ULI gola-(a) 'to c.(s.t.)'; PUA koza 'to c. and have (s.t.) in one'spossession'; PCK *kona; MOK kono-(o) 'his c.', kono-(n)'c. of'; MRS [k.sup.w] ena- '(poss. classifier) a c. (of fish,crabs, or birds)'; KIR (te)-kona 'a c.' (Bender et al. 1984);KSR kono.(n) 'c. of'; PEO *kona (KWA 'ona 'to own, holdtitle to'). See also PCMc *kona 'to arrive, be able'.

PMC ? koo, koo-na 'tentacle, strand of hair or fiber':CHK oo 'tentacle of octopus or squid'; -ye 'thread, hair (incounting)', ee-n, ee-ne-(n) 'fiber thread in weaving, s. of h., f.t. of', (ni)-keeke' 'person who can't be separated fromthe company of his or her spouse' (lit. 'fastened one'); PULyoon 'tentacle'; CRL. ghoo-(l) 'its tentacle'; WOL geegee'fasten with straps'; PUA keekee 'bandage'; PCK *kee,keekee; MRS kew 'tentacle, s. of rope or wire'; KIR koo'firmly bound', (ka)-koo-(a) 'fasten', (te)-ko-na (sic)'cord or twine made of coconut fiber'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'stripe, line, fiber, string figure. Cf. FIJ koa 'hair on thebuttocks'. Cf. PCMc *koca coconut fiber'.

PCMc *kopekope 'cough, to cough': see PCMc *pekopeko.

PMC *koro 'pubic hair': CHK kkor, kkora-(n)'underarm h., his u. h.'; PUL kor (sic) 'p. or underarmh.'; CRL ghoor 'p. h.', kkor 'be especially hairy in thep. area'; CRN goor; WOL. gooro, goro-; PUA kolo; PCK *koro; PEO *koRo(Geraghty 1990). Cf. PCMc *koca 'coconut fiber'.

PMC *koso, koso-mi 'to husk coconuts': CHK woot,wote-(n) 'coconut husking stick, digging stick used incultivation', wotoot 'do husking, do clearing of vegetation,weeding, gardening', wote-(e-y) 'h. it, clear it ofvegetation'; MRT wotoot, wote-e-(y) 'do husking, h. it'; PULwote-(y) 'to husk (a coconut)'; CRL ghoot 'coconut huskingstick', ghote-e-(y) 'to h. (a coconut)', ghotoot 'act ofhusking'; CRN oto-(maR) 'coconut husking stick', ote-(y)'to h. (a coconut)', otoot 'act of husking'; STW kotoot,kote-(y) 'do husking, h. it'; WOL. goto-([eta]i=i) 'h. it,skin it'; PUA kotokoto 'coconut husking stick, to h. with a huskingstick'; PCK *kodo, kodokodo; PON kodokod 'to h. with a stick',kodo-(m) 'to h. (a coconut)'; MOK kod, kokkod, kodo-(m)'husking stick, h. with a husking stick, h. it'; KIR (te)-koro'stick for husking coconuts'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]tk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t 'to scrub, rub off, scour', kote'to scrub, scour, or rub (s.t.) off'; POC kojo-mi 'to h.,pierce' (Ross 1988).

PCMc *koso 'go aground, run on a reef': CHK wot; CRL.ghot, ghoto-(ta); CRN got; PCK *kodo; KIR koro 'aground, stranded'.Cf. FIJ kasa 'go aground'.

PMC *kota 'cut break': CHK wos, wosoos 'be c. inhalf', wose-e-(y) 'c. it in half'; PUL wohe-e-(y) 'tohalve husked coconuts, wohoh (sic) (?wohooh) 'b. coconut shells intwo'; CRL wos 'to c. and gather firewood, to crack a coconut shellin half', wose-e-(y) 'c. and gather (firewood), crack (a coconutshell) into halves'; CRN ohe-(y) 'c. and gather (firewood), crack(a coconut shell) in half'; WOL gota-(a) 'crack it, knock it, splitit', goto-ote 'to crack, knock, split'; PUA kodokodo 'tob., snap (branches)', kodo-di 'b. or snap (s.t.)'; PCK *kota,kotakota, kota-ti; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]tk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t'to b. apart', kote 'to b. (s.t.)'; POC *kotas UANge[n[theta]]tas. Cf. PMC *koco, 'to cut'.

PMC *koyi 'bivalve shell, shell knife or grater': CHKkii-'s.' (in names of shellfish); PON koykoy 'be shaved (ofthe head), be scraped on a grater (of coconut)', koo-k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'grate (s.t.) on a grater'; MOK (m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])koykoy 'have a shaved head', ko 'to grind (as coconuts),shave', koo-ko 'to grind (coconuts)'; MRS (raan)key'grate coconuts, grater; cog, gear, ratchet'; KIR (te)-koikoi'bivalves, used in scraping food', koa 'to scrape (a coconut)with a shell'; KSR koe, koekoe 'scrape, grate, smooth out,plane'; PEO *koRi 'grater' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *koi'sharp'). MRS rounded [k.sup.w] expected. Cf. FIJ kai'bivalves.'; SAA ole 'to scrape with a s., get the skin offyams'. Cf. also POC *kori 'scrape' (Ross 1988:461).

PMC *ku, kuku, ku-ti, kuku-ti 'bite': CHK kkuk kukkuk'b., be wont to b.', kku-u-(w) 'b. it', ssis, sissi-'b. s.t. off or in two', ssi-i-(y) 'b. it off'; MRT kuuku'b.', ku-u-(w) 'b. it'; PUL kku-u 'to b.'kku-u-wa-(n) 'the b. suffered by', (ya)-kuuku 'cause tob.'; CRL ghu to feed together at the surface of the water (of fish) , toeat together from the same dish (op people)', ghu-u-(w) 'to b.(s.t. or s.o.)', kkuughu 'be in the habit of biting', ghuughu'b. repeatedly, be biting'; CRN kku 'to b. (s.t. ors.o.)', gukku be in the habit of biting'; STW kuuku 'tob.', ku-u-(W) 'b. (s.t.)'; WOL kukku 'to b., sting (asmosquitoes)', guuguu 'b., chew, hold, squeeze', gu-u-(w)'b. or ches it'; PUA kuku, #kutukutu 'to b., sting',ku-du 'b. it'; PCK *kku, kukku, ku-tu, kutukutu; MRS kik'b'., kki-j 'b.', ki-jiy 'b. (s.t.)'; UAN*gugut 'nibble off'. Cf. FIJ kuu, kuu-ta 'to b.'.

PCMC *kua 'porpoise': CHK kuuw, kuu, #kuuwe-(n)'p., p. of, a constellation of stars', (nii-ni)-ku 'astar' (lit. 'tooth of p.'); MRT kuu; PUL kuuw, kuwa-(n)'p., p. of, a constellation'; CRL ghuuw; CRN guu; STW kuuw'p., constellation (Cassiopeia)'; WOL guuwe, guwa- 'p., astar'; PUA kue-(siki); PCK *kua; PON (laydini)-ki 'porpoise'(laydini 'fish of'); MRS key; KIR (te)-kua 'a whale',(te-[b.sup.w]-uki-ni)-kua 'a constellation' (Bender et al. 1984).Cf. TON kui 'kind of fish'.

PMC *kuku 'fingernail toenail, claw': CHK #kku, #wuuk,kku-(n), #wukku-(n) 'f., t., c., his f.'; MRT kkuk, kku-(n); PUL#kkuu, kku-(n); CRL #kku, kku-(l), #ukk, #ukku-(l); STW #kku; WOL #kku,kku-(le); PUA #kku; PCk *#kku, kku-; PON kiik, kiki-(n p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]); MOK kiki-(n); MRS hakkiy, hakkiyi-(n pay); KIR uuki, uki-(na); KSR(t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-ku-(n paeo) 'fingernail'; POC *kuku'claw, guugugu- 'fingernail, toenail'; PKB *kuku'finger'); PAN *kutkut 'finger' (Ross 1988). MRS rounded[k.sup.w]s expected.

PMC *kuli 'skin, bark': CHK siin, sini-; MRT kiil,kili-; PUL kiil, kili-; CRL ghiil, ghili-; CRN giil, gili-; STW kili-; WOLgiili, gili-; PUA kiini, kini-; PCK *kili; PON kiil, kili-; MOK kil, kili-;MRS kil; KIR (te)-kun, kuni-; KSR kulu-(k), kolo-(l) 'my skin, his/hers.'; POC *kulit (Ross 1988) (PPN *kili; FIJ kuli; BUG guiguli; PKB*kuli); UAN *kulit. See also PCK *[m.sup.w]a-kilikili 'tickling orpleasant feeling'.

PMC *kulu 'kind of bird': PON kulu 'goldenplover'; MOK kuul 'b. sp.'; MRS [k.sup.w]el 'semipalmatesandpiper', [k.sup.w]el-(yej) 'golden plover'; KIR (te)-kun'a b.', kunikun 'abounding in such birds'; KSR kulul'kind of b., sandpiper'. Note PON form has unexpected expression offinal vowel. Cf. PPC? *koyikoyi 'piping or whistling sound, pipingbird', PCK *kyl[iu]na 'plover'.

PWMC *kulu 'grab': PUL kuul 'take freely (asleftovers)'; CRL ghul and CRN gul 'to try frantically to get asmuch as possible'; WOL gulu 'to take freely'; PCK *kulu; PONkul 'to grab, seize', kuli-i 'grab, seize (s.t.)'; MRS[k.sup.w][k.sup.w]iwil 'to grab, squeeze, choke, embrace'.

PMC *[kum.sup.w]u 'have liquid in the mouth': CHK -kum'mouthful or swallow of liquid (counting classifier)', kumu-u-(w)'hold or swish it in the m. (of liquid)', kumukum 'hold orswish a fluid in the in. m.', -[kkum.sup.w] 'portion ofpremasticated food (counting classifier)'; MRT [kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]'rinse out m.'; CRL [ghom.sup.w]u-u-(w), [ghum.sup.w]u-u-(w)'to swish (water) around in the m., to rinse it'; STW[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w] 'suck'; WOL -[gum.sup.w]u 'mouthful ofliquid (counting classifier)', [gum.sup.w]u-u-(we) 'suck it, drawit up (of liquid)', [gum.sup.w][ugum.sup.w]u 'put liquid inone's m., suck, slurp', [kkum.sup.w] 'mouthful'; PCK*[kum.sup.w]u, [kkum.sup.w]u, [kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]u; UAN *kumuR. We cannotaccount for them of CHK instead of expected [m.sup.w].

PMC *[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]u 'a thudding noise': PON[kum.sup.w][ukum.sup.w]; MRS [kkim.sup.w][kim.sup.w] 'fast beating ofthe heart'; KSR kimkim 'having a thudding sound'; POC *kumu(LAK umu 'to quake, shake'). Cf. KIR [b.sup.w]uki 'toresound', [b.sup.w][ukib.sup.w]uki 'to beat or throb (as theheart)'.

PMC *kunu 'extinguished': CHK kun, kunu-(no) 'bee., go out (of fire, stove, lamp)', kunukun 'extinguishing',kunu-(u-w) 'extinguish it'; PUL kun, kunu-(lo) 'to burn out,go out (as fire or electricity)'; CRL ghul 'to go out, be e.',ghulughul 's.t. that extinguishes a fire', ghulu-u-(w) 'to putout, extinguish (a fire)'; CRN gun, gunugun, gunu; WOL gulu 'be e.,blotted out, destroyed', gulu-gulu 'to destroy, extinguish',gulu-(u-we) 'extinguish it, destroy it'; PUA kunu 'to be e.,blotted out, destroyed', kunkunu 'to destroy, extinguish'; PCK*kunu, kunukunu; PON kun 'to be e., to be turned off (of lights andmotors)'; MRS [k.sup.w][k.sup.w]in 'extinguish, go out (of alight), put out a fire, deflate'; KSR kun 'e., blind, dead (as afire)', kuni 'to extinguish (s.t.), put out, turn off, makeblind'. Cf. KWA 'unu 'spoiled (of food)'.

PMC *[kup.sup.w]e, [kup.sup.w]e-li 'be bent, to bend(s.t.)'; PON [kup.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'be b. (of s.t. rigid)', [kup.sup.w]e-l 'to b.(s.t.)'; MOK [kip.sup.w] e-lek 'be b., twisted, break with asnap', [kip.sup.w] e-l 'to b., twist (s.t.)'; MRS [k.sup.w][eb.sup.w] 'b., curved, buckled, stooped', [k.sup.w] [k.sup.w]ibe-l 'to b. (s.t.)'; KSR kuf 'a curve, b.',k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f 'to curve', kif[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s'to curve, b., turn (s.t)'. Cf. PMC *[cp.sup.w]a, 'curve, bendinward'.

PWMC *kura, kura-ti, kura-ta 'pulled back, pull back (offoreskin or eyelid)': CHK kkur 'be p. b. (of foreskin)',kure-e-(y) 'pull it b. (of the foreskin), circumcize'; PULkure-e-(y); CRI kkur, kkuni-(16) 'be p. b. (of the foreskin), becircumcized'; 'WOL kkure, gure-e-(ye); PUA kkula 'penis';PCK *kkura, kura-[10]i-(a); PON kire-e-(di) 'peel off, pull down aneyelid, lip, or foreskin', kir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-s-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k)) 'penis (slang)'; MRS [k.sup.w] ira-j 'pull b. theforeskin'. Cf. MRS werey 'pull b. the foreskin'.

PMC ? *kurakura 'to tickle': MRS kirkir 'tot.', kirkirey 't. (s.o.)'; KSR (wa)-korkor. Cf. CHK[msup.w]e-kinikin 'tickling'; Fu kiri, kiri-ca 't. under thearmpits'.

PMC *kurer[ae] 'to belch': PUL kurer, kurere-(y) 'ab., to b., b. of'; WOL gurere 'to burp, b.'; PCK *kurer[ae];PON kir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r 'to burp, b.'; KSR kirar 'tob.'.

PMC *kutu 'louse': CHK kuu, kuu-(n), #kuuwe-(n) 'l.or flea, l. of'; MRT kuu; PUL kuuw, #kuwa-(n); CRL ghuuw, CRN guu; STWkuuw; WOL guusu, gusu- 'l., vermin'; ULI gus (sic) (Bender et al.1984); PUA kuudu, kudu-; PCK *kutu; MRS kij 'l., bacterium, bug,flea'; KIr (te)-uti; KSR kuf; POC *kutu (PPN *kutu; FIJ kutu; BUG gutu;PKB *qutu); PAN *kuCu [Ross 1988]).

PCMC *kuu 'any of several kinds of fish': CHKkuu-(nu-few) 'sp. of small bass f.'; CRN gu-(nu-fey) 'sp. ofgrouper'; PCK *kuu; KIR (te)-kuu, (te)-kuu-(beibeti) 'any ofseveral species of squirrel f. (Holocentrus)'.

PMC *kuyita 'octopus': CHK kuus, kuusa-; PUL kuuh; CRLghuus; CRN guuh; STW kuus; WOL guuse, guusa-; PUA kiita; SNS kiita; PCK*kuyita; PON kiis; MOK kiij; PNG kus; MRS [k.sup.w] eyet; KIR (te)-kiika; KSRkoet; PEO *kuRita (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ kuita); PMP *kuRita (Blust 1984-85).Note PMC *t > KIR k {kV(V)_}. Note MRS t for expected j.

PWMC *laka 'star(s) in Pegasus': CHK naa 'a s. inP., a sidereal month'; PUL la (sic) 's. in P., a siderealmonth'; STW laa, naa; WOL laage; PUA nnaka 'a sidereal monthequated with July'; PCK *laka; MRS lak 'a constellation comprisingbeta, mu, and lambda P.'. Cf. KIR nakara 'the star Regulus'(Bender et al. 1984). Cf. also PCK *lake 'bracelet'.

PMc* lakalaka 'appearance': CHK na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-, naka-, na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ana[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'a., shape', nana-(ttam), naka-(ttam) 'length, height, long,tall'; PUL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ta 'stand, rise above, behigher, rise up (of airplane)'; WOL nnage 'turn out, appear, cometo view'; PCK *la[k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])la; MRS laklak 'swagger,strut'; PEO *laka 'step' (Geraghty 1983) (TON lalaka 'towalk, step along', laka-si 'to pass, go beyond', lakalaka'to walk quickly, hurry on ahead'; SAM la'a 'to step,march', la'asi-a 'to step over, go beyond'; SAA la'a'up'; KWA la'a 'go up, climb'). Cf. PMC *lako, laa'go, proceed, (as directional) away', PCK *nna 'appear'.

PMC *lako, laa 'go, proceed, (as directional) away': CHKno, -noo, -na-, naa -naa-, -naa-'go, proceed away from place ofreference', (a)-naa-(no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'spear-throwingstick' (lit. 'cause going in'), (che)-naa-(n) 'hiscompanion, buddy', (ke)-naa mey 'you come from where?'; MRT la'go'; PUL lo, la; WOL lago, -lago, la (sic); PUA nako -nako, na(sic); PCK *lako, *laa; PON -la 'away from me and you'; MOK inla'go away', -la 'away from you and me'; MRS [lak.sup.w]'directional postposition, toward a third party, neither speaker norhearer; (pey)-[lak.sup.w] 'drift away'; KIR nako; KSRl[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'onward', lae 'away from aplace'; PEO *lako (FIJ lako,. SAA la'o 'approach, steer or gotoward'; LAU lalado 'to run'; PWM *laxo 'to walk').Cf. UAN *laku.

PMc *lalo, 'deep': CHK (i)-non 'underwater',nonnoon,(o)-non, (o)-,nonnoon 'bed. (underwater), far down',(o)-nona,(o)-nonnoona 'deepen it'; MRT(i)-lol'underwater'; PUL lellol 'be d. (as the sea), a'; CRL lolloll 'be d., very d.'; STW (i)-lol'underwater'; WOL lalo 'd.', (i)-labo 'ocean bottom,underwater'; PCK *lalo; PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l; MOK lol; MRS lal'below, bottom; down, downward', ([[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]i])lal 'deep, profound'; KIR nano; KSR lol. MRSinitial l expected. Cf. UAN *Dalem 'depth, inside'. See also PMC*[lalo.sub.2] 'inside'.

PMC *lalo. 'inside': CHK nno-(n), #noo-(n) 'i. ofit'; MRT llo-(n); PUL ;llo-(n); 'i. of it'; CRL llo-(l)'i, of it'; CRN nno-(n) 'i. of it'; STW nno-(n); WOLlalo; PUA nano- 'in, i.'; PCK *lalo; PON lol[epsilon] 'i. ofhim/her/it'; KIR (i)-nano-(na) 'in it, i. of it; PEO *lalo (SAA[I]-lalo 'i.'). Cf. PAN *lem (Blust 1970:132). Note also MRS(i)-lew (i)-lewah 'in, i.'; KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'i.', lu-(n) 'i. of'; LAU lao 'in'; LAK ilo'i., interior, underside'. See also PMC *[lalo.sub.1]'deep'.

PMc *laloua 'disgusted': CHK nnoow 'be d. orrepelled by', nnoowe-esi-ni, nnoowa-asi-ni 'be d. or repelled by(s.t.)', (o)-nnoow 'be disgusting, repellent, repugnant, adisgusting thing', nnoowu-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un) 'athlete'sfoot'; PUL Ilow (sic) 'be revolted, disgusted', (yo)-llow'feces (polite), to defecate'; CRL Iloow 'be revolted,d.', (a)-Iloow 'feces, excrement, to defecate'; WOL nnou (sic)'feel like vomiting'; PCK *Iloow[ao]; PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]loo 'heartsick (of a man who has lost his wife)'; KIR nanoua'homesick'; KSR lalo 'depressed, downhearted, heavyhearted', lalo-i 'do not like the thought of, shudder at thethought of (s.t.)'. Cf. MRS Ilahwew 'be seasick, d.';MOKloleid 'be lonely, homesick'.

PMc *lama, 'thought, be in mind': CHK nam, nem 'bein m., be on one's m.', name-ni 'think about (s.t.), have(s.t.) on one's m,', neme-(feefin) 'have women on one'sm.', neme-(seni) 'be forgotten', namanam 'religion,doctrine, philosophy, ideology'; PUL lamalam 'religion, t.';CRL lamakun 'beliefs, morals, ethics, religion'; PCK *Iama,lamalama; PON lamalam 't., idea, opinion, common sense, religiousbelief'; MOK lamlarn. lemlem 't., to think', leme 'think(s.t.)', lemee-(da) 'remember (s.t.); KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ma 'think it, picture (s.t.) in one's in.'. Cf. YAPlearn 't., feeling'. Cf. also PCK *nama 'in control,responsible', PMc *lama 'shape, appearance'.

PMc *[lama.sub.2] 'lagoon, lake': MOK ham'lagoon'; MRS km 'bay'; KIR (te)-nama 'lagoon,lake'; PEO *lama (SAA lama 'lake'; ARO rama 'waterbetween reef and shore'). Cf. PuA nama-nama 'hole, cave'. Cf.also PMc *[nam.sup.w]o 'lagoon, harbor'.

PMc *lama 'shape, appearance': CHK namanam'character, quality, morals, behavior, deportment'; PUL lamalam'character, condition'; CRL lamalam 'good deeds'; PuAnama-(takunu) 'to be round' (lit. 'egg shaped'),nama-takunni) 'circle'; PCK *lama-; MRS lam, lema-'shape'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]na-(n) 'shape of',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]mae-(l) 'his appearance, behavior'. Cf. PCK*nama 'in control, responsible', PMc *[lama.sub.i], 'thought,be in mind'.

PMC *lani 'sky, heaven, storm': CHK naan, neni-'spirit place, h. or sky (in construction)' naa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], ne[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'h., sky' (loan from otherdialect)'; MRT laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'sky, h.'; PUL laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'sky, rain'; CRL laa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'h.'; CRN laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'h., have badweather'; CRL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ila[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] andCRN le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'have badweather'; STW laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sky, h.'; WOLlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'sky, typhoon,rainstorm, wind'; PuA naa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i'sky, h.'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PONlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sky, h.', la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) 'bad weather'; MOK l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'sky', la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n) 'omen of, sudden rainshower taken to be a presage of'; PNG l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'sky, h.'; MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sky, weather, h.,#la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'storm, typhoon', ##la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n), lane-(n) yirewej 'rain storm that is the sign of a chiefcoming (archaic)'; KIR (te)-na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'cloud',na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ina[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be cloudy';KSR la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sky, h.'; POC *lanit (PPN*la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; FIJ lagi; SAA la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'raised up', (i)-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'sky., h.';LAU la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; KWA la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'high,great, up'; PNK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i); UAN *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]it. See also Marck (1994:308) PMc *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i. In someIgs. (e.g., CRL, PON, and MRS), 'bad weather' meanings are to befound primarily in derived form s. Note that MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(n) has contrastive heavy I where light I would be expected, with iin next syllable, whereas heavy I is to be expected in the la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-(n) of a popular saying. Why the second vowel of this latter form islowered in not understood, but it provides an explanation for the heavy flyin the MRS 'bad weather' forms.


PMc *la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][o.sub.2] 'prop': CHKno[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-no[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'be propped up', no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-ni 'p. itup'; MRT loo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'canoe roller'; PULloo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(n) 'p., p.of' lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(e-y) 'elevate it, p. it up';CRL loo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(l) 'p.,brace, support, platform'; WOL laa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, harp-'canoe roller, fulcrum', harp 'be raised with supporters, berolled'; PUA naa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-'cross beam tinder floor of house'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o; PON lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be placed across anotherthing', lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'place (s.t.) across anotherthing'; MoK la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'support beam runningparallel to the ground, prop', la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to raise with a p.', 'raise(s.t.) with a p.', (deu) -la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'canoerollers'; PNG (dau)-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'canoe rollers';MRS [la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w], [l.sup.w] [un.sup.w] 'roller forlaunching a canoe'; KIR (te)-na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-(a) 's.t.put tinder as a protection or rest, a base', na[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-(a) 'to place a rest or protection under (s.t.)'; PEO*la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o (Fu hago, lago-na 'place rollers under acanoe'; TON la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'p. up or support by placings.t. underneath').

PMc *lanua 'skipjack, Carangid fish': PULla[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a kind off. (perhaps a crevally) caught bytrolling'; CRL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'third of five growthstages of the skipjack'; WOL la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uwe 'a kindof f.'; ULI la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uy 'kind of f.'; SNSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uya 'a kind of f.'; PCK *la[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ua; MRS la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ey 'skipjack (C. lessonu)';KSR lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'kind of f.'. Loss of second vowel inPUL and KSR forms is a problem. MRS rounded [[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]expected.

PMC *lapa 'big, main': CHK nap, nnap, napanap 'b.,large, great, principal, m.', napa-(n) 'his older brother, herolder sister'; MRT lap; PUL lap; CRL and CRN lap; llape-; STW lap; WOLlape, nnap, lapelap; PUA napa; PCK *lapa, lalapa, lapalapa; PON lap, lapalap;MOK lap; MRS lap, laplap, llap 'b., great, large, plenty', (ha)-lap'lineage head, maternal uncle, old man'; KIR naba 'also, too,in addition', (ni)-naba 'spine, backbone' (lit. 'm.bone'); KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laep 'b., large, huge',laep 'elder brother or sister, high tide'; PEO *laba, lafa (SAA'b.' [a]-laha 'a chief'; BUG thaba); UAN *laba. See alsoPCK *luku-lapa 'ocean side (of an island or reef)' (lit.'great outside').

PMC ? *lape 'red clay': PUL lap, lapi-(n) (sic)'red dye made from earth (used on canoes), r. d. of'; STW laap,lape-(l), lape-(y) 'red clay (used for caulking), r.c. of, apply'; WOL laape, lepa-(li) 'red clay (used as a pigment), r.c.of' (said to be a loan from ULI); PCK *lape, lape-yi; KSR lap 'akind of clay', lapi 'to paint (s.t.) with r.c.'. See alsoMarck (1994:316) PMC *lape.

PCMC *[lap.sup.w][ou]so 'moray eel': CHK [nop.sup.w]ut,[nnop.sup.w]ut, [nop.sup.w]ute-(n) 'eel, e. of'; MRT [lop.sup.w]ot'moray eel'; WOL labuto 'eel, snake, worm'; PUA[nap.sup.w]uto 'moray eel, sea snake'; SNS [rab.sup.w]uto'moray eel'; PCK *[lap.sup.w]udo; PON la[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d, [lap.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n)'saltwater eel'; MOK [lap.sup.w]ed 'kind of eel'; KIR(te)-[rab.sup.w]ono (with metathesis of r and n) 'eel'. Cf. FIJlabo, (vaka)-labo-ca 'jump out and attack suddently'.

PMC ? *laSa 'coconut shell, skull': PON daal'coconut cup, dish, plate'; MOK dal 'c. s.' (metathesisis Pohnpeic); MRS lat 'skull, c.s.'; KSR (ae)-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'bowl, skull, husk, shell'. Cf. YAP leq 'c.s.,cup', loq 'skull, coconut shell'.

PMC *lau 'pool, have liquid': CHK ne 'be liquified,melted', nee 'p., pond, flooded place', neene 'l.contents, have I. contents, be flooded': MRT leele 'flooded area,be flooded'; PUL leele 'be full of l.'; CRL leele'puddle, lake, pond'; STW lee 'p., pond'; WOL lee'dugout well on seaside of an island (used for bathing)', leelee'be filled with water or l.'; PCK *lee or lau; PON lee 'p.,lake'; MOK le 'bog, small taro patch'; MRS [l.sup.w]ey'small p. on reef at low tide or in interior of island'; KIR(te)-nei, (te)-neinei 'a fresh water p. or pond', neinei 'bel., fluid'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'pond, shallow lagoon, having little water'; POC *laur'sea' (Ross 1988) (FIJ lau 'waterhole in a reef'; BUG lau'beach, scashore, seaward, south'; PNK *-lau 'seaward');UAN *laud 'open sea'. See also PMC *tokolau 'northerly, fromthe north'. See Marck (1994:313) PMC *lau.

PMC *l[au]tuu 'tomorrow': CHK newu; PUL layu; CRL laayu,laay; WOL lauu; PCK *lauu; MRS (yi)-ljiw; KSR lutu. Cf. PMC *nanoa'yesterday'. See also Marck (1994:312) PMC *l[au]tua.

PMC ? *l[ao]u 'cool': PON low 'c., cooledoff'; Mok ([m.sup.w]o)-low 'cold (of things)'; MRS([m.sup.w]e)-lew; PEO *lau (KWA lau-fi-lal 'make or keep [s.t.]cool'). Cf. BUG ma-thaho 'to feel cold'. The MOK form could bea loan from MRS.

PMC *lawa 'hibiscus': PON (k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w, ko-low 'H. tiliaceus'(k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w-(n and) 'H. sp.(Kleinhovia hospita)' (lit. 'h. of Ant[an atoll]'); MOK(ke)-lew 'sea h.'; PNG (ka)-law 'sea h.'; MRS law'H. tiliaceus'; KSR lo 'young H. tiliaceus'; PEO *lawa(FIJ lawa 'fishing net made from h. fiber'; SAA lawa 'spiderweb'; ARO rawa 'a small net, spider web, spider'; KWAlakwalakwa 'spider web, string of two or three lengths of shellmoney', [le'enial] 'to spread [a net] out in the sun');UAN *lawa 'spider web'. Cf. KIR (te)-karai 'thread'.

PCMC *laxa 'kind of coral': PON raar 'fingerc.' (with assimilation of initial *l to following r); MOK lar'branching c.'; MRS lay 'gravel', la-(jjidik) 'a c.(brown or white, several branches, smooth)'; KIR (te)-naa 'looserocks or stones on a flat'. Cf. FIJ laqere 'gravel below surfacesoil'.

PMC ? *laya 'a sail': see PMC *lea.

PMC ? *laZe 'kind of coral': KSR laes 'a k. ofc.', laeslaes 'covered with c.'; PEO *laje 'c.'(Geraghty 1983) (PSS *lade, ROT laje, FIJ lase, PPN *lase). Cf. PCMC *ale'kind of coral', PCMC *laxa 'kind of coral'. See alsoMarck (1994:313) PMC *laje.

PMC *le, lee 'polite term of address': CHK ne, nee'sir, madam'; MRS ley 'ma'am', #ley 'sir';PEO *le, lee (FIJ le, lee 'polite term in kava ceremony').

PMC ? *lea or *laya 'a sail': MRS (wej)-lay, (wij)-lay'a s.'; PEO *laya 's.' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ loca; PPNLaa; ROT lae); UAN *layaR (YAP laay 'a sail'; CHM lay'ak,layak 'a sail'; PAL ears 'a sail'). Cf. KSR nes 'asail'. Note that KIR (te)-raa 'one width of a mat sail' is anapparent loan from SAM laa. See also PMC *[sS]aku-laara 'swordfish,marlin'.

PWMC? *lee-, law- 'at, in' (with a noun base): CHK ne-,nee- 'at', nee-(set) 'sea, at sea', nee-(mataw) 'onthe open sea', nee-([nom.sup.w]) 'in the lagoon',nee-([p.sup.w]in) 'at night', nee-(fasan) 'torso',nee-(wun) 'chest (of body)'; PUL le-, lo- 'at', le-(het)'sea, in the sea', lee-([p.sup.2][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n)'atnight', lo-([p.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] ewe) 'lastnight', lee-(hapan) 'cheek'; CRL lee- 'at',lee-(set) 'at the ocean or sea', lee-([b.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]) 'night-time', lee-([b.sup.w]el) 'taro patch';CRN le- 'at' le-(het) 'at the ocean or sea'; WOL le-(withdoubling of following consonant) 'at', le-(tteti) 'sea, in thesea'; le([nnam.sup.w]o 'in the lagoon'; PUA na-(ni) 'in,at', na-(ni [im.sup.w]a) 'at home'; PCK ? *le-, lee-; MRSlaw-, lew- 'at; prefix in place names and body parts" law-(jet)'ocean, sea', law-(metew) 'ocean, sea'; law-(je),law-(jiye-) 'stomach'. See also PMC *ni[ae] 'place'. KSRin- has much the same distribution: place names, topographic features, bodyparts (but also forms personal names, as does ni-).

PCMC *lele 'perfect': PON l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l,l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l-(tii) 'p.' just right (slang)';(kas[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'precious,beautiful, p.' fine'; MOK lel 'beautiful (of people), fit (ofclothes)'; MRS (pew)-lel 'complete, satisfy, p.'; KIR nene'firm, immovable, fixed, steady (of wind)'. KIR rerei 'good,excellent' is a loan from SAM lelei 'be good'. Cf. BUGthethe-(ngura) 'to bear plentifully'.

PWMC *leleki 'a fish': CHK nnis 'a reef fish';PUL llek, lleki-n 'young stage of a reef fish'; CRL llegh 'anedible fish with poisonous spines'; WOL nnegi 'a fish'; PCK*lleki; MOK lik 'fish sp., kind of spinefoot'; MRS yellek'rabbit fish'. Cf KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'a fish'; PON ilek 'fish sp.' (loan from MRS?);MRS [m.sup.w]a-[lek.sup.w][lek.sup.w] 'a stingray'.

PCMC *lelesa 'true, real': CHK nnet, nnete-n, nneti-n'be t., truth of', e-nnet 'be honest, truthful', a-nneta'determine the truth of it'; PUL llet 'right, correct, t,ya-lleta 'assert it as t'; CRL and CRN (e)-llet 'be correct,t, honest'; WOL nneta 'bet, sure, r.'; PCK *lled[ae]; Kmnenera 'inquire carefully (about s.t.), search out (st.)'. Cf. PCK*nne or *lle- 'look'.

PCMC *l[eo]nu 'ant': CHK nuu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'ant', nnu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'infested with ants';PUL lee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], leni-(n) 'ant, ant of'; CRL WOLleenu, lenu-; PCK *le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; MRS [l.sup.w][en.sup.w]'ant'. Cf. KIR kio[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'ant'. Cf.also PEO *loRo 'ant' (Geraghty 1983, 1990) (Eu lolo 'smallant'; TON loo 'ant'; SAA lolo 'red ants'; BUG thotho'red ant'; KWA lolo 'ant'; LAK lolo 'large redant', but PKB *noLo). Cf. PMC ? *linolino 'cricket'.

PMC *lewe 'tongue': CHK newenew, newenewa-(n)'pronunciation, accent, his pronunciation'; MRT lewa-(n) 'hist', lewalew 'accent'; STW lewe-(l) 'his t'; WOLleewe, lewe-([m.sup.w]u) 't, your t,', lewelewe 'lick,eat', l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-gi-(i) 'lickor eat it'; PUA neewe, newe-; PCK *lewe; PON laaw, loo 't',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his t.'; MOK law,l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 't., his t, t. of'; MRS lew,lewe-; KIR (te)-newe 't', newe-a 'to lick (s.t.) with thet.'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l)'t., his t'. Cf. BUG thapi 't'.

PCMC *li- 'agentive prefix indicating "one who (does, isgiven to doing") (like English suffix -er)': CHK ni- PUL li-; WOLli-; PUA ni-; PCK *li-; PON li-; MOK li-; KIR ni-.

PWMC *lia- 'female person': CHK niye-, niya- (withdemonstrative suffixes) 'female person, woman', niye-(ra)'girl'; MRT liya-; Put liye-; CRL liye-. liya-; PCK ? *liya-; PONlii, li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-'woman'; MOK li 'woman';MRS liye- (with dem. suf.) 'female, woman'. Cf. KIR nei- (with dem.suf.) 'female, woman'.

PMC ? *lici 'feel a loss': CHK nich, nuch 'bedisappointed'; PUL liiR (sic), liRi- 'grieve (as overa death),regret(as stolen objects)'; CRL lish, lush 'miss orlong for s.o. ors.t.'; WOL lishi 'to miss s.o. or s.t. very much'; PCK *lici;POC *lidi (PKB *lidi 'throb, hurt, be painful').

PMC *liki, likiliki, liki-Si 'to strain, sift': MOKliki-d, liki-dek 'to strain (s.t)'; PNG liki-d, liki-dek 'tomake flour out of wheat, develop film'; MRS liklik 'to sift,strain, filter, digest', liklikiy 'to sift, etc. (s.t)'; KSRlilik 'to sift, screen, sieve, separate', likliki 'to sift,etc. (s.t.)'. This could be the same root as PMC *liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si'discarded, discard'.

PMC*liki, liki-Sa, liki-Si 'discarded, discard': CHK nik'be d., rejected, disliked', niki-t, niki-ta-(n) 'left-over,its 1.', niki-ti 'leave it behind, discard it'; MRTliki-t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'leave it alone'; PUL Iiki-ti-(y)'leave it'; CRL lighi-ti and CRN ligi-ti 'leave (s.t.) behind,stop using (s.t.), leave (s.t.) for s.o. else'; STW liki-ti-(y)'leave it behind'; WOL ligiligi 'to put things down, setaside, leave', ligi-ti-(i) 'leave it, let it be'; PUA nikiniki'to leave, throw, save (money), keep back', niki-ti 'leavehim, throw him'; PCK *liki, liki-di, liki-da; PONliki-d-(M[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]la) 'toabandon, forget', liki-(di) 'to spit (honorific)'; MOK lik,liki-d 'to lay eggs'; MRS lik 'to set (of hens), layeggs', llik, liki-t 'leave, put, deposit'; KIR(te)-niki-ra-(n-roro) 'unmarried woman' (lit. 'left-over of ageneration'), (te)-niki-ra 'food for guests' (i.e., food thatis given away); KSR liki 'to leave, put down'. Se also PMc *liki,likiliki, liki-Si 'to strain, sift'.

PCMC liko 'haul, pull, tow, troll': CHK nuk, nukunuk'h. on a line, tr. For small fish', nuke-yi, nuki-i-(y) ', p. it, t. it, bring it, take him along', nuke-e-(y) 'carryit', nuko-(mar) 'p. on a line and back up at the same time',nuku-(mey) 'h. a breadfruit log from where it was felled to where itwill be worked'; PUL liik (sic), liko- 'to tr.',liko-wii-y(sic) 't. it'; CRL lugh 'to tr. for fish',lughe-e-(y), lughe-e-(y) 'to t. (s.t.)'; CRN lug 'to tr. forfish'; WOL lugo 'to p., tug, draw, drag, trail', lugo-si-(i)'p. it up, tug on it'; PCK *liko, liko-ti; PON luk 'to beinvited, to be towed, to tr. for fish', luk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to invite, to t.'; MOK luk, luke 'to invite';KIR(te)-niko 'trigger of a gun'. Cf. MOK aikiek 'to t.',aiki 't. (s.t.)'; MRS hayik 't., pull'; LAK luku-a'pull up a plant'.

PMC *liku 'outside': CHK nuku-(n) 'its exterior,o., o. surface, outer edge, immediate environs, surface of skin',(i)-nuk 'outer or ocean side'; MRT luku-(n); 'o. of'; PULluku-(n) 'its o.', lukuluku-(n) 'cover of'; CRLlughu-(l), lughu-(l) 'o. of'; CRN lugh-(n) 'o. of'; STWluku-(n) 'o. it'; WOL lugu-(le) 'its o. or backside',lugulugu cover the head and body with a sheet or cloth'; PUA nuku-(na);PCK *luku-; PON liki 'o. of s.t.'; MOK lik, liki-(n) 'o., o.of'; PNG (i)-lik 'shore facing open sea'; MRS lik'behind, in back of, o. of ocean side of', likiy 'ocean sideof'; KIR (mai)-niku 'east' (i.e., ocean side); KSR lik,liki-(n) 'o., near the beach, o. of'; EOC *liku (TON liku'cliff-bound coast, at the back of an island'); UAN *likud'back, rear, and *li(n)kup 'surround, enclose'. See also PCMC*fa-liku, fa-liku-ri- 'turn away, ignore the presence of others',PCK *luku-lapa 'ocean side (of an island or reef)' (lit.'great outside').

PWMC *liku 'be ready, prepared': CHK nuk 'be r.,p.', nukunuke-(ech) 'be well p.', nukunuku-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aw) 'be ill p.'; WOI. Lughlugu 'expect, anticipate,look to', lugu-u-(we) 'expect it, depend upon it',lugulugu-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]awe) 'to neglect, beuncooperative'; PUA nukunuku 'make certain'; PCK *luku,lukuluku, luku-u-; MRS leke-(k) 'be p. for the task at hand',like-(k)' preparedness'. Cf. PMC *l[iu]ku 'trust, believe, beconfident'.

PMC *l[iu]ku- 'somewhat, slightly': CHK nuku- 'alittle, a bit', nuku-(chechchen) 'be moist, damp' (lit.'a bit wet'); PUL luku-(cecaan), luku-(Recaan) (sic) 'be wet,humid, damp'; WOL lugu-'slightly, superficially', lugu-(ffeeu)'be a bit chilly, cool'; PCK *luku-; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'almost, nearly'.

PMC *l[iu]ku 'trust, believe, be confident': CHK nuuk'faith, belief', nukunuk 'be convinced', nuku-w-(w)'b., have faith in'; PUL lukuluk 'have faith, be c., faith,confidence', luku-u-(w) 'b., have faith in': CRL lughulugh'to b., think;, lughu-u-(w) 'to b. or t. (s.o.)'; CRN lughlug'to b., think, lugu 'to b. or t. (s.o.)'; STW lukuluk'have faith', luku-u-(w) 'b. it'; WOL lugulugu 'bec., feel secure', lugu-u-(we) 'expect it, depend on it'; PUAnukunuku 'be secure'; PCK *lukuluku, luku-u-(a); PON liki-lik'trustworthy', liki-I 'to t.'; MRS llik 'consider,construe'; KSR l[conjunction]k[conjunction]-(k) 'easy to convince,credulous, gullible'. Cf. PCK *neku, nekuneku, PWMC *liku 'beready, prepared'.

PMC *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-nawulu 'five, five(general), five (animate), fifty': CHK num, nime-. nima- 'thenumber f.', nimu-uw 'f. general', nim-men 'f.animate', nime, nime-e-'fifty'; MRT lima-, lime-; PUL liim,lime-, limo-ow, lim-man, lime; CRL liim, lima-, limo-uw, lim-mal, lime-igh;CRN lum, lima-, lomo-ow, lime-ig; STW lima-; WOL lume, lima-, limo-uwe,lime-iege; PUA nima-, nima-ow, nima-iki; PCK *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu,lima-ike; PON lima-, lima-w, lime-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n,lim[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-ysek, lime-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]owl'fifty'; MOK (a)-lim, limo-w, lime-men, lime-yjek; MRS (la)-lem,lima- 'f.', lem-newil 'fifty'; KIR nima-, nima-ua, nu-man'f.', nima-[b.sup.w]ii, nima-naun 'fifty'; KSRl[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m, time-, l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m- 'f.',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aul 'fifty'; POC*lima (ROSS 1988) (PPN lima 'f., hand'; FIJ lima 'f.',lima-sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]avulu 'fifty'; SAA lime and ULA lima'f.'; BUG lima 'f., hand'; LAU lima 'f.'; KWAnima 'f.' PKB *lima 'f.', savulu-lima 'fifty',[la]-lima-[gu] 'my hand'); UAN *lima 'hand'. See PMC *-ua'general classifier in counting (suffixed to numerals)'.

PMC [In]ima 'bailer': CHK nuum, nume-(n) 'b., b.of', num, numo-num 'be bailed, bail', nume-e-(y) 'bailit'; MRT muum; PUL num 'b.' nime-(y) 'to bail ( acanoe)'; STW lum; ULI lum; PUA nuuma, numa-; PCK *nima; PON lum'b.', lima-(k) 'to bail (a canoe)', limalim 'tobail, do bailing'; MOK lim 'b., to bail', lime 'bail (acanoe)'; MRS lem; KIR (te-a)-nima 'b.', (a)-nima 'to bailout (a canoe)'; KSR (a)-nam 'b.', (i) 'to dip out, scoopout, bail' (loans from KIR?); PEO *[ln]ima (FIJ nima, nima-ta 'tobail', [i]-nima 'b'); UAN *limas, YAP niim 'b'. isan apparent loan from a Chuukie source.

PMC *[lim.sup.w]u, [lum.sup.w]u 'seaweed, moss, algae,scum': CHK [nuum.sup.w], [num.sup.w]u-; MRT [luum.sup.w]; PUL[luum.sup.w], [lum.sup.w]u-; CRL [luum.sup.w], [lum.sup.w]u-; STW[luum.sup.w]; WOL [luum.sup.w]u, [lum.sup.w]u-; PUA [nuum.sup.w]u,[num.sup.w]u-; PCK *[lum.sup.w]u; PON [liim.sup.w]; [lim.sup.w][i-lim.sup.w];MRS [lim.sup.w][lim.sup.w] 'm.' [lim.sup.w] 'murky water; finesand in sea; roiled, turbid (1); KIR [niw.sup.w]-(rona) 'covered withsea m.', [nim.sup.w][nim.sup.w] 'sticky'; KSR lum 'greena'. and lumlum 'mossy'; POC *limut, lumut (PPN *limu; FIJ lumi[<*limu]; SAA lumu; LAK lumu); UAN *limut, lumut.

PMC *l[iu]nuru 'shade': CHK nnur 's.',nnuru-(n) 'her shadow', (e)-nnuru 'give s. to',([m.sup.w]e)-munnur 'disguised, in code (of talk)'; MRT nur (sic)'s.'; PUL neer, neru-(n)(sic) 'shadow, s.'; CRL llur andCRN nnur 'shaded, shady'; WOL nnuru 's., be shaded',nunnuru 'become shady', (ga)-nnuru 'hat'; PUA nubi (sic)'s., shelter, shadow', (ka)-nulu 'make as.'; PCK *nnuru,nuru; PON rir 'difficult to locate or understand, hidden, conccaled,vague', riri-i 'to hide behid or conceal (s.t.)'; MOK rir's., shaded', (ka)-rir 'to shade'; MRS [Iler.sup.w],(ha)[Iler.sup.w], (haye)[ler.sup.w] 's., shadow'; KIR muu 'beshady', (te)-nuu's.', (ka)-nua (sic) 'to overshadow or s.(s.t.)'; KSR lul's., shadow', luli 'to overshadow',lullul 'shadowy (1). Cf. POc *nunu (Blust 1978:6) (SAA munu'shadow, reflection, likeness, soul'; ARO nunu 'image, shape,reflection'; KWA nunu-fi-[a] 'to s. [s.t.]'; PNK *nunu'shadow, relfection'); UAN *ali[nn]u. Cf. also PEO *(ma)-luR'shady' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *[ma]-lu 'to s.'). The *nn in PCK, ll in MRS, l in KSR, and r in PON and MOK suggest that UAN *l, *n, and*r followed different patterns of assimilation in the several Micronesianlanguages. Cf. Marck (1994:325) PMC *luru.

PWMC *li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari'tiny louse': CHK ni-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'tiny speciesof l., baby 1.' (lit. 'nibbler, constant eater'); PULli-(kuu)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'a small l.' (lit. 'back ofhead nibbler'); WOL li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri 'baby l. (secondstage of development)'; PCK *li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari; MRSli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'nit'. Cf. KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'unable to restrain one's desire,eating without waiting for others'; KSR si-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar'small louse'. Cf. PWMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ani to,toward'.

PMC ? *li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'cricket': KIR (te)-ni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oni[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 'insect that chips at night' (Bender et al. 1984); PEO*li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o (FIJ ligoligo'night insect'; TON li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oli[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o 'cricket'). The n in the KIR form indicates it is not aloan from a Polynesian source. Cf. PCMC *l[eo][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u'ant'.

PMC *[lip.sup.w]a 'ditch, hole (in ground)'; CHK[niip.sup.w], [nip.sup.w]a-(n) 'soaking pit, his s. p.',[nip.sup.w][e-nip.sup.w] 'use a s. p.', [nip.sup.w]e-ni'acquire it as a s. p.'; MRT [liip.sup.w], [lip.sup.w] a-(n)'grave, hole, his g.', [lip.sup.w]a-(l) 'h. dug by man oranimal'; STW [liip.sup.w] 'pool where conconut fibers aresoaked'; WOL liibe, libe 'h., opening, hollow place, burrow',libelibe 'bury, be buried, have a funeral; libe-li-(i) 'buryit'; PUA [niip.sup.w]a, [nip.sup.w]a- 'grave, hole',[mip.sup.w]a 'to bury (s.o.)'; PCK *[lip.sup.w]a; PON [liip.sup.w]'large h. in the ground'; MOK [lip.sup.w] 'h., crater,scar'; PNG [lip.sup.w] 'h.'; MRS [leb.sup.w], [lib.sup.w]i-,[lib.sup.w]e- 'grave, tomb'; KIR (te)-[nib.sup.w]a 'post h.,small pit or bed for Crytosperma'; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f'h.' I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fl[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f'having holes', I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fi 'make ditchesin'; POC *[lib.sup.w]a (SAA liwe 'cave'; ULA liwa'cave'; LAU liqa 'cave, h.'; ARO riwa 'h. [of rat],cave'; KWA likwa 'h. in tree'; LAK liba 'grave');UAN *luban 'h., pit'. S ee also Marck (1994:324) PMC *lip'a.

PMC *lon[ao] 'inward, inland, ashore':CHK-no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'inward, southward',(too)-no[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'enter'; PUL-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'inside' into, inland, ashore'; CRL -lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'inward, eastward, inside; STW-Io[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'inland, into'; WOL Io[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'into, to theinland, inward'; PUA-na[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'into,inside'; PCK *lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]go 'inwards, inland,ashore'; Pon-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'inwards, into'; MRS(te) [l.sup.w][e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w], (te)[le[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w], (je)[le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'go to theinterior of an islet; penetrate'; ROT lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'toward the interior (of an islet; penetrate'; ROTlo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'toward the interior (of an island); FIJ(ya)lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'inside'; BUG (i)-lo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'landwards'. Cf. MRS [len.sup.w] 'neither high norlow, in between (archaic)'.

PMC *Ioo, Ioo-Si 'to see, behold': MRS llew 's.,detect, find', lew(ey) 'see s.t.'; KIR noo 'to look on,witness', noo-ra 'to s. (s.t.)', noo-ri-(a) 's. it';KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'mindful, attentive, watchful',l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to heed, watch for, pay attention to';PEO *loo, loo-si (SAA loo-si 'to s.'; ARO roo, roo-hi 'to lookfor'. MRS heavy I expected. Cf. FIJ ilo, ilo-va 'to look at (as areflection)'; SAA lio 'to look, s.'; BUG lio-hi 'to lookat'; LAU lio 'to look or seem , apperance'; ARO rio, rio-si'look, look at', iro, iro-hi 'to look, look into or for';KWA lio lio-si-(a) look, see, look, see, look for', ilo 'lookat', lio-(nunu)'a reflecting pool, mirror'; LAK liho, hilo'to s., look at'; PEO *qilo, qilo-fi, liqo, liqo-[sz]i; UAN *qilaw'reflection'. Cf. also PCk *nne-or *lle-'look'.

PMC? *loo[w[theta]]a, lo[w[theta]]a- 'seat in a caoe':PON loo; MOK lo; KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf. CHK noo-([p.sup.w]u)'socket for mast or yard on a sailing canoe ([p.sup.w]u 'placeone's foot' or [p.sup.w]uu 'navel').

PMC *lo[sS]o- 'masthcad': CHK toon, tone-(n)'masthead, high point, pinnacle' (showing metathesis): PUL tool,tolo-(n) 'top section of mast on sailing canoe' (showingmetathesis); MOK lod 'top of canoc's mast'; MRS [l.sup.w]et'top of canoe's mast' (cf. [tel].sup.w] 'hill,mountain'); PEO *lo[sz]o (FIJ loco 'middle joint at the yard in acanoe'). Cf. PMC *[sS]olo 'fade from view'. See also Mark(1994:321) PMC *lozo.

PMC? *lowu- 'cross-sibling'; KSR lou-(k), lo-(l),lou-(n) 'my sister (man speaking), his s., s. of'; POC *lopu'cross sibling' (ROSS 1988).

PCMC *lua 'be whol': PUL luw 'be all, entire';WOL nnuwe 'the whole, entire thing'; PCK *lluw[ae]; KIR nua-I'be satisfied, have eaten enouth'.

PCMC *lukuma 'fold, wrap'; PON lukam 'to wraparound (s.t.)'; MOK likim 'to fold (s.t.)'; KIR nukina'to fold or wrap up (s.t.); a package'. Cf. MRS limek'package' to fold, pack' (possible metathesis); lemlem'fold, wrap, package', lim(iy) 'fold s.t.,. Cf. also KSR nukum'clothe, wear, wrap (s.t.)', nuknuk 'clothes, coth',nuknuki 'cover with a cloth, measure the size of a piece of coth';MRS [nik.sup.w][nik.sup.w] 'clothes, cloth; to dress up',ku-[nik.sup.w][nik.sup.w] -iy 'cothe s.o.'; SAA nuku 'to kink,have corrugations, be shriveld or wrinkled', nuki-mi 'to crease,fold (s.t.)' (these KSR and MRS forms probably stand in a borrowingrelationship, possibly w. KIR). Cf. also PMC *Lukuma 'bundle'posited by Goodenough (1995-76) and PMC *sukusuki, suku-ma, suku-mi 'bewrapped, a package, to wrap (s.t.)'.

PMC *lulu 'be furled (of a sail), rolled or folded up';CHK nnu-(tiw) 'be furled, lowered (of a sail)', (e)-nmi 'fldup (a mat or sail), lower (a sail)', nnuun, nunnu- 'be lowered,furled (of a sail)'; WOL nnu-(tiwe) 'put down, lower (a sail)'nnu 'to break (as a wave), crush, split'; PCK *nnu or llu; PON lil'to lower sail'; KIR nn-a (<ni-a, *nni-a) 'to lower(s.t.)', nini-ra 'roll (s.t.) up'; EOC *lulu (Sa'a lulu,lulu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'fold'; KWA lulu 'bunchtogether, gather, push together'); UAN *lulun 'roll up.' Cf.LAK lili-(a) 'roll it up'; UAN *lilit 'wrap up, bind up'.Cf. also PMC *lumi 'to fold', PCK *llima 'lower rim of asail'.

PMC *lumi 'to fold': CHK nnum 'be creased, folded,bent, crumpled', numi, nnuni 'bend it, f. it, creast it'; PULlumi, limi-(y) 'fold it (as a mat)'; CRL limi, limi-i-(lo) "tof.s.t., f. it up'; WOL limilimi 'f., folding, cover', limi-(I)'f. it, cover it'; PCK *lumi, lumulumi; PON lim 'to f. (s.t.),limilim-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'befolded', lim-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'be bent, smashed, mashed,dented'; MOK lim 'to f. (s.t.)', limlim 'a f., hem, cuff,to f.'; MRS lemlem 'f., wrap', lim-ek 'fled'; KIRnum 'be folded (of arms or wings)' (Eastman 1948); KSR lim 'tof. (s.t.)', limlim 'to f.'; PMP *lumiq 'to f., hem'(Blust 1983-84:81). Cf. also PCMc *lukuma 'fold, wrap';, PCK *llima'lower rim of a sail'.

PCMC? *[ln]usi- 'tie up, wrap'; CHK nnut 'be tiedtogether by a twining process, tie things together by twining', nuti'to tie (s.t.) by twining, the process of twining'; KIR nira,ninira 'to roll (s.t.) up', (te)-ninira 'a wrapper, loosegarment worn over the shoulders'. Cf. FIJ lusi, lusi-a 'to rub theskin off'.

PMC *luTu 'to jump': CHK nus, nnus 'j. (from onepoint to another), be out of its socket or holder', (o)-nusu'remove it from one place to another, take it out of its socket',(o)-nnusu 'cause it to j, or hop', nusu-([m.sup.w][m.sup.w]et)'bounce, j., hop'; PUL luh (sic) 'to j., to slip (as amuscle), to be loosened (as copra from its shell)', (yo)-luha-(a-ta)(sic) 'loosen it (as copra from its shell)', (yo)-luluh (sic)'to dislodge dried copra from its shell'; CRL llus, lullus and CRNlluh 'to j.'; STW nnus 'to j.'; WOL lutu, nnutu 'j.,leap, spring up, start in surprise', (ga)-lutu-(u), (ga)-nnutu-(u)'make it j.', lutu-(ni-i) 'j or leap on it'; PUA nutu'to j., leap, spring', nutu-(ni) 'to j. or leap on it';PCK *I[uu]T[uu]; PON lus 'to j.', lusi-(da) 'to j. up, besurprised', lusu-(k) 'to j. on, to atch a ride with'; KSR lut'surprised, started, amazed'. Cf. PAN *lecu[Ct] 'slip away,escape, (Blust 1970:131).

PCMC *luuka 'center, middle': CHK nuuk, nuuka-(n)'c., m., abdomen, stomach, belly, its c.', nuuka-(nap) 'c.,exact m.', nuuke-(ni-[p.sup.w]in) 'midnight', nuuk,nuuke-(yi-nen) 'name of a god' (lit. 'm. of heaven'); PULluuk, luuka-(n) 'c., its c.'; CRL luugh, luugha-(l) 'c., m.,its c., luugho-(lap) 'c., m. (of an object)', luugh 'name ofthe chief traditional god'; STW nuuk 'c., m.'; WOL luuge'c., central point, be centered', luuga-(a) 'finish thecentral point by measurement', lugo-(li-[b.sup.w]oni) (sic)'midnight', luugo-(i-leni) 'name of a god'; PUA nuka(sic) 'c., m.'; PCK *luuka, luuka-(li-[p.sup.w]oni),luuka-(i-lani); PON luuk 'name of the chief traditional god'; MRS[lik.sup.w] e- 'm. of, waist', [lik.sup.w] e-(n-bon)'midnight'; KIR (te)-nuuka, nuuka-(na) 'm., lower waist, itsm.'. Short first syllable of MRS needs explanation.

PMC *luuwa 'remainder, remnant': CHK nuuwe-k,nuuwe-ki-(n) 'remainder, what is left, what remains, r. of'; PONluuw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'its remains, remnant'; MOK luwo'its remains'; PNG luw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'itsremains'; KSR luw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'its remnant,leftover, surplus'. Cf. ULI luutegu (sic) 'leftover' (Benderet al. 1984). See also PCK ? *luTTu 'remainder, leftovers'.

PMC *ma 'and, with': CHK me; MRT me me, PUL me me; CRLme; STW me; WOL me; PUA ma; PCK *me; MRS yen, yim (metathesis); KIR ma'with, and others'; KSR ma 'and others'; PEO *ma (BUG ma'and'; ARO ma 'and, but'; KWA ma 'and, but').Cf. YAP ma 'then, and, but'.

PMC *ma- 'stative prefix indicating that what is described isan appearance or condition of being': CHK ma-, ma-, mo-, me-, mo, mo-;MRT ma-; PUL ma-, ma-, mo-, me-, me-; CRL. ma-, ma-, mo-, me-; STW ma-; WOLma-, me-; PUA ma-; PCK *ma-; PON ma-, m[epsilon]-; PNG mV- (vowel varies);MRS ma-; KIR ma-; KSR mV- (vowel varies); POc *ma- (PPN *ma; FIJ ma-; SAAma-; BUG ma-; LAU ma-; ARO ma-; KWA ma-; PKB *ma-).

PMC *maa-, maa-ki 'ashamed': CHK ma 'be a.',(a)-maa-(y) 'make him a.'; CRL ma 'be embarassed'; WOLmaa 'be or feel a', (ge)-maa-(ye) 'make him a'; PUA mma(sic) 'be a.'; PCK *maa; PON maa-k 'reserved, containingone's feelings for fear of self-embarrassment or embarrassing others,deferenee; MOK mee-k 'a, embarrassed, bashful, shy'; KIR maamaa'a, abashed'; KSR [m.sup.w]e-ki-(n) 'a., shy, bashful';PEO *maqa (PPN *maa 'a'; FIJ maa-[duaa]; SAA masa 'shy,a'; ARO masa). See also LAK mahela 'be a.

PMC *maanu 'adrift, drift': CHK maan, mammaan 'bebecalmed, a., to d.', maanu-(no) 'd. away', (a)-maanu'cast him a', (a)-mmaan 'flotsam'; MRT maan 'tofloat', maani-(to) 'f. hither'; PUL maan 'to d.',maane-(lo) 'd. away'; CRL maal and CRN maan 'to d.'; STWmaan 'd., float', maane-(to) 'd. hither'; WOL maalu'to d., be a', (ge)-maalu-(u) 'let it drift away',(ge)-mmaalu 'cause s.t. to d. away'; PUA maanu 'to float,d.'; PCK *maanu; PEO *maqanu (PPN *maqanu 'a., float'; SAAmanu 'to float'); PAN *ma-qa(nN)u(dj)(Blust 1978:8), *qaNuj (Wolff1993).

PMC *maaru 'out of breath': PUL moor 'be winded,out of breath; thirsty'; CRL [m.sup.w] oor 'be out of breath,breathe hard'; KSR mael 'breathless, impatient, intolerant'.Cf. KSR mal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'breathless; thirsty'; CHK moor'head cold, chest cold, have a cold, have a cough'. Cf. PMc *marewu'thirsty'.

PCMC *[[mm.sup.w]]a-asaasa 'low sound': CHK[m.sup.w]a-ataat 'rustling (of leaves), rubbing or splashingnoise'; KIR maraara (sic, <*ma-araara?) 'low conversation at alittle distance'.

PMC *maaso, masoso 'to sit': CHK moot, mommoot 's.,be seated', mot-(tiw), #moot-(tiw) 's. down', (o)-moota'place it, set it'; MRT moot; PUL moot 'to s.', mo-tiw(sic) 's. down'; CRL moot 'to s.', moote-(tiw),moot-(tiw) 's. down'; STW moot 's.', mooto-(tiw) 's.down'; WOL matto 's., squat down', (ge)-matto-(o) 'set itdown, seat him'; PUA mato (sic) 'to s.', mato-(na)'buttocks'; SNS maato; PCK *maado, maddo; PON [m.sup.w]ood's.', [m.sup.w]oon-(di) 's. down'; MOK [m.sup.w]in-(di)'s.'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta (in aset) 'non-nativesitting posture', m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta (liplip) 'a sittingposture'. Cf. KIR [m.sup.w]aro (Bingham) or [m.sup.w]aroo (Eastman)'sink, founder, go down (as food)', [m.sup.w]aroro 'tosubside, to lull'; KSR mot 'sink with too much weight,subside'; Cf. PCK? *[m.sup.w]aut[iu] 'to sink'. Problems here.

PMC *maata, maataata 'cleared space': CRL maat, maata-l'fann, his f.'; STW maat; WOL maate 'farm, garden'; PUAmaata 'garden, lot, taro patch, property'; PCK *maa[dt]a; PONmaasaas c. of vegetation'; MRS mahaj 'c. s., open field',mahajahaje-(y) 'to clear (land)'; KIR maataata 'open, c. (asland), roomy, clear'; KSR [m.sup.w]esaes 'roomy, spacious,commodious'. Cf. PON [m.sup.w]aat 'clearing, field, plantation,garden', [m.sup.w]et 'clear an area, cut or pull grass',[m.sup.w]eti-(wel) 'make a clearing, plantation, or garden'. Cf.PCK *maada 'a garden'. See alsO Marck (1994:321) PMc *maata and*maataata.

PMC *maaTiaTi 'treeless place': CHK maasiyes 't.p., field, open area without shade'; KSR [m.sup.w]esis a desert',(aek)-[m.sup.w]esisye 'clean, cultivate, clear (land)'.

PMC *maawa 'a fish': PON maaw 'any blueparrotfish', MRS mahwew 'parrotfish (Scarus jonesi/sordidus),wrasse (Cheilinus sp.)'; KIR (te)-maawa 'a goatfish (Purupeneustrifasciatus)', (te-ika)-maawa 'parrotfish (Scaruspectoralis)'; PEO *maqawa (FIJ mayawa 'sp. Of f'; TONma'awa 'a kind of f.'). Cf. MRS meh 'wrasse'; LAKmao 'kind of f.'

PMC *maawunu 'war, fighting': CHK moowun, moowunu-; PULmawon (sic); CRL moowul 'w.', #moowula 'to attack (anenemy)'; CRN moowun 'w.', #moowula 'to attack (anenemy)'; STW moowun WOL maaulu; ULI maaulu; PUA maunu (sic); PCK*maawunu; PON maawin; MOK maawin; PNG maawin; MRS mawin 'magic to makefighters brave'; KSR [m.sup.w]eun 'war, fight'. Cf. KIR un'be angry, fight' and ka-unuun 'continue to provokeanger'; POC *punuq 'strike, slay' (Ross 1988) (SAA hunu'kill or cut up an animal'; ARO hunu, hunu- 'i 'to kill,exterpate'; KWA funu 'to fight, cut', funu-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'warfare'); UAN *bunuq. Cf. alSo YAP mael 'w.,battle'. MRS shortening unexplained.

PMC *maca mamaca 'very ripe, rotten': CHK mach, mmach,mammach 'v. r., rotten, stink', mmach, mmacha-(n) 'boil on theskin, his boil', mmache-(yiti) 'get r. by (a certain time)',(a)-mmacha 'ripen (s.t)'; MRT mmash 'r., overripe'; PULmmaR 'be very r.', mmaR, mmeRa-(n) 'boil, infected sore, hisb.'; CRL mash 'stink, smell bad', mmash 'be v. r., soft,ready to eat (of a fruit)'; CRN maR 'stink, smell bad', mmaR'be v. r., etc.'; STW maR 'rotten, v. r.'; WOL mashe'rotten, spoiled, have a bad smell, stink', mashemashe 'becomerotten or spoiled', mmashe 'r., fermented, soft, wet, have pus in ascratch or wound'; PUA mmasa 'be fermented, r.'; PCK *maca,mmaca; PON mat 'r., overripe, rotten, spoiled, decayed', maat'pimple, acne'; MOK mas 'stink, smell bad',m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'spoiled, rotten,putrid'; MRS mad 'ripen', mmed 'v, r., overripe (ofbreadfruit only), phlegm, catarrh, sputum', (meyi)-med 'overripebreadfruit'; KIR mara 'soft (as an animal shedding its skin), wet,moist, bald'; KSR [m.sup.w]esr 'r., mellow, pimple, f lake ofskin', [m.sup.w][esrm.sup.w]esr 'pimply, flaky'; PEO *manra(PPN *mara 'fermented'; FIJ ? madra 'worn, old [ofclothes]'; BUG mada 'be ripe [of fruit]', mada-[rua] 'beoverripe'; KWA mada 'r., mature'), See also PMC *mara'preserved breadfruit'.

PMC *ma-cai 'slimy': CHK me-cheyichey 'be s.,mucous-like'; CRL ma-sheishey, me-she-ishey 's., slippery substancesuch as mucus'; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; MRS me-dahye-(kyek) 'phlegm, pus,lymph, slime from slugs and fish'; KIR ma-rai 'kernel of coconut inits soft state, white of an egg, having a soft kernel'; KSR mi-sre,m""-sre 'slide, slip, skid', mi-sresre 's.,slippery, slithery'; PEO *ma-daRi (BUG ma-dali 'slippery').Cf. FIJ ma-drai 'Fijian bread buried in the ground for months'. Seealso PCK *ma-calu 'slimy, slippery'. Cf. PCMC *[m.sup.w]acayaphysical deformity'.

PMC? *ma-caucau 'soft': KIR ma-raurau; PEO*[[mm.sup.w]]a-ntauntau (SAA [m.sup.w]a-dau 'be easy, possible, soft,pliable'). Cf. KWA ma-ga'u 'soft', wa-da'u'easy', wa-la'u 'easy, soft, over-ripe'; and cf. BUGma-darua 'overripe'. Cf. PCK *caucau 'to massage (after a fallor bruise)'.

PMC *maci, macici 'be cold': MRS med 'cooled off(of food once hot)'; KIR mariri 'feel c., be c.', (te)-mariri'c., coldness'; KSR misrisr 'c., chilly, cool, goosebumps'; POC *madidi (ROT matiti 'be c.'). Cf. LAK maigi'be c.', magigi 'to shake (as in epilepsy)', makarigi'c., to be c.', PKB *maqi(dg)i; PAN *ma([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-(dD)i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL](dD)i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (Blust1970:133).

PMC *[mai.sub.i] 'breadfruit': CHK maay, meyi-, -mey;PUL maay; CRL maay; STW maay; WOL maai, mai-; PUA maai, mai-; SNS maay; PCK*mai; PON maay; MOK m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y;MRS may; KIR maai, (te)-mai; PEO *maRi (Geraghty 1990) (TON mei). Note: KSRmos does not appear to be cognate.

PMC *[mai.sub.z] 'from': CHK me, me; PUL me me; CRL me;STW me, WOL me; PUA ma PCK *me; KIR mai. Cf. SAA mai 'hither,from'; BUG mai 'hither; ARO mai 'hither'; KWA mai'hither'; PKB *mai.

PCMC *maia 'from where?': CHK (ke-naa) meey 'youcome f. w.?'; KIR (ko nako) maia you come f. w.?'.

PCMC *ma[iu][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'left handed': CHK-mee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], -mmee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'l. h., l.side'; PUL (huyi)-meeyu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],(yii)-meeyu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be on the l. s.' PCK ?*mau[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yn-(t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l) 'be l. h.'; MOKmey[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'l.'; MRS (han)-miyi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'l. hand, l. half of human body'; KIR mai[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'l. h.'. Cf. PEO *ma[iu]Ri 'l. hand' (Geraghty1990) (SAA mauli, maumeuli; LAU mouli; KWA mooli 'differently, in awrong direction', [after vt.] 'l. h.'; PKB *mauLi 'l.h.').

PMC *maki 'worn with age': CHK mes 'be w. out (ofhousehold goods and clothes), be fragile with age', (ine)-mes 'nameof a goddess associated with love magic' (lit. 'mother age-worn );PUL mah 'be w. out', mahi-(n) 'w. out thing of'; WOL magi'become wilted, grow weak', (ge)-magi-(i) 'make it losecolor'; PCK *maki; PON mek 'dented'; MOK me 'tired'KIR maki 'shriveled and dried up (as a leaf), barely burning, nearlyextinguished (of a fire)'; KSR mae 'old, w., frayed'. Note theh in PUL and [theta] in MOK and KSR where we would expect kin the PUL easethe h suggests the word is a loan from CHK, CRL ile-mas, ili-mes, li-mas andCRN ine-mes 'love medicine' appear to be loans from CHK.

PCMC *makua 'regurgitate': CHK meku 'tobelch'; CRL maghu and CRN magu 'to burp up milk after feeding (of ababy)'; PUA makua 'to be nauseating'; PCK *makua; PON makiaki'to sob'; KIR (te)-makua 'a full spring tide', makua'be a full spring tide'. Cf. WOL mmee 'to have nausea,vomit'.

PMC *malala 'area without vegetation': CHK mannaan'grassland (treeless, open)'; STW melaal 'clearedground'; PON mall 'a natural clearing in the forest, unfertilearea, an area with little topsoil'; MOK mal 'barren field';MRS me[a] 'playground for demons, not habitable by people'; POC*malala (BUG mathathe 'garden'; PKB malala 'ground cleared ofvegetation'). Cf. Km mane 'worn out, worn thin'; KSR mahn'barren, empty, fruitless, sterile'. Cf. also PCK *malle, malemale,(ka)-malemale-(a), male-di- 'ground cleared of vegetation, swiddenfield'; and cf. Marck (1994:322) PMC *mala and *malala.

PMC *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku 'forget': MRTmalluk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'f. (s.t.)'; PUL malleki-(y),malleka-(a-lo) 'to f.'; CRL mallegh 'be forgetful',mallegu-(u-w) 'f. (s.t.)'; CRN malleg 'be forgetful',mallegi-(i-y) 'f. (s.t.); PCK *maleku, malleku; PON manok[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-la), makane-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-la)'to f, (s.t.)', manokonoko-(la) 'f., be forgetful'; MOKmolukluk 'be forgetful', molko, molk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(la)'to f. (s.t.)'; MRS me[l.sub.sub.][ak.sup.w][l.sub,s][ak.sup.w]'to forget, be oblivious'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lki-n'to f., be forgetful of, lose (s.t.)'. The reflex n instead of l inthe Pohnpcian forms is unexpected. The MRS form reflects *malakolako; use of-lol-la directional with PUL, PON, and MOK forms suggests that this iscontamination of earlier *maleku-lako (see PMC *lako, laa 'go, proceed,[as directional] away'). See also PCMC *maluoki, maluoka'forget', PMc *ma-lie 'forget'.

PMc *[malem.sup.w]u 'to drown': PUL [molom.sup.w]; WOL[malem.sup.w]u; PCK *[malem.sup.w]u; MRS ma[l.sub.sub.][e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]; KSR walom. MRS substitutes for expected [[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w], possibly in dissimilation from m (an [[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]l[m.sup.s.sub.w] alternation is not uncommon); also, heavy[l.sub.s] is unexpected.

PMC *ma-lie 'forget': PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-li[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-la) 'toforget (honorific)'; MRS mma-leyley 'absent minded, forgetful,oblivious'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lye-(la) 'forgetful,unmindful, absentminded'. See also PMC *maleku, maleleku, malekuleku'forget', PCMC *maluoki, maluoka 'forget'.

PCMC *maluoki, maluoka 'forget': CHK mennuuki,mennuuka-(a-no) 'f. it, leave it behind'; STW maluweki-(y) ''; WOL maluweki-(li-i) 'f. it, have it slip one'smind'; PUA manueki 'be forgotten, to f., forgive'; PCK*malueki; KIR manuoka 'to f. (s.t.)'. See also PMC *maleku,maleleku, malekuleku 'forget', PMc PMc *ma-lie 'forget'.

PMc *mamata 'stand watch, stay awake': CHK mmas 's.w.', mmasa, mammasa 'w. over it, guard it'; MRT mmas'guard', (a)-mmasa-(a-ta) 'wake him up'; PUL mahan (sic)'w. over (s.t.)'; CRL mmas and CRN mmah 'to w., wait and look,be awake', maha-(a-ta), maha-(lo) 'wake up'; STW mmas'awake'; WOL mmase 'to w., look at s.t., guard, peer ats.t.', mmesa-(a) 'w. him, guard him, peep at him', mmate'open one's eyes, arise, awake'; PUA mmata 'be awake,arise, open one's eyes'; PCK *mmata; MRS mmej 'be awake, stayup'; POC *mamata (ROT mamafa 'to awake from sleep'; LAK mamata'be awake'). Cf. KWA mama 'wait for'. See PMC *mata'eye, face'.

PMC *mam[ei] 'a large fish': CHE maam 'large sp. ofwrasse f.'; PUL mam (sic) 'a kind of l. f. (perhaps awrasse)'; CRL maam 'sp. of wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus)'; PCK?*mam[ei]; MRS main, (jew)-mam 'any l. f.'; PMP *mamin'wrasse' (Blust 1986:63). Cf. PMC *mami 'sweet'.

PMc *mami 'sweet': MRT mem 'taste of chewingcoconuts'; PUL mem, memmem; CRL mam, mem; STW mamm, memmemm; WOL mami's.', (ge)-mami-(i) 'make it s.'; PCK *mami; PON mem; MRSmame-t (<*mami-ta?) 's., fresh water'; KIR (te)-mam 'freshwater'; KSR (e)-[m.sup.w] em 's.', (e)-[m.sup.w] emi 'tosweeten (s.t.)'; PEO mami 's.' (Fu and TON mami 'a kindof banana';

SAA mami 'to taste s.t.'; BUG mami 's.'; AROmami 'sweetened, fresh water'; KWA mami 'normal tasting,brackish water'); UAN *mamis. Cf. LAK malama 's.'.

PMC *mana, manamana 'be efficacious, have spiritualpower', 'efficacy, s.p.': CHK man, manaman; MRT manaman; PULmanaman; STW malaman, WOL. (kke)-male; PCK *mana, manamana; PON man 'beeffective', manaman 'magical, mysterious, magic, spiritualp.'; MOK manman spiritually powerful, able to do magic'; MRS manman'haunted, having supernatural p.'; KSR [m.sup.w][enm.sup.w]en'miracle, magic', [m.sup.m][enm.sup.w]eni 'performmagic'; PEO *mana (PPN *mana, Fo mana; SAA nanama 'bepowerful'; BUG mana 'spiritual p.'; KWA nanama 'confersupernatural p.').

PMC *ma-[nn]awa 'life, alive': CHK ma-naw 'l.,health, be a.', (a)-ma-nawa 'give him l.'; MRT ma-nawa-(n)'his l.'; PUL ma-naw, (ya)-ma-nawa; CRL ma-law, (a)-ma-lawa; CRNma-naw, (a)-ma-nawa; STW ma-nawa-(n) 'his l., existence'; WOLme-lawe 'be a.'; PCK *ma-nawa; MRS menewa- 'beart,breath', me-newnew 'to breathe'; KIR (te)-ma-nawa 'pit ofthe stomach'; POC *ma-nawa 'breath' (Ross 1988) (PPN *ma-nawa'breath'; ARo ma-nawa 'breath'); UAN *nawa'soul'. Cf. MOK moo[eta] 'to breathe'; KSR mon[eta]-(l)'his breach, sigh'.

PMC *ma-nifi, ma-nifinifi 'thin, flimsy': CRL ma-lifilif't.'; STW ma-lifilif; WOL ma-lift, ma-lifilifi 'be t., lackthickness'; PUA ma-nidi 'be t. (of flat objects)', ma-nidinidi'a slice, cut piece of cloth'; SNS ma-rifi; PCK *ma-nifi,ma-nifinifi; PON me-nipinip 't. (of flat objects such as paper)';MOK mi-nipinip; MRS ma-niy 't., flimsy'; KIR mma-nii; KSR(se)-mi-nini 'not t.'; PEO *ma-nipi (PPN *ma-nifi; ARO ma-nihi; KWAma-nifi 'tiny ocean fish'); UAN *nipis.

PCMC *mano 'waterproof, not leaky': CHK mon; PUL. mon;WOL malo; PCK *mano; KIR mano. Cf. FU ,malu.

PMC *manu 'living creature of land or air': CHK maan,menu-(n), (e)-men 'l. c., l. c. of, one l. c.'; MRT maan, manu-(n);PUL maan, manu-(n); CRL maal, malu-(l) and CRN maan; STW maan, manu-(n),(e)-mal; WOL maalu, man-(ni); PUA maanu, manu-(ni), (de)-manu; PCK *manu,(te)-manu; PON maan, m[epsilon]ni-(n) 'animal, insect'; MOK maan;MRS mani-(ddik) 'a small insect', man-(ni-miwij) 'white seagull'; KIR (te)-man 'animal, bird,' (te)-mani-(nn-ara)'mosquito', (te)-man-(ni-kiba) 'bird'; KSR maen, meni-(n)'aninal, insect'; POC *manuk (Ross 1988) (PPN *manu 'animal,bird'; Fu manumanu 'bird'; SAA manu 'bird, insect';BUG manu 'bird'; KWA manu 'bird'; LAU manu'bird'; PKB *manu 'bird'); UAN *manuk 'chicken,bird'. Note that PUL maluk 'chicken'; CRL malugh'chicken'; WOL maluge 'chicken, hen', and PONmal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'chicken' are loans, more likely fromPAL malk than from CHM mannak.

PCMC *manu 'a bright star': CHK maan 'the s. Siriusor Procyon, name of a sidereal month'; PUL maan 'a scattered groupof stars, Canopus, Sirius, Procyon, name of a sidereal month'; CRL andCRN maan 'the s. Sirius, month in the sidereal calendar'; STW maan'Procyon, Sirius, Canopus'; WOL maalu 'the s. Sirius';PUA maanu 'a sidereal month equated with September'; PCK *maanu;KIR man (sic) 'Canopus' (Bender et al. 1984). See also PMC *manu'living creature of land or air'.


PMC *ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'have in mind, think,remember': CHK ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(y), me[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-u-(w) 'admire it'; MRT ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't. about it'; PULma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'thought, tot.', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(i-y) 'remember it'; CRLma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be thinking,thought, idea', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(y) 'remember, recall,reminisce or t. about (s.t.)', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali) 'remind (one) of (s.t.)'; STWma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'remember', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]una[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't.'; WOL ma[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ime[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to t., remember, consider, ponder,expect', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-i-(ye) 't. about it, expect it,remember it', ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(togo) 'be recalled, occurto one's mind'; PUA me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 't. about it,remember it', me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ime[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'to think', (ka)-me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ani) 'remind him'; PCK *ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i,ma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ima[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l) 'talk to oneself'; MRSma[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'know better, learn not to'; KSR(aek)-m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-ye 'disregard,ignore (s.t.)'. Cf. KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'see, think'.




PCMC *maoko 'a fish': PON mook; Km (te)-maoko. Cf. LAKmao 'a f.'

PMC *mara 'preserved breadfruit': CHK maar, mare-(n)'p. b., p. b. of (some kind or place)', mara-(a-n), mara-(-n)'his p. b., p. b. of (s.o.)'; MRT maar; PUL maar, mera-(n); CRLmaar 'p. b.', mar 'be rotten, decayed, moldy (of fruits andvegetables), smell rotten'; STW maar; WOL maare, mera-(li) 'p. b.,p. b. of, to make p. b.'; PUA maala, mala- 'wrapped p. b.';PCK *mara; PON maar; MOK mar; KSR mar 'core of p. b.'; POC *mara(PPN *mara 'fermented', FIJ mara 'hollow ground, such as agroove', LAK [la-ulu e]-mala 'ripe breadfruit'). See also PMC*maca, mamaca 'very ripe, rotten'.

PMC *maraa 'light in weight': CHK (a)-mere, -maraa-(n)'canoe sail, s. of'; MRT (a) -mmara 'sail'; PUL (ye)-mara'canoe sail'; CRL (a)-mara 'canoe sail'; STW (a)-mara'canoe sail'; WOL mmaraa 'be fast, swift, speedy',(ga)-mmeraa-li-(i) 'make it fast, speed it'; PCK *mmaraa, maraa;PON maraara 'fast, swift (of a moving object), light (in weight)';MOK maraara 'light in weight'; MRS merah 'light in weight,bland, delicate, mild, subtle'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laelae'light in weight, skinny, slim'; PEO *maRaqa'lightweight' (Geraghty 1990). The East Chuukic words for'sail' appear to be a locally innovated causative construction (cf.PCMC *yuwe 'a sail').

PMC *ma-rama 'moon': See PMC *rama, ma-rama'bright, luminous'.

PMC *ma-rawa 'green, blue': MRS mahrewrew, -mahrew'g., b.; KIR mawawa (probably *ma-awaawa) 'g.'; PEO *ma-rawa(SAA ma-rawa 'be blackish or purplish [of nuts before ripening]';ARO ma-rawa 'g., b.'; KWA ma-lakwa 'g., fresh, unripe').Cf. PCK ? *karawa, karawarawa 'blue, green', PCK *ma-arawa 'begreen (of fruit), unripe'.

PMC 'thirsty': MOK marew; MRS marew; KSRmal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POc *marequ (SAA marou 'thirst'; AROmareu 'become withered'; LAK malehu 'thirsty'). Cf. UAN*qa(q)us 'thirst'. Cf. also CRL [m.sup.w]or 'be dry, driedup' and KIR [m.sup.w]aau 'dry', (te)-[m.sup.w]-aau'dryness'. And cf PCK *maaro 'thirsty', PMC *maaru'out of breath'.

PMC *masa, mamasa 'be low tide, dry': CHK mmat 'bel. t.', (a)-mmat 'be soaked up (as water), a sponge',(a)-mmata 'soak or sponge it up'; MRT mmat; PUL mmat; CRL mmat'be d., low (of water), be l. t.', (a)-mmat 'bailer',(e)-mmate 'to bail (a canoe)'; STW mmat; WOL mmate 'l. t., bel. t., be bailed'; PUA mmate 'l. t., bed., shallow, bailed';PCK *mmada; PON mad, mmad 'be d.'; MOK mad 'portion of reefexposed a l. t.', mad-(da) 'to d. up (of reef)'; MRS mmat'emerge from water, come into view after having been hidden',matmat 'sponge'; KIR mara 'bald'; KSR [m.sup.w]es'shallow place in reef'; PEO *maza 'd., l. t.' (Geraghty1983) (PPN *ma[hs]a 'd.'; FIJ maca 'empty [of liquids],d.'; LAK mamara-[ti] 'damned up, dried up [of water in the hollowof a tree]'); UAN *maja 'd.'; PAN *maja, mamaja (Blust1978:98). Note also MRS mahat 'empty, no more, all gone,exhausted'. Cf. LAK masaga 'd.'. See also Marck (1994:314) PMC*masa

PMC *masaki 'be painful, hurt': CHK metek, meteki-; Pubmetak; CRL metagh; CRN meteg; STW metaku (sic); WOL metagi; PUA mataki; SNS(ka)-mataki; PCK *madaki; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k; MOK modok; MRS metak; KIR maraki; KSR at[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k;PEO *ma-saki (PPN *masaki; SAA mata'i 'have an attack of malarialfever'; ARO mata'i 'have fever'; KWA mata'i'fever'); UAN *sakit.

PMC *masu 'sated (with food or drink)': CHK met 'bes.', (e)-metu 'cause him to be s.'; MRT met; PUL mat; CRL mat,(a)-matu-(w); STW mat; WOL matu, (ge)-matu-(u); PUA matu; PCK *madu; PONm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d; MOK mod; MRS mat; KIR mari 'abundant,plentious (as fruit)'; KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t 'full,swelling, plenty, abundant'; PEO *mazu (Geraghty 1983); POC *mazu (FIJmacu; TON mahu 'productive [of land and soil], have plenty offood'; ARO masu 'have had enough, be full, replete'; BUG mahu'replete with food, satistied'; PKB *mazu 'full [of stomachonly]').

PMc *ma-[sS]ali 'smooth': MRT metel; PON (ka)-madal'to s. out (s.t.)', medendel 's. and flat', MOKm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l;PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nt[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l; MRS metal (metaltel, distributive form) 's., sleek, slick(distributive form)'s., sleek, slick'; KIR maran 'straight (asthe hair)'; PEO *(ma)-[sz]ali, (ma)-n[sz]ali (ROT marari 's.';SAA madali, mamadali 'greasy, slippery'; BUG dadali 's.',madali 'slippery'; ARO madari 'wet and slippery'). Cf.ARO [m.sup.w]adiri 'smooth, slippery'. Cf. PMc *ma-[sS]aLu,ma-[sS]aLu[sS]aLu 'smooth (of surface)' posited by Goodenough(1995:77).

PMc *ma[sS]o 'cooked': CHK moot, [m.sup.w]oot'c.', [m.sup.w]ooto-(kkay) 'be c. quickly'; MRT[m.sup.2]oot, (yo)-mmoot; PUL [m.sup.w]oot 'c.', (yo)-[m.sup.w]oot,(yo)-[m.sup.w]oot 'to cook', (ya)-[m.sup.w]oota 'cookit', (yo)-[m.sup.w]ota-(sic) 'food c. (by so.)'; CRL[m.sup.w]oot 'be c.', (a)-[m.sup.w]oot 'to cook food',(a)-[m.sup.w]oota 'to cook (s.t.)'; STW (a)-mmoot 'cook';WOL mette 'c.', (ga)-met, (ga)-mett 'cook, prepare food',(ga)-meta-(a), (ga)-metta-(a) 'cook it'; ULI (ge)-mad'C.'; PUA mete, mette 'c.', (ka)-mete 'cookit'; SNS meeta; PCK ? *mado, maddo; MRS mat KIR (te)-maro-(a)'food, refreshment'; PEO *m[ao]so (PPN *moso 'c.'). Cf.KSR mol, molmol 'c., boiled' (possibly a loan from KIR). Cf. alsoSAA madoo 'c.'; BUG mamoha 'c.'.

PMc *ma-Sawa 'deep sea, open sea': CHK ma-taw; MRTma-taw; PUL me-taw; CRL me-taw, ma-taw; STW metaw; WoL me-tawe; PUA ma-tawa;PCK *ma-dawa; PON ma-daw; MOK ma-daw; PNG m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-daw; MRSme-tew; KIR ma-rawa; KSR me-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'ocean'; PEO*ma-sawa (SAA ma-tawa; KWA ma-takwa). See also Marck (1994:308) PMc *mazawaCf. PPN *wasa 'o. s.', *waa 'interval of space or time';FIJ Wasa, wasawasa 'S., ocean', maa-cawa 'a space orinterval'; BUG maha 'd. (of s.), d. s.'.

PMc *maSeru 'hiccough': PUL mater; STW mater; WoLmateru; ULI muther 'belch'; PUA matalu; PCK *madaru; KIR marei; KsRmael 'become breathless', mael-(fwey[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])'gobble, swallow, gulp'. Note also PON mar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]rand MOK maler 'h.'. Cf. YAP mathoer, mathow 'h.'.

PMc *mata 'eye, face': CHK maas, masa-(n), mese-(n)'eye, face, his e., e. of'; MRT maas, mesa-(n); PUL maah, meha-(n),meha-(n); CRL maas. mesa-(l); CRN maah, maha-(n); WOL maate, meta-(le),meta-(li); PUA maata, mata-; SNS maata; PCK *mata; PON maas, m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'face, his f.' ; MOK maj,mij"", miije-(n); MRS maj meja-; KIR maata, (te)-mata, mata-(na),mata-(ni); KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta-; POc *mata (Ross 1988) (FIJ mata;PPN *mata; BUG mata; SAA maa; LAU maa; KWA maa; PKB *mata); UAN *mata. Seealso PMc *mamata 'stand watch, stay awake'.

PMc *mata, ara-mata 'person, people': CHK ara-mas,ara-mase-(n) 'p., p. of'; MRT ara-mes; PUL yere-mah; CRL ara-mas,are-mas; CRN ara-mah; STW yare-mas; WOL yare-mate; PUA yalemata; MAP yarmat;PCK *ar[ac]-mata; PON ara-mas; MOK or-maj; MRS harmej; KIR (te)-ao-mata; KSR[m.sup.w]et; PEO *mata (FIJ mata 'a company of p. following a particularoccupation'). KIR o unexplained.

PCMc *mata-aro 'lagoon side (of an island)': CHKmoso-or, moso-oru-(n) 'proximate, inner, or inhabited side, l.s., l.s.of'; WoLmeta-aro 'the seaside, the beach side'; PCK *mata-aro;KIK mata-ao 'the nearer side'. See PMc *mata 'eye, face',PCMc *aro- 'shore, beach'.

PMc *ma-taku 'to fear, be afraid': CHK me-sek; 'bea.', (e)-me-seku 'make him a.', me-seki-(iti) 'f. him, beterrified by him'; MRT me-Sek; PUL me-hak 'be a', me-haku-(w)'f. him'; CRL me-sagh, ma-sagh, me-sagh and CRN me-hag, ma-hag; STWme-sak; WOL me-tagu-(u) 'be scared of it, be a. of it'; PUAma-taku; PCK *ma-taku; PON ma-sak 'be a. of or f. (s.o.)'; MoKmi-jik a., scared', (ka)-mi-jiki 'frighten (s.o.)'; MRS mi-jak'f., horror, a.'; KIR ma-aku (with loss of *t before *k)'a.', ma-aka 'f. (s.o.)'; KSR mo-tok 'feelunwelcome, ill at ease, awkward'; POc *ma-taku(t) (Ross 1988) (PPN*ma-taku; SAA m-a'u; ULA ma-a'u; BUG ma-tagu; LAU mou,, momou; KWAm-a'u 'a., shy'; LAK ma-tao); UAN *[tT]akut 'beafraid'.

PWMc *matamata 'a fish': CHK masamas 'sp. of porgyf. (with big eyes)'; PUL mahamah 'snapper (Monotaxisgrandoculis)'; CRL masamas and CRN mahamah 'sp. of edible redf.'; PCK *matamata; MRs mejmej 'snapper (f.)'. See PMc *mata'eye, face'.

PMc *mata-ni-susu 'nipple' (lit. 'point of breastor nursing'): MRT mesa-n tuut; STW mese-n tuut; WOL meta-li ttu; PCK*mata-ni ddu, mata-ni duddu; PEO *mata-ni suzu (FU meta-ni sucu). See alsoYAP mite-e-thuuth. Cf. CHK mese-n owu[p.sup.w] 'nipple'. See PMc*mata 'eye, face', PMc *sulu 'torch'.

PMC *mate 'die, lose consciousness': CHK ma, maa-; PULma; CRL ma 'die', maa 'death'; STW ma, maa-; WOL mase ULImas; PUA made; SNS made; MAP maa; PCK *mate; PON mee-(la); MOKm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; MRS mej; KIR mate, KSR [m.sup.w]et 'todie', mis[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'death, to die'; POC *mate(PPN * mate; FIJ mate; SAA mae, PKB *mate); UAN *matay.

PCMC *mati-ciki 'a star': CHK maa-chik 'a s., nameof a sidereal month'; CRL maai-shigh 'a sidereal month'; PUAmadi-siki 'a sidereal month equated with April)'; PCK *maati-ciki;MRS (le)-mej-dik-dik 'a s. in Scorpio (prefix indicates a man'sname)'; KIR mati-riki 'a s.'. Cf. MRS majet-dikdik 'aconstellation comprising alpha, beta, gamma, and delta Sagitarii'. TheCHK form (instead of expected *maayi-chik) appears to be a loan.

PCMC *mati-lapa 'Altair, constellation in Aquila': CHKmaa-nap 'the star A. (alpha Aquilae) and c. comprising alpha, beta, andgamma Aquilae, a sidereal month'; PUL maay-lap (sic) 'A., siderealmonth'; CRL maai-lap; STW maai-nap 'A.'; WOL maai -lape (sic)'A.'; PUA madi-napa 'year, age, a month equated withMay'; PCK *maati-lapa; MRS maj-lep 'A., c. comprising alpha, beta,and gamma Aquilae'; KIR mati-naba 'three stars in a line inCapricorn' (Bender et al. 1984). The CHK form (instead of expected*maayi-nap) could result from an old loan from MRS.

PMC *ma-toa, ma-toatoa 'firm, hard, strong': CHK ma-aw,ma-awa- 'f., h., ready to pick but not yet fully ripe', (fatan)ma-aw 'walk strongly and heavily, tramp, walk restlessly in the presenceof an important person', (maa)-ma-aw 'h. place, shallow areastudded with sharp coral (maa 'behavior, manner, habit')'; PULma-awo (sic) 'be ripe and ready for eating (as bananas orbreadfruit)', (maa)-ma-aw 'be s., healthy, vigorous'; CRLma-aw 'be ripe but not yet soft or sweet', (maa)-ma-aw 'be s.,powerful'; STW mamma-aw 's.'; WOL ma-awe 'be s., ready toeat, ripe, mature', (maa)-ma-awe 'be s., powerful', ma-sowe,ma-sowasowe 'be s., h., be ripe or ready to be picked (asbreadfruit)'; PUA ma-doa 'be h., s.'; PCK *ma-toa; MRSma-jewjew 'f., s., solid'; KIR ma-toa, ma-toatoa 'f.,h.'; PEO *toRa 'tree, Intsia bijuga' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *toa'hardwood tree'; FIJ doa 'heartwood of a tree [solid anddark]'; BUG tola 'large canoe' [made from hardwood tree?]; LAUola 'large canoe'; ARO ora 'a sp. of tree from which best canoes are made'; KWA ma-oa 'kind of tree from which planks obtainedfor making canoes'; PKB *toLa 'f.'); UAN *teRas 'h.,hardwood'. Cf. PON maa 'ripe'; MOK maa 'ripe, middleaged'. Note the doublets in WOL and the lack of expected l in the KWAform.

PMC *ma-tolu, ma-totolu, ma-tolutolu 'thick': CHKma-anuun 'be t. (of flat objects)', (a)-ma-anuunu 'thicken it,make it thicker'; MRT ma-aluwel, PUL ma-aliyeel (sic) 'be t. (aspaper), thickness'; CRL ma-aliyel, ma-aliyel, maaleel; CRN ma-aluyel;STW ma-aluwel; WOL ma-aluyelu 'to be t., close packed, dense',(ge)-ma-aluyelu-(u-we) 'make it t.'; ULI ma-sosol; PUA ma-danu'be t., thickness'; PCK *ma-telu, ma-tetelu, ma-telutelu; PONmosul; MRS mi-jel, mi-jeljel 't., thickness'; KIR ma-ten'thick', ma-tenten 'thickness'; KSR mae-tol 't.,dense', mae-toltol 'very t., numb'; PEO *ma-tolu (TON ma-tolu't. [of board or paper]'). Cf. also PKB *mata-tulu'sleepy'.

PMC *maturu 'sleep': CHK mewur, mewuru-; MRT mawur; PULmawur; CRL mayur; STW mawur; WOL masuru; PUA madulu; PCK *matur; PONm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yr; MOK m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yr; PNGm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yr; MRS [majir.sup.w]; KIR matuu; KSR mutul; PEO*maturu (ULA ma'uru). Cf. POC *matiruR (Ross 1988:461); UAN *tiDuR,tuDuR. Cf. also PKB 'sleepy'.

PMC *mau, mau-ni 'be traded, acquire in trade': CHK me'be traded, sold, paid for', mee-ni 'buy it', (a)-meeme'to sell (s.t.)', (kka)-me 'to buy, be bought'; MRT(kka)-me 'buy'; PUL mee-(n) 'its cost', mee-ni'purchase (s.t.)', (kka)-me 'buy'; CRL mee-(l) 'itscost', mee-(lo) 'be sold out', mee-li 'to buy(s.t.)', (a)-mee-(w), (a)-meemee-(w) 'to buy (s.t.)'; CRNmee-ni 'to buy (s.t.)'; STW (kka)-me 'buy'; WOL (kka)-mee'to buy', (kka)-mee-li-(i) 'buy it'; PCK *mee, mee-ni-;KSR mou-l 'to buy, save', mo-li 'buy (s.t.)'. Cf. PCMC*[p.sup.w]ai 'object of value'.

PMC *maura 'a cold or cough, breathe hard': CHK moor'head c., chest cold, have a c. or cough'; PUL mor (sic) 'b.h., have a c,', CRL [m.sup.w]oor 'be out of breath, breathing hard(as from exertion or asthma)'; KIR (te)-maua 'the spouting hole ornostril of the sperm whale'; KSR mael 'become breathless'. Cf.PCK *[m.sup.w]or[ae] 'strong wind'.

PMC *mauri 'alive': STW mawur 'unopened bud (ofplants)'; WOL mauru 'be fresh, green, a. (as plants)',mauruuru 'be very green'; PUA maulu 'be a. (of plants),green'; PCK *mauru; PON mowr 'a., raw'; MOK mowr be a, fresh,raw, life'; MRS mewir 'live, life, existence, a., cured'; KIR(te)-maiu (showing metathesis) 'life', maiu 'be a., live, bein comfortable condition of mind or body'; KSR mad 'a., live';POc *maquri(p) (Ross 1988) (PPN *maquri 'life, life principle, a,soul'; Fu mauri-[mu] 'your good health!'; SAA mauri 'tolive, be a, recover health'; LAU mouri, mori, mamori 'tolive'; KWA mauli 'a'; LAK mahuli 'life, goodhealth'); PAN *qudip 'a' (Ross 1988) (cf. UAN *quDip). Notethat Km mauli 'be in good health' is an apparent loan from SAMmauli.

PMc ? *mawa 'yawn, be open mouthed': CHK mmaw 'toy., a y.'; MRT maw; PUL memmewoo-(n-ate1) 'to y.'; CRL.(a)-moo-(1), moo-(l.atel) 'to y.'; WOL moo-(1i-gatelu) 'to y.,a y.'; PuA maao; PCK? *mmawa, mawa, maawo; PON maw-(d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l); MOK maama;; KIR mawa 'out of breath through weariness';KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] PEO? *mawa, mawawa (Fu [laa]-mawa 'toy.,gape'; SAM maavava 'to y.', TON mamao [? <*mamawa] 'toy.'; SAA [ahi]-mawa 'to y.'; BUG maonaova 'to y.,gape'); UAN *wawaq 'opening, mouth'. Cf. PUL mmol 'betired, out of breath, exhausted'; SAA mawa 'to shout'; AROmawa 'to shout'. There are problems here.

PMc *mawo 'healed, obliterated': CHK mo 'be gottenrid of, erased, wiped out, finished off, cured', moo 'remains,scar, site or location of past activity', moo-(nu-pis) 'abandonedgarden site', (o)-moo-(y) 'get rid of, erase, obliterate'; MRTmo 'heal', moo.(la) 'be h.'; PUL mo 'to disappear,be erased, h.', mo (sic), moo-(n) 'scar or trace of',(o)-moo-(ye-lo) 'to erase it, heal it (as a wound)'; CRL mo'to have h.'; STW mo 'h.', moo-(lo) 'h. up';WOL moo 'be h., cured, extinguished (of fire), erased',(ge)-moo-(we) 'erase it, extinguish it, heal it, cure it'; PCK*mawo, maawo, mawo-, (ka)-mawo-(a); PON mo 'to heal', moo-(n oola)'scar', mowe 'its scar, trace, ruins'; MOK mo 'beh.'; MRS mew 'to heal'; KIR mao 'h. (as a wound) (Eastman1948:53); KSR mae 'heal', mae (in p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laen)'scar, blotch, scab'; PEO *mafo (Fu mavo'h. [of a sore]';BUG mavo 'to heal up, be h.'; LAO mafo 'be h.'; KWAmafo-[te'e-nia] 'forget about, allow to slip from the mind').Cf. LAK mahavu 'h. (of a sore').

PMc *mawolo 'hollow, concavity': CHK moon, moonu-(n)'h., c., h. of', (nee)-moon 'h., c., h. place, valley, innerside'; MRT mole-(n) (sic) 'h., depression, area of thearmpit', (lee)-mool 'area within elbow orampit'; PUL mool,mooli-(n) 'empty shell, c. s. of'; STW (1ee)-moolo- 'areaunder arm or inside elbow'; WOL moolo 'chest'; PCK *maalo or*mawolo; MRS mawal 'period between series of large waves'; SAAmaholo 'space, interval of time or distance'. Cf. KIR [m.sup.w]ano'indented, having a h., depressed', (te)-[m.sup.w]ancno 'smalldepression or pit'. Cf. Marck(19943I8) PMc *malo concaveness,depression, valley' (open to question because of lack of fit of KIRforms).

PCMc *ma-wono 'perspiration': CHK mo-onoon,mo-onoone-(n),mo-onoonu-(n) 'p., sweat, p. of'; PUL mo-oniyon(sic),<*mo-ono-yon?); CRL. ([b.wup.w]oo-l) mo-oliyol, [m.sup.w]o-oliyol.[m.sup.w]-oliyal; PuA ma.onanona (sic, <*ma-onaona?); PCK ?*ma-wonoono;KIR ma-ono. Cf. FIJ buno.

PMc ? *ma[w[theta]u[sS][au] 'cooked': CHK moot,[m.sup.w]oot, [m.sup.w]ooto-(mman) 'c., c. slowly'; PUL[m.sup.w]oot and (y6)-[m.sup.w]ota- 'thing c.'; CRI. [m.sup.w]oot,[m.sup.w],oota-; WOL mette; PuA mete; PCK? *maud[ao]; MRS mat; POC ?*maus[aol (PPN moso; LAK mausa). Cf. KIR [m.sup.w]ai-raoi (?<*[m.sup.w]aira-raoi) 'well cooked'.

PMc *mece-a 'pointed thing': CHK mache- 'long p.projection, spike, spine', macha, mecha, macha-a-(n) 'sharp p. longprojection, beak or bill (of fish), horn, spine, metal nail, metal,iron', mache-(w), mache-(wa.n) 'stingray tail, spear (with stingrayspine attached), it s. t,'; PUL meRe-(n) 'summit of, end of, topof, tip of', meRa 'metal, iron' (presumably from iron nails);CRL. maash, meshe-(l) 'tip, point, boundary, edge, point of land, smallpeninsula, t. of', meshe 'steel, iron, scrap metal',mesehe.(n), meshe-(ne-l) 'unopened top or head sprout of a tree, t.of'; CRN meRe 'steel, iron, scrap metal', meRe-(n)'unopened top or head sprout of a tree'; WOL meeshe, meshe-'upper end (of a pole)'; PuA meese- 'end, hem'; PCK *mece'end, tip, point', *mece-ya 'p. thing'; PONm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'metal, nail, badge,spear for a speargun'; MRS mede 'chisel'; KSR asra'spear, nail, metal'. The PON form is felt by some speakers to be aloan from English metal (Rehg and SohI 1979:59). In KsR, initial *moccasionally became labio velar and is reflected by w or [theta]-the latterespecially when the following vowel develops as KSR o.

PMc *mee-Saa 'what?': See PMc *-Saa, mee-San'intenogative suffix'.

PMc *mena 'thing': CHK meen; mine.(n) 't., t. of,man (not woman), relative, friend, polite term of address to a man to whoseauthority one is not subject', (ne)-min 'woman, polite term ofaddress to a woman'; PUL miin 'the person or t. underdiscussion'; CRL miil, mili- and CRN mini-'person (known but notspecified), t., object'; WOL mele 'this t.', mele-(we)'that t.', mela-(i), min-(ni) 't., means, or tool for orof'; PUA mene 'this one'; PCK *mena; PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 't., one of, t. of'; MOKmii-(n) 'thing of'; MRS men 'thing, matter, object; a person,unnamed'; KIR (te)-mena 't.'; KSR ma 'one, t. (indefinitepronoun)', [m.sup.2]e- 't.', mee-(n) 'one of, t. of orfor'. Cf. PON mai[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sir, madam'; PPN*meqa 't.'. See also PMC *mena-a 'do (s.t.)'.

PCMc *mena 'live, dwell, exist': WOL mile 'stay,l.'; PUA mine 'stay, l.'; PON mi 'to exist (a locativeverb), be (in a place)', mi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'exist (anexistential verb)'; KIR mena 'abide, d.'. MOK mine'exist, be at a place, l. ,reside, there is or are' looks like aloan. Cf. KSR m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta 'l.,stay'; CHK meyi, men,mmen 'be (in a condition)'; LAK moi, momoi 'to d.'.

PMC *mena-a 'do (s.t.)': CHK mina 'do s.t. to (it),fix (it), take care of (it), disturb (it), harm (it), spoil (it)',mina-a-(neni) 'do s.t. to (it), mess with (it), fool with (it)';PUL min, mina-(a) 'treat, attend to, fix'; CRL mila 'do correct (a problem)'; KIR mena-a 'to do (s.t.)'; PEO *mena(SAA me[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'ini) 'doa thing perfectly'. The raised first vowel in the CHK and CRL forms incontrast with the KIR form attest to PMC *n. See also PMC *mena'thing'.

PMC *mera, meera 'stained yellow': PON m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 'rusty, corroded'; MOK meer 'stained from coconuthusk or fruit'; MRS mayar 'stained, yellowish'; KIR meamea'yellow', memea 'stained yellow by juice of green coconuthusk'. Cf. PEO *meRa 'red' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *me/q[theta]/a'reddish'; BUG metha, mela 'red'; ARO mera 'a sp. ofsmall red fish'; KWA mela 'bright red').

PMc *metu 'old times': CHK musu-(we) 'ancienttimes'; CRL. [m.sup.w]oi-(we), [m.sup.w]ei-(we), 'the past (atleast two or three generations ago), in olden days'; WOL [m.sup.w]oosu,[m.sup.w]osu-, [m.sup.w]asu-(wee) 'ancient times'; ULI mesu-(we)'old days, long gone'; PUA moodu, modu- 'ancient times';PCK *metu; MOK meej 'before, long ago'; KSR met 'before, along time ago'. Note: the [m.sup.w] of CRL and WOL is presumably asecondary formation. Note also that CHK [m.sup.w]uu, [m.sup.w]uu-,[m.sup.w]uu, [m.sup.w]uu- 'era, epoch', PON [m.sup.w]eey'reign, era' could be from the same PMC root. Cf. PON maas 'inthe past, a long time ago'.

PMC *misi 'smack one's lips': CHK mmit, mitimit'smack one's lips, make a loud kissing noise', (e,)-mmiti'smack (the lips), cause it to smack', miti-ri 'smack upon it,kiss or suck noisily on it'; PUL mit (sic) 'sound made by pursingthe lips', miti-i-(y) 'make a kiss-like sound with pursed lips,summon (s.o.) with this sound'; CRL mmit 'noise made when smackingthe lips or tongue to show dissatisfaction, to make such a noise'; PCK*mmidi, midimidi; KSR mitw-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'eat noisily,slurp'; PEO *misi 'suck through teeth' (Geraghty 1983) (Fumisi, misi-ka 'to pick or nibble at [of bats]'; PPN *misi'sucking sound'). Note also PON meti-k miti-k 'to kiss(s.o.)'; MOK misi-k 'to kiss (s.o., on cheek or hand)'; PPN'suck, lick'; LAU midi 'to taste'; PEO *midi < Pre-POC*minsi as a prenasalized variant. See also PPON *mici-ki 'to kiss, makea sucking sound'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]a- prefix indicating having a variable, oscillating,or variegated condition': CHK [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]o-,[m.sup.w]e- (as in [m.sup.w]e-kinikin 'tickle'), [m.sup.w]e-,[m.sup.w]o-; MRT [m.sup.w]V- (vowel varies); PUL [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]a-,CRL [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]o-, [m.sup.w]e-, STW [m.sup.w]V-(vowel varies); WOL [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]e-; PUA [m.sup.w]a-; PCK*[m.sup.w]a-; PON [m.sup.w]a- (as in [m.sup.w]a-a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ien'giddy, dizzy'), [m.sup.w]e (as in [m.sup.w]enininin'whisper', [m.sup.w]e-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er 'spotted, blotched', [m.sup.w]e-rekirek'wrinkled'), [m.sup.w]o- (as in [m.sup.w]o- kuuku'whisper'); MOK [m.sup.w]a-, [m.sup.w]e-, [m.sup.w]o-, MRS[m.sup.w]a- (as in [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aydikdik 'whisper'),[m.sup.w]e-; KIR [m.sup.w]a-; KSR wa- (as in wa-korkor 'ticklish');PEO *[m.sup.w]a- (TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-; SAA [m.sup.w]a-, ARO[m.sup.w]a-; KWA wa-). See PPC *[m.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu 'whisper', PWMC *-ali,-aliali, mwa-aliali 'circle, circling, dizzy', PCMC *[m.sup.w]akusu'be in mo tion'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]aa 'indeed (exclamation)': CHK [m.sup.w]aa'i., so, really (an exclamation)'; KIR [m.sup.w]a (sic)'exclamation of dissatisfaction and surprise'; KSR wae'exclamation of surprise'; POC *[m.sup.w]aa (FIJ gaa 'only,just, all the same, yet, but, however [adverb]'; LAK ma'thus').

PMC *[m.sup.w]aane 'man,male: CHK [m.sup.w]aan 'm.,male', [m.sup.w]aani-(n) 'her brother', [m.sup.w]aaneyan'be a brother and sister', [m.sup.w]aani-(i-nuk) 'youngerbrother', (a)-[m.sup.w]aani 'treat him as a middle-aged man';PUL [m.sup.w]aan 'm.', [m.sup.w]aane-(n) 'brother of (awoman)'; CRL [m.sup.w]aal; CRN [m.sup.w]aan; STW [m.sup.w]aan.[m.sup.w]aani-(n) 'm., m. of'; WOL [m.sup.w]aale 'm.',[m.sup.w]aale-(nnape) 'maternal uncle', [m.sup.w]aale-(tugofai,)'old m.'; PUA [m.sup.w]aane; SNS [m.sup.w]aane; PCK *[m.sup.w]aane;PON [m.sup.w]aane; MOK [m.sup.w]aan, , [m.sup.w]ein; MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ahan 'man, male, wife's brother'; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w]aane 'm,', [m.sup.w]aane 'male',[m.sup.w]aane-(na) 'his/her sibling of opposite sex'; KSR wen; PEO*[m.sup.w]aqane (FIJ gane 'sibling of opposite sex'; TON[tuo]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a' ane 'brother of a woman'; BUGmane; SAA , [m.sup.w]ane; LAU [m.sup.w]ane; ARO [m.sup.w]ane; KWA wane; LAK[hata]-male) 'm., male, brother of a woman'; PKB*tam[ou][h[theta]ane). Cf. UAN *ba..R ani; PAN *RaqaNi 'commander, warleader' (Wolff 1993).

PMC *[m.sup.w]aau 'good, healthy': CHK [m.sup.w]aaw'humble, deferential', (sa)- [m.sup.w] aaw 'sick' (lit.'not well')'; MRT (se)- [m.sup.w]aaw '[sick.sup.1]; PUL(he)- [m.sup.w]aay '[sick.sup.1]; CRL([m.sup.w]aa)-[m.sup.w]aay 'bebeautiful, pretty, handsome, g., h., successful'; STW([m.sup.w]aa)-[m.sup.w]aay 'beautiful', (se)-[m.sup.w]aay'sick'; WOL [m.sup.w]aau 'be g.' , (te)-[m.sup.w]aaw'sickness'; PUA mau (sic) 'be g., fine', (ta)-mau'sin, badness, fault, be bad, mean, cruel'; PCK *[m.sup.w]aau,(ta)-[m.sup.w]aau; PON [m.sup.w]aaw 'g.', [m.sup.w]aaw-(ki)'to consider g., desire (s.t.)', (sow)-[m.sup.w]aaw 'sickness,disease'; MOK [m.sup.w] 'g., pretty, nice'; KSR wo 'g.,becoming, satisfactory, agreeable'. See also PCK *ta-[m.sup.w]aau'sickness, be sick'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]aca, 'busy, occupied, detained': PUL[m.sup.w]aR 'be late, detained'; CRL [m.sup.w]ash' be busy,detained'; WOL [m.sup.w]aslui (sic) 'be busy, occupied'; PUA[m.sup.w]asa-(iki) 'laziness, be lazy'; PCK *[m.sup.w]aca; MRS[m.sup.w]ad 'loiter, distracted, busy, occupied'.

PWMC ? *[m.sup.w][aca.sub.2] 'garden': PON [m.sup.w]aat'clearing, field, plantation, garden, farm'; MOK[m.sup.w]""s-(wen) 'vegetable g.'; MRS (je)-[m.sup.w]ade-(n) 'wasteland (not garden)'. This is based onMarek's (1994:322) PPC *m'at'a.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]acaya 'physical deformity': CHK[m.sup.w]achey, [m.sup.w]acheya-(n) 'd., his d.'; WOL [m.sup.w]asheye 'birthmark on the skin'; PCK *[m.sup.w]acea; KIR[m.sup.w]araa 'having a hairlip, be disgusted or shocked at the sight ofs.t.'. Cf. FIJ daa 'a children's disease showing redspots', and ef. PMC *ma-cai 'slimy'.

PCMc *[m.sup.w]aire 'exaltation': CHK [m.sup.w] eyir'dance of exaltation (done only by women)', (e)-[m.sup.w] eyir'song while carrying food to present to the chief', (e)-[m.sup.w]eyira 'sing upon it (food brought to the chief)'; WOL [m.sup.w]eire 'shout (usually in a large group of people), yell'; PCK*[m.sup.w]air[ac]; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w] aie 'worldly pleasure,dissipation' (a missionary's disapproving gloss), [m.sup.w]aie'engage in worldly pleasure' (ka)-[m.sup.w]aie-(a) 'induce(s.o.) to engage in worldly pleasure or sport'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]aki 'needlefish': WOL [m.sup.w]aagi,[m.sup.w]agi- 'young n.'; PUA [m.sup.w]aaki, [m.sup.w]aki-'eel'; PCK *[m.sup.w]aki; MRS [m.sup.w] ak 'n.'.

PWMc? *[m.sup.w]aku[m.sup.w]aku 'arrowroot (Taccaleontopetaloides)': CHK #eek, [m.sup.w] eku, [m.sup.w] ek; PUL[m.sup.w][akom.sup.w]ak; CRL moghomogh and CRN mogomog 'arrowroot';WOL [m.sup.w]egu-[m.sup.w]egu; PCK *[m.sup.w][akum.sup.w]aku; PON[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k, MOK[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k, MRS[m.sup.w]ak[m.sup.w]ek. KSR mokmok appears to be a loan.

PCMc *[m.sup.w]akusu 'be in motion': CHR [m.sup.w]ekut,[m.sup.w]ekutukut 'move', (e)- [m.sup.w] ekutu 'make itmove'; MRT [m.sup.w]ekut; PUL [m.sup.w]oghut; CRN mogut; STW [m.sup.w]okutukut; WOL [m.sup.w]agutu; PCK *[m.sup.w]akutu; PON[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kid; MOK [m.sup.w]ekid-(da) 'hurryup!'; MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]akit; KIR [m.sup.w] "akuri'work'. Note that KSR mukwi, mukwikwi 'move' looks like aloan (initial m unexpected). Cf. SAA [m.sup.w] a' uu'disorderly'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]a-nuu 'length from elbow to finger tips':CHK [m.sup.w]enuu-, -[m.sup.w]e-nu; CRL [m.sup.w]a-lu, [m.sup.w]a-luu-(lpeshe) 'inside of the knee or elbow joint, inside of the knee',-[m.sup.w]a-lu 'length from inside elbow to finger tip, cubit (countingclassifier)'; WOL -[m.sup.w]a-luu 'length from elbow to fingertip(counting classifier)'; PUA -[m.sup.w] a-nu (sic); PCK*[m.sup.w]a-[in]uu; KIR [m.sup.w]a-nuu 'a joint (as the elbow)';PEO *([m.sup.w]a)-nuu (Fu nuu 'elbow').

PMC *[m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'to eat, food':CHAK [m.sup.w] e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e. [m.sup.w] e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee-(n) 'eat, cooked f., c. f. of',(a)-[m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-(w), (a)- [m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee-(ni) 'give f. to him, feed him'; PUL [m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e. [m.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-(n) 'eat,f., f. of'; CRL [m.sup.w] o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'staplef.', (a)- [m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(w) 'to feed(s.o.)'; CRN (a)- [m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o-o-(y) 'to feed(s.o.)'; WOL [m.sup.w]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'to e., f.';PUA [m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'to e., f. (cooked staple),meal'; PCK *[m.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au; PON [m.sup.w]enE,[m.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'e., f., f. of'; MOK [m.sup.w]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'to e., f.'; MRS in" e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ay 'to e.,f,'; KSR mo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'e., f.'; PEO*(mwa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au (SAA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eu 'to eat',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au-[he] 'a feast'; ULA nau-[ha] 'afeast'; SAA and ULA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au-[laa] 'f.'; ARO[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'to e. f.'). Cf. BUG va[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'to eat, vegetable food'; LAU fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'to eat', fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a 'a feast',fa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(gu) 'my mouth'; KWA fa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'food'. Note that the initial m of the KSR form isunexpected and suggests it is a loan.

PMc [m.sup.w]are 'shoulder garland': CHK [m.sup.w] aar,[m.sup.w] ara[m.sup.w] ar, [m.sup.w] ara[m.sup.w]ar, [m.sup.w] ari-n,[m.sup.w] ari-ni 'lei, wreath, wear a l., his l., acquire as a l.',[m.sup.w]are-(e-y), [m.sup.w]are-(e.y) 'carry it on the shoulders';PUL [m.sup.w] aar, [m.sup.w] ara-[m.sup.w]ar, [m.sup.w]ara-ni-(y); CRL[m.sup.w]aar; [m.sup.w]aar, 'possessive classifier for garlands, leis,necklaces ... worn around the head or neck'; STW [m.sup.w]aar,[m.sup.w]are[m.sup.w]ar; WOL [m.sup.w]aare, [m.sup.w]are[m.sup.w]are,[m.sup.w]era-le, [m.sup.w]era-li-(i); PUA [m.sup.w]aale,[m.sup.w]ale-[m.sup.w]ale, PCK *[m.sup.w]are, [m.sup.w]are[m.sup.w]are,[m.sup.w]are-na, [m.sup.w]are-ni; PON [m.sup.w]aar, [m.sup.w]ara[m.sup.w]ar,[m.sup.w]are; MOK [m.sup.w]ar[m.sup.w]ar; PNG [m.sup.w]ar[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w]ar; MRS [m.sup.w]ar[m.sup.w]ar 'necklace, wear anecklace', [m.sup.w]are- 'poss. classifier for flowers, medals,necklaces, or fishing baskets'; KIR (te)- [m.sup.w]ae; KSR da-(l)'his lei'. See also PCK *ka[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]are 'carry with ashoulder pole'.

PMc *[m.sup.w]ata 'worm': CHK [m.sup.w]aas,[m.sup.w]asa-(n), [m.sup.w]asa[m.sup.w]as 'stench (especially genitalstench), his s.', [m.sup.w]as 'stink'; PUL [m.sup.w]aha-(n)'his bad odor', [m.sup.w]ah 'smell bad'; CRL[m.sup.w]aas, of [m.sup.w]asa-(l) 'stink, unpleasant smell, hisu.s.'; CRN [m.sup.w]aah 'stink, unpleasant smell'; WOL[m.sup.w]aase, [m.sup.w]esa-(le) 'sperm, his s.', [m.sup.w]aate,[m.sup.w]eta- 'underground w.'; PCK *[m.sup.w]ata; PON [m.sup.w]aas'w., bacteria, germ', [m.sup.w]asa-(koyl) 'maggot'; MOK[m.sup.w]aj 'w.'; MRS [m.sup.w] aj 'eel, intestinal w.';KIR (te)- [m.sup.w]ata 'w.'; KSR Wet 'worms', wat(koekoe) 'a kind of w.'; PEO *[m.sup.w]ata 'snake'; POC[m.sup.w]ata 'snake' (TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata'snake'; FIJ gwata, gata 'snake'; SAA [m.sup.w]aa'snake, the disease lupus'; LAU [m.sup.w]aa 'snake'; KWAwaa 'snake, w.'; LAK mata-[guruguru] 'a small snake'; PWM*mata 'snake'). Cf. L: MRT [m.sup.w]uso.

PWMc *[m.sup.w]ata[n[theta]]ala 'intestines': PON[m.sup.w]asaal, [m.sup.w]esaal[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'i., his i.';MOK [m.sup.w]ajaal. [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]al,[m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali-(n). [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]al, [m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali-(n); MRS[m.sup.w]aj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]al. MRS J expected. Cf. KIR(te)-mata[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'pancreas' (Bender et al. 1984);FIJ gacagaca 'entrails'. Cf. also PPC *taka, taka-ni 'stomach,have stomach for' and PCK *daa 'intestine'.

PCMc [m.sup.w]aTie 'to sneeze': CHK [m.sup.w]esi,[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]esi 'to s.', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]esi, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]esiya-(n) 'a s., his s.'; MRT [m.sup.w]asey; PUL[m.sup.w]ahey, [m.sup.w]ahiy; CRL [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]usi; CRN [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]uhi; STW [m.sup.w]asi; WOL [m.sup.w]osiye; ULI [m.sup.w]usi; PUAmodia; PCK [m.sup.w]a'Ti[ae]; MRS [m.sup.w]ajey; KIR [m.sup.w]atie. Cf.PON asi 'to s.'; KSR sine 'to s.'; SAA asi[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e and ULA asihe 'to s.'; ARO asihe 'to s.'; BUGachihe 'to s.'; KWA 'asi-lai 'to s.'.

PCMc *[m.sup.w[theta]]au 'be finished': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ew, [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]ewu- (<*[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]ewu) 'cometo an end, be finished'; KIR [m.sup.w]ai 'be cooked'. Cf. PEO*[m.sup.w]aRi 'roasted' (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc *[m.sup.w]ea[w[theta]]u 'be slow': PUL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aay; CRL -[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aay, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]aayu-'carefully, slowly, without rushing'; KIR [m.sup.w]eau 'arrivelate, come slowly, move slowly'.

PWMc *[m.sup.w]ese, [m.sup.w]e[m.sup.w]ese 'jump, movequickly': CHK [m.sup.w]et, [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]et,[m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w]et 'j., spring, leap', [m.sup.w]ete-(ta)'j. up' [m.sup.w]ete-e-(y) 'j. over or onto it'; PUL[m.sup.w]et 'to walk fast', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]et 'toj.', [m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w]et 'be fast', [m.sup.w]ete-(tiw)'to j. down'; CRL [m.sup.w]et to go away, get away',[m.sup.w]ete[m.sup.w]et 'be fast, hurry up'; WOL [m.sup.w]ete'to run'; PCK *[m.sup.w]ede, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ede; MRS[m.sup.w]et, [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]et 'pitch (of a boat), to pitch'.For prenasalized variant see FIJ gede 'to bob up and down'.

PMc *[m.sup.w][ou]a 'ahead, going before': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(n) 'a. of him', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(mey) 'firstbreadfruit (of a season)', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-e-(y) 'present it asfirst fruits', (e)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(ni) 'lead him, go b.him'; PUL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(n) 'a. of him'[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(e-y) 'to lead'; CRL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(l)'in front of him'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(li) 'in frontof', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-(a) 'go a of it'; PUA [m.sup.w]ua-'front, b.'; PCK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]a-,[m.sup.w]ua-; PON[m.sup.w]ow[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a. of him, to offer as a firstfruit'; MRS [m.sup.w]aha- 'a., b., place in front of'; KIR[m.sup.w]oa 'first'; PEO *muqa (PPN *muqa 'b., first';FIJ mua-[na] 'tip, point, front of it'). Cf. PKB *muga 'first,go a., now, temporarily, forward, onward'. We have here an unusualinstance in the Mc languages in which PEO *u after *[m.sup.w] was eitherlowered to o or a (presumably because of the following a) or was assimilatedto the preceding [m.sup.w] (see also PMc *[m.sup.w]o e 'sleep').

PMc *[m.sup.w]oe 'sleep': CHK (kuna)-[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 'comfort, tranquility, peace, be comfortable';MRT (kina)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 's.'; PUL (kena)-[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 'peace, comfort, ease, be at peace, tranquil,comfortable'; CRL (ghula)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'be sleepingdeeply', #(ghil6)- [m.sup.w] 'deep s., freedom, quiet, peace';CRN (guna)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'to s. deeply', #(guno)- [m.sup.w]'deep s., freedom, quiet, peace'; STW (kula)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e's. well'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e 's. well, s. soundly',(ga)- [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e-(e) 'make him sleep well'; PCK*[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]e; KIR [m.sup.w]ee 'to s.'; PEO *moze (Geraghty1983) (PPN *mohe; FIJ moce; ARO moe 'to stay, sleep with s.o.').Note also PKB *moqe 'sleeping mat and rain cape made of pandanus, thepandanus From which they are made'. Here, again, we have theassimilation of PMC *o to a preceding *[m.sup.w] in PCK (see also PMC*[m.wup.w][ou]a 'ahead, going before'). Cf. KJR [m.sup.w][em.sup.w]e, [m.wup.w] eme (sic) 'to dr eam'. Note the prenasalizeddoublets: SAA mode 'be listless, faint'; LAU mode 'to mend,patch'; KWA mode 'pandanus, mat, umbrella'; POC *mode <Pre-POC *monze.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]oka 'crumbled, decomposed': CHK(fewu)-[m.sup.w]o, (fowu)-[m.sup.w]o 'small pebbles',(fewu)-[m.sup.w]o 'be pebbly'; PUL (fawu)-[m.sup.w]o 'pebbles,coral rubble'; CRL (faay) mo, (faay) mokk 'gravel'; CRN (faay)mog 'gravel'; WOL (fau)-[m.sup.w]age 'gravel, pebbles',(fau)-[m.sup.w]ega-(a) 'put gravel on it'; PUA (dadu)-make (sic)'gravel, pebbles'; PCK *(fatu)-[m.sup.w]oka 'decayedstone'; MRS [m.sup.w]ek 'tired, exhaused'; KIR [m.sup.w][om.sup.w] oka, mka 'be decayed, rotten'. Marck (1994:316)reconstructs PMC maka or fatu-maka 'stones for throwing'.

PMC *[m.wup.w]onu 'squirrel fish': CHK [m.sup.w]een,#[m.sup.w]eenu-(n) 'species of s.f. (Myripristis), s. f. of'; PUL[m.sup.w]een, #[m.sup.w]eeni-(n) 'small red reef f. (perhaps a redsnapper), f. of'; CRL [m.sup.w]eel 'sp. Of f. similar tosnapper'; CRN [m.sup.w]een 'sp. of s. f.'; WOL [m.sup.w]eelu,[m.sup.w]elu- 'red snapper'; PCK *[m.sup.w]enu; PON[mm.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'f. sp.'; MRS [m.sup.w]en's. f.'; KIR (te)-[m.sup.w]on 'a f. (Myripristis adustus, M.murdjan)'; KSR won 'a kind of f.'. Cf. LAK mola 'af.'.

PWMC *[m.sup.w]ool[iu] 'generous': CRL [m.sup.w]ool'be g., very kind'; WOL [m.sup.w]eelu 'g., liberal,open-handed'; PUA [m.sup.w]oni (sic) 'be g., kind'; PCK*[m.sup.w]oo(ln)(iu); MRS [m.sup.w][m.sup.w] ewel 'be g., be thanked, begrateful, liberal, open-handed'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]out 'ended, finished': CHK [m.sup.w]u'come to an end'; PUL [m.sup.w]eyi-(lo) 'disappear (as food infamine), be gone away'; PON [m.sup.w]ey 'finish defecating';MRS [m.sup.w]ej 'finished'; KIR [m.sup.w]oti 'decided',[m.sup.w]oti-ka 'decided, terminate (s.t.)'; POC motu (ULA mou-si'to decide'). C. PMC *[m.sup.w]out, [m.sup.w]out-Si 'cut,sever, break off', PCMC *[m.sup.w]au 'be finished', PCK*[m.sup.w]uccu 'finished'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]out, [m.sup.w]out-Si 'cut, sever, breakoff': CHK [m.sup.w]uu-(also [m.sup.w]u, [m.sup.w]uu-) 'be severed,broken off', [m.sup.w]uu-ti (also [m.sup.w]uu-ti) 'break it apart;adopt a child'; MRT [m.sup.w]ew 'broken off, separated'; PUL[m.sup.w]ey (also mey, meyi-ti-(y)) 'break as rope, adopt a child';CRL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ey 'be broken, snapped, parted',[m.sup.w]ei-ti 'to break, part, snap (s.t.); STW [m.sup.w]ey'broken off, separated'; WOL [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]eu 'be brokenoff', [m.sup.w]eu[m.sup.w]eu 'break away, divorce',[m.sup.w]eu-ti-(i) 'break it, take it (a child) from its mother';PUA [m.sup.w]adu 'be broken', modumodu, modu-ti Adopted child,adopt a child'; PCK *[m.sup.w]out, [m.sup.w]out-di; PON [m.sup.w]ey'be broken', [m.sup.w]ey-d 'to break (s.t., as astring)'; MOK [m.sup.w]ey 'snapped, divorced', [m.sup.w]ey-d'snap (s.t.)'; MRS [m.sup.w]ij[m.sup.w]ij, [m.sup.w]iji-t'cut'; KIR [m.sup.w]oti 'broken off'; KSR wot'cut' uti 'cut (s.t.)'; POC *motu-[sz] (PPN *motu; SAAmou, mou-si; ARO mou; KWA mou, mou-si-[a]). Cf. PMC *[m.sup.w]out'ended, finished', PCK *[m.sup.w]uccu 'finished'.

PCMC *[m.sup.w]oTo 'a fish': CRL [m.sup.w]oos'edible f. similar to a snapper'; PUA moodo, modo- 'redsnapper'; PCk *[m.sup.w]oTo; KIR(te)-[m.sup.w][om.sup.w]oto 'af.'.

PMC *-[m.sup.w]u 'your (sg.)': CHK -[m.sup.w]; MRT-[m.sup.w]; PUL -[m.sup.w]; CRL -[m.sup.w]; STW -[m.sup.w]; WOL -[m.sup.w]u;PUA -[m.sup.w]u; PCK *-[m.sup.w]u; PON -[m.sup.w], -[m.sup.w]i(honorific);MOK -[m.sup.w]; PNG -[m.sup.w]; MRS -[m.sup.w]; KIR -[m.sup.w],-[m.sup.w][m.sup.w]; KSR -m (final *[m.sup.w] > m); POC *-mu (FIJ -mu; SAA-mu; BUG -mu; LAU -mu; PKB *-mu).

PMC *[m.sup.w]ucu 'firewood': CHK [m.sup.w]uuch, (a)-[m.sup.w]uch, (e)- [m.sup.w]uch 'wood (as a material), f.',-[m.sup.w]uch 'piece of wood (counting classifier)'; PUL[m.sup.w]uuR; CRL (a)- [m.sup.w]ush; CRN (a)- [m.sup.w]uR; WOL[m.sup.w]uushu, [m.sup.w]ushu- 'f., big f., that can last a longtime'; PUA [m.sup.w]uusu, [m.sup.w]usu- 'big f.'; PCK*[m.sup.w]ucu; KSR w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sr 'firebrand'. Cf. PONtuwi 'f'.; MOK sowi 'f.'.

PMC *[m.sup.w]ulo, [m.sup.w]ulo-Si- 'rub together, twist,rumple': PUL mulo-ta-(a-tiw) 'to rub (s.t.) together in one'shands (as fragrant leaves)'; CRL [m.sup.w]uli-ti, [m.sup.w]oli-ti'to rub (s.t.) back and forth (such as to crumple leaves with thefingers), to roll (two pieces of rope) together, to rub (the eyes)'; STW[m.sup.w]ulo-ti 'to twist (s.t.)'; WOL [m.sup.w]ulo[m.sup.w]ulo'to crumple, wrinkle, rumple, be crumpled', [m.sup.w]ulo-ti-(i)'to crumple, wrinkle, rumple (s.t.)', [m.sup.w]ulo-tagi 'becrumpled, wrinkled, rumpled'; PCK *[m.sup.w]ulo[m.sup.w]ulo,[m.sup.w]ulo-di-' PON [m.sup.w]ul[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'to twist orwind (s.t.) together'; KSR olo 'a wrinkle, crumple, crease, pleat,become wrinkled, crumpled, crased', ololo 'full of creases orwrinkles', olo-i 'to wrinkle, crumple, or crease (s.t.)'; Peo*mulo (FIJ mulo 'to twist a single strand or thread', mulo-na'to twist [a strand or thread], mulo-ni 'be twisted', mulo-a'a ring, reel, coil [as of wire or tape]', [vei]-mulomulo 'towr estle or grapple together in earnest').

PMC *[m.sup.w] [um.sup.w] uta 'to vomit': CHK [m.sup.w][m.sup.w] us 'to v., throw up', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] usa-asi-ni'v. it up, v. because of it'; MRT [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] os; PUL[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uh; CRL [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] us; CRN [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]uh; STW [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] us; WOL [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] ute 'to v.,throw up', [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uta-agi-li-(i) 'v. it up'; PUA[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uta; PCK *[m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] uta, [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w]uta-aki-ni-; PON [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] us; MRS [m.sup.w] [m.sup.w] ej; KIR[m.sup.w] [um.sup.w] uta; KSR wot 'to v.', wite 'v.(s.t.)'; POC *mutaq (Ross 1988) (KWA moa 'vomit').

PWMC ? *[m.sup.w] uno 'a fish': MRT [m.sup.w] uun'kind of f.'; STW [m.sup.w] uun 'kind of f.'; WOL[m.sup.w] uulo, [m.sup.w] ulo- 'spade f.'; PCK *[m.sup.w] uno; PON[m.sup.w] uun 'squirrel f. (Myripristis adustus)'; MRS [m.sup.w] en'squirrel f.' (Myripristis berndti). MRS n expected. Cf. KIR(te)-[m.sup.w] on 'a f. (Myripristis ?)'; FIJ mulu 'a longblack f.'.

PMC *[m.sup.w] uri- 'behind': CHK [m.sup.w] iri-; MRT[m.sup.w] ure-; PUL [m.sup.w] iri-; CRL [m.sup.w] iri-; Srw [m.sup.w] uri-;WOL [m.sup.w] iri-, (i)-[m.sup.w] iri-; PUA [m.sup.w] ili-; PCK *[m.sup.w]iri; PON [m.sup.w] uri-; MOK [m.sup.w] eri-; Km (i)-[m.sup.w] ii-; POC *muri(PPN *muri; FIJ muri; PKB *muLi). Cf. MRS [m.sup.w] [ir.sup.w], [m.sup.w][ir.sup.w] i-(n); 'hip, loin, h. of'. Cf. also SAA puri 'backof, behind', (i)-puri 'after'.

PCMc *n[ae]i- 'feminine prefix (with personal names ofwomen)': CHK neyi-; PUL nayi-; PCK *nai-; MRS neyi-; KIR nei-.

PMc *[nam.sup.w]o 'lagoon, harbor': CHK [noom.sup.w],[nom.sup.w] u-(n) 'I., archipelago, sea around an island, 1. of';MRT [noom.sup.w]; PUL [noom.sup.w], [nom.sup.w] o-(n); CRL [loom.sup.w],(lee)-[lom.sup.w]; CRN [noom.sup.w]; STW [noom.sup.w]; WOL [laam.sup.w] o,[lam.sup.w] o-(li); PuA [naam.sup.w] o, [nam.sup.w] o-(ni); PCK *[nam.sup.w]o; PON [naam.sup.w], (n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[nam.sup.w]; MRS [nam.sup.w]'secondary lagoon'; KIR (te)-[nam.sup.w] o; KSR nwem 'deeparea in a lagoon'; PEO *namo (TON namo 'sea near land'; SAAnamo 'landlocked harbor'; LAU namo 'inner harbor'; KWAnamo 'lake, pool, deep place in a river'); PMP *namaw 'cove,harbor, lagoon' (Blust 1980:114). MRS heavy n expected. Cf. MOK lam'lagoon'. Cf. also PMc *[lama.sub.2] 'lagoon, lake'. Secalso Marek (1994:3 14) PMC *nam'o.

PMC *nana 'pus': PUL naan, nana-(y) 'p., myp.'; CRL laal 'p. or smegma', lal 'have p.'; WOLlaale 'p., have p.'; PUA naana, nana-; PCK *nana; PON naan; MRS nan'smegma'; KSR (usaw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-nwen; POc *nanaq (Ross1988) (FIJ nana; KWA nana); UAN *nanaq.

PWMC *nanasu 'half flower (Scaevola): CHK nnet, nnetu-n'h. f., h. f. of'; MRT nn[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t; PUL nnat,nnatu-n; CRL llat; CRN nnat; STW nnat; WOL nnatu; PCK *nnadu; MRS (ke)- nnat.

PMc *natu 'child; classifier for cherished possessions':CHK naaw, newu-n, newunew 'child or children in general, kinsman ofjunior generation, political subject, domestic animal, small objectintimately associated w. the person', 'his c.', 'beparental or bear a c.'; MTK naaW, naWu-; PUL nawu-n, nawunaw, nayi-nay;STW nayu-; CRL layu-; CRN nayu-; WOL laau, lau-le, ladleu, ULI lee-; PUAnaau, nau-; MAP naha, nahey-nai 'c., my c.'; PCK *naau, nau-na,naunau; PON naay, ney[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], naa 'c., poss. classifierfor children, pets, toys'; MOK n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yn[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y 'have many children'; MRS naji-, neji- 'c. of, poss.classifier for children, pets, money, watches, or one's Bible'; KIRnaati, nati-na, natinati, KSR naet[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'hisc.'; POC *natu (Ross 1988) (PKB *natu). Note: Jackson (1983:190)reconstructs PCK *na(t)u. Cf. POC *natu(q) 'ovary, egg, baby bird'(Blust 1973:59); PMP *nati (Blust 1980:115).

PMc *nawo 'waves': CHK noo, noo-; PUL noo; CRL loo; CRNnoo; STW noo, WOL loo, loo-; PUA naawo, nawo-; PCK *nawo; MOK no; MRS new;KIR (te)-nao; KSR nod; PEO *[nn]afo (SAA naho; ARO naho; KWA nafo); PAN*Nabek (Blust 1984-85).

PMc *ney[ae] 'leg': PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'his 1.'; MRS ney, ney[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) '1., 1.of'; KSR niye-(l), niye-(n) 'his 1., 1. of'.

PMC *-ni 'of, pertaining to': CHK -n; MRT -n; PUL -n;CRL -l; CRN -n; STW-n; WOL -li; PUA -ni; PCK *-ni; PON -n; MOK -n; MRS -n;KIR -ni; KSR -n; POC *ni (FIJ ni; SAA ni; BUG ni); UAN *ni. Often referred toas "the construct suffix."

PCMC *-ni, -na 'verb suffix indicating acquisition orownership': CHK -ni; PUL -ni-(y); CRL -li, CRN -ni; WOL -li-(i); PCK*-ni; Km -na. Cf. PON -ni-(ki) 'derive trans. v. from inalien. n.:[sap.sup.w] e-ni-ki 'to own (of land), ([sap.sup.w] e-'land')'.

PMc *ni[ae] 'place': CHK ne-e-ni, ne-e-niya-(n) 'p.of, p., p. where s.t. or s.o. stays, its p.'; PUL ne-e-niy,ne-e-niya-(n); CRL be-e-liy, le-e-liya-(l), la-liya-(l); WOL la-i-,la-n-niye, la-n-niya-(le); PUA na-n-niya-(na); PCK *na-i-ni[ae], na-n-ni[ac];PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-([nam.sup.w]) 'lagoon, harbor'; MRSnine 'container, use as a container, sheath', niye-(n)'container of'; KIR nne- 'p. for'; KSR niye-(n) 'p.of'.

PMC * nima 'drinkable object': See PMC * inu, (i)nu-mi,(i)nu-ma 'drink'. Cf. Jackson 1986:208.


PMC * niu 'coconut': CHK nuu nuu-, PUL nuu, nuu-; CRLluu; CRN nuu; STW luu; WOL luu, luu-; PUA nuu; SNS nuu; PCK * nuu; PON nii;MOK ni, PNG ni; MRS niy; KIR (te)-nii, nii-; KSR nu; POC * niuR (PPN * niu;Fu niu; SAA niu; BUG niu; KWA niu; PKB * niu); UAN * niuR. Cf. YAP niiw.

PMc * noko 'midrib of coconut frond or leaf': PUA nooko,noko- 'c. f.'; PON nook 'main r. of the stem of a palm f., anyhard straw-like object'; MOK nok 'c. leaf m.'; MRS [nek.sup.w]'m. of a c. l.'; KIR (te)-noko 'm. of the smaller divisions ofa coconut frond'; KSR nook 'm.'. Cf. FIJ noko, noko-ta'to sharpen to a point'.

PWMc * noso 'a kind of fish': CHK noot 'largespecies of lethrinid f.'; PUL noot 'a kind of f.'; CRL loot'sp. of edible f.'; WOL looto, loto- 'a kind of f.'; PCK* nooto, noto-; MRS net 'a f. (Lethrinis variegatus)'. MRS[n.sup.w] expected.

PMC * nowu 'scorpion fish, stonefish': CHK noow,nuu.(nu-pis); MRT neew; PUL noow; CRL loow, lowu-; CRN nuunuu-(pi); STW loow;WOL loou, lou-; PCK * nowu; PON neew 'kind of frog fish'; MOK new;MRS new; KIR (te)-nou 'a fish'; POC * nopu (Ross 1988) (PPN *nofu). Cf. POC * nopu(q) (Blust 1978:5); PMP *lepu or * lepuq (Blust1983-84:76).


PMC *-na 'his, her, its': CHK -n; MRT -n; PUL -n; CRL-l; CRN -n; STW' -l, -n; WOL -le; PUA -na; MAP -[theta]; PCK * -na; PON-[theta]; MOK -[theta]; MRS -n; KIR -na; KSR -[theta] (Jackson 1983:334,443fn.); POc * -na (Ross 1988) (Fu -na; SAA -na; BUG -gna; LAK -la; PKB *-na).

PMc * nai-Sa, nai-Sa 'when?': CHK (i)-nee-t; MRT(i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-t; PUL (yi)-neet-t, (yi)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-t (sic); CRL (i)-lee-t, (i)-lee-ta; CRN (i)-nee-ta; (i)-lee-t; WOL(i)-lee-te; PUA (i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae-ta 'w,? (past)',(wa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae-ta 'w.? (future)'; PCK *(i)[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-da, (i)-nai-da; PON (y)-aa-d; MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee-d; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aya-t; KIR(ni)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai, (ni)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-ra; KSRn[epsilon]; POC * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-za, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ai-za(FIJ (ni)-nai-(ca); LAK (a)-lai-(sa) 'w.? (past)', gai-(sa)'w.? (future)', gai 'soon, presently, in the nearfuture'). These forms are not irregular but preserve one or another ofthe two forms of PMc and POC, as the two LAK forms, one for past and one forfuture testify. Sec also PEO * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iza 'when'(Geraghty 1883) (FIJ [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ica; BUG [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iha); POC * [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ica 'when?' (Ross1988:225,461). Note also SAA (i)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]anite'when?'.

PMc * nama 'taste': MRS nam, namnam 't., smell,flavor'; KIR nanama 'to t. or test the flavor of (st.)' (butsee PMc * nana, nanana 'taste, flavor'); KSR em 'totaste', ema 'taste (s.t.)'; PWMP * naman 'tasty,delicious' (Blust 1989:153); PMP * NamNam (Blust 1989:154); PAN * NamNam'delicious' (Wolff 1993). Note PON n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]min[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m 'to eat, t. (usedderogatorily)', namanam 't.', nam 'eat or t.(s.t.)', n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'its t.,flavor'; MOK namnam 'have t., n[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to t. (s.t.)', which we presume tobe loans from MRS. Cf. ULA name, name-li 'to t.'; ARO name,name-ri, nami, nami-ri 'to t., lick'; KWA name 'gobbleup'. Cf. also PMC * nana, nanana 'taste, flavor'.

PCMC * nama 'make a noose or snare': WOL lema-si-(i)'make knots in (rope) without pulling it tight'; PON aam'slipnoose or snare for catching animals'; KIR nama 'to entera snare noose (as a bird)'. Cf. PCK * llema, lema-ti- 'tie'.

PMC * [nam.sup.w]u 'mosquito': CHK (towu)-[nom.sup.w],-[nom.sup.w]u-(n) 'm. net'; MRT [nam.sup.w]u-(kkek) 'm.';PUL [noom.sup.w] 'in.', (towu)-[nom.sup.w] 'm. net'; CRL[loom.sup.w], [low.sup.w]o-(l) 'm., m. of'; CRN [noom.sup.w]; ; STW[noom.sup.w]; WOL [laam.sup.w]u, [lam.sup.w]u- 'in.',(tau)-[lom.sup.w]u 'in. net'; PuA [naam.sup.w]u [nam.sup.w]u-; SNS[raam.sup.w]u; PCK * [nam.sup.w]u; PON [am.sup.w]i-(s[epsilon])'m.'; MOK [am.sup.w]-(je) 'm.'; MRS [nam.sup.w]; KIR(te-tai)-[nam.sup.w]o 'm. net'; KSR em-(sy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]);PEO * namu (Geraghty 1983:155, 295); POC * namuk (Ross 1988) (PPN namu; FuBUG gnamu; KWA namu 'small flying insect'; PKB * namo); UAN *namuk; PAN * Namuk (Wolff 1993).

MRS light n expected. Note that the words for 'mosquitonet' show problems and appear to be more recent loans, at least in somecases. Cf. YAP nee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'mosquito'.

PMC nana, nanana 'taste, flavor': CHK nnen, nenna-(n)'t., f., its t.', nne-ri, nne-ni 't. it.', nne-yar't. sweet'; MRT nennan 't.'; PUL nennan 't., tot.'; CRL lla-ri 't. it'; CRN nne-ri 't. it'; STWnnan 't.'; WOL nnanne(<*nanna) 'to t.', nna-rii't. it'; PuA nna-na 'its t.'; PCK *nna-, nanna-, nna-ri-;MRS nnan 'musty t., moldy t.'; KIR nana-ma 'to t. or test thet. of (food)'; PEO *nna-m] (BUG gna-mi 'to nibble, bite, t.[s.t.]'). Cf. PUL lla 'favorite food'. Cf. also PMC *nanau'delicious, taste good', PMC 'taste'.

PMC *nanau 'delicious, taste good': CHK nne, (a)-nne'd., tasty'; MRT nne; Put nne, nenne; CRL (a)-llee-(w) and CRN(a)-nnee-(w) 'make it t. better'; WOL nnee 't g., sweettaste'; PUA nnau 'g. t, t. g.'; PCK *nnau; PON yyow'sweet, d.'; MRS nnaw; KIR nanai 'relishable'; KSRy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],PEO ? *nau (BUG gnou 'to bite, t.'). Cf. POC *napi 't., bite(Blust 1978:59), Jackson's (1983:374) statement that this is to bederived from POC *namu with inexplicable loss of interv ocalic *m is open tosome question. Cf. PMC *nana nanana 'taste, flavor'. (See alsoJackson 1983:334.)

PMC *nanoa 'yesterday': CHK nanew, #nanewi-(n) 'y.,y. of'; MRT nanaw; PUL nanewu (sic); CRL lalew; CRN nanew; STW nanew;WOL lalowe; ULI lalaow; PUA nanoa; PCK *[nn]anoa; PON ayo; MOK ayo; PNGaaiyo, aaiyoo-(wa); MRS (yi)-nney; KIR ([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]koa)-nanoa;KSR (len)-yo 'day before y.', (ek[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'evening before last evening';PEO *(nanoRa (Geraghty 1990) (SAA nonola; BUG [i]-gnotha). Cf. POC *noRop(Ross 1988); POC *noRa[q[theta]] (Blust 1978:58); PMP *neRab Blust 1980:116).Cf. PMC *l[au]tuu 'tomorrow', Cf. Marck (1994:312) PMC *nanoa.

PMC *non[iu] 'Morinda citrifolia': PUL neen; CRL leel,lid, CRN neen; WOL leeli, leli-; MAP non 'a tree or plant whose root wasused as a brown dye' (i.e., M citrifolia, a possible loan from KIR); PONwey-([p.sup.w]ul), we-([mp.sup.w]ul) 'M citrifolia (cf.[p.sup.w]ul'immature, of fruit'); MOK ween 'a tree',ween-([p.sup.w]u1) 'a tree'; MRS nen; KIR (te)-non; KSR oi 'atree'; PMP *NoNu (Blust 1984-85). Cf. POc *nonu (Ross 1988:208). Cf.also CHK [nop.sup.w]ur 'M citrifolia' (root used as yellow dye).



PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'lower jaw': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aach,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nachi-(n) 'lower jaw,jaw, his j.' [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]acha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ach'use or wear dentures', (ite)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ach 'leanon elbows with hand under chin'; MRT -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ash[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'his 1. j.'; PUL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aaR 'j.'; CRL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aash,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ashe-(l) 'lips, mouth, his l.j.'; STw naaR'1. j.'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace; KIR nare'laugh', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]are-aki-ni 'laugh at'.PON nara-aki 'laugh heartily' is an apparent loan from KIR. Cf. PMC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aco 'palate, gums', PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ace 'edge'.

PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'edge': CHK (wini)-nach'period just before daybreak or dawn'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ashe-(1) 'side, e., border of'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aashe, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ashe-(l) 'e., brink, e. of',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ashe-e(ye) 'make the e. of it'; PCK*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]adnad 'designedges of boat.s'.Cf. PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aco 'palate,gums'; PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ace 'lower jaw'.




PMc *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ratu 'thousand (num.classifier)': CHK - [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rew; MRT -ne-rew; PUL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ray; CRL and CRN -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rew,-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ras; STW -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ras; WOL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rai, -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-rau, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-rasi; PUA -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ladi; PCk *-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-rati, -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-ratu; PEO -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-Ratu (SAA [ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a]lau 'one hunderd',[ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-lai [[m.sup.w]ane] 'one hunderedmen'; BUG [ha]-thanatu <[ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-thatu 'onet.'; ARO [ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-rau 'one hundered, of menonly'); Poc *-Ratu (PLk latu 'one hudered'); UAN *Ratus'hundered'. Cf. KIR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa 't'. Notethe reflex here of UAN *R in PCK as *r rather than as the more common reflex*[theta], and in BUG as th rather than as the more common reflex l.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari-ti'nibble, gnaw, crunch': CHK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eriner 'benibbling, gnawing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-(y) 'n. or'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er'g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-(y) 'g. it'; CRL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'to have been gnawed or nibbled';[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari-i-(y), [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eri-i-i-(y) 'tog. or n. on (s.t. hard)'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'bescratched, abraided', narineri 'chew, c., g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ari-si-(i) 'g. it'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]arinari, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari-ti; MRS[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'bite the dust, feedoff a surface (as fish feeding off a reef surface)' [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ari-j 'cat s.t. in this manner'; KIR([m.sup.w]a)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ainai 'contend nosicly withwords'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]alryd 'bite, nip', nali-s'bite or nip (s.t.)'; POC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari (TON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ali 'n., chew, g.'; SAM gali 'g'LAK gari (la-mavo) 'bite (into the taro)'. Cf. KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'eat voraciously'; SAA[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ero 'to chew, n. (of rats); Kwa [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ale ' masticate with the gums'. See also PCMc*li-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'tinylouse'; and cf. PMc *kari 'to scratch', PCMc *ma-ari,ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari 'rough'.

PMC "[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru or*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][eo]ru,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][eo]ru[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][co]ru 'to crunch': MRT su-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eruner'to c. while eating (as in chewing beones)'; CHK su-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er (Bender et al. 1984); PULhi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to c. (as burnedbreadfruit seeds being eaten)'; CRL (sa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ur 'be crunchy',(assa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ur 'to c. with the teeth'; CRN(assa)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to c. with the teeth'; STWsi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'to c. (aschewing on bones)'; WOL su-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]eru 'to c., be crunchy, chew with a noisy, crackling sound, topress, grind, tread, etc., with a noisy sound'; PCK *Tu-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aru, -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru,-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eru; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or 'crunchy'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][ir.sup.w] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][ir.sup.w] 'to c. (as ineating)', (ka)- [[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]ir[[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w]ir 'to grind with the teeth noisily, c., munch'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]au 'to eatvoraciously'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'crushing, crunching, cracking, or crackling sound',([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]or[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or 'ment of young coconut, crunching,crushing'. Cf. KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]alu 'snap at, bite at (ofangry dog)', golu-a 'to c.'; TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'bite with the teeth,munch, c. (as bones), eat with a crunching or munching sound'; LAU[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]utu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]utu 'c. theteeth'. Cf. also Fu quru, quru-ta 'to c.'.


PWMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]asa 'unable to endurefurther': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata- 'be bored or tired ofs.t. repetitious'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]at[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]at 'unable to stomach s.t., unable to endure',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]atey 'unable to stomach or endure (s.t.)'.Pon d expected; problematic.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata 'fragrant': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aas, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase-n ' perfumed oil,p.o. of', a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]asa 'annoint her with p.o.'p*oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]as 'f. smell'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ah 'be f.', ya-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ah'fragrance'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aas 'aroma,scent', [b.sup.w] oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]as 'have a f.oder', CRN [b.sup.w] oo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ah 'have a f.odor'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase 'smell good, be f.',boo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ase 'good smell'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ata; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aj 'f. smell'; KSR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aes, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iyes 'expression whena foul smell is sensed'; Fu gasagasa 'savory, tasty (offood)'.

PMC *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]awulu 'unit of ten (incounting)'; CHK (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oon, -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oonu-; PUL-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ool; WOL -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aulu; PCK *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]awulu; PON - [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]owl; MRS (je)-[n.sup.w] weil 'ten', (jil)-niwil'thirty'; KIR-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aun; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]nul, -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oul; PEO *-nga-fulu (Fu [sa]-ga]vulu'ten'; SAA [ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-hulu; BUG[ha]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-vulu; KWA [ta]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-fulu);POC *-puluq (PKB *vulu); UAN * puluq. Cf. PPC *-ik[ae] 'counter fortens', PCMC *-itaki 'counter for tens'.



PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere 'be chafed, rasping': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ene[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]er 'be c. or scratched (of skin), be rough, hoarse, r. (ofvoice)', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere-e-(y) 'saw it, cut it bychafing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'asaw'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er'crackle, scrape, creak, a saw', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere-e(y)'saw it', (makure-[m.sup.w]a)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er 'have kinky hair'; CRL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er be rough, raspy',([m.sup.w]e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er,([m.sup.w]o)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]er, ([m.sup.w]o)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ar 'have a roughsurface, be very rough or raspy'; WOL (me)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]are[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]are 'have a sore feeling in the throat,have a dry throat', (ga)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere 'to clearone's throat', ([m.sup.w] a)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere 'be curly, kinky (of hair)';PUA (ka)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ele[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ele 'to clearthe throat'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere; Km [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ee 'scraped'; POc *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ere (Fu [val-genegere-[taka] 'to twist or shake the voice, singtremolo'; LAK [e]-gere 'a cricket that calls at night',[la]-gere 'plant with seed pods used as rattles'). Cf. PCMc*ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, ma-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]arinari'rough', PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ari, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ari-ti 'nibble, gnaw, crunch', with which there has beensome confusion.



PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii 'buzz, hum, make sound,intonation': CHK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'b., h., sound,sing', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'tune,intonation, accent, voice', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-(ri) 'singit, h. it', (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'softly sung lovesong', (e)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-(y) 'give voice to it, beginit (of a song)'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'hummed note, dialect, intonation'; [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii-(re)'give the tune for a song'; PUL [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(n) (sic) 'accent, voice, tune,pronunciation, sound of'; CRL and CRN [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'sound, pronunciation, dialeet'(cf. CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to cry out,squeal, of animals or machinery)'; STW [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii-(n) 'intonation, squceking sound, dialect, speech, hisi.'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii'humming sound made with the mouth, voice to make sound, whine, make alow sound in the form of crying'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ii-(n-wer) 'overly talkative, protesting too much, all talk andno action' (lit. 'sound of loud talk': wer 'to shout,scream, howl, yell, holler at, vocalize loudly'); PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iRi 'whine, b., h.' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. PPC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu, [m.sup.w]a-nunununu'whisper', PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'chant, sing, benoisy, laugh', PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi ' chant, sing, benoisy, laugh'. Cf. also PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iLi 'buzz, hum,make sound' posited by Goodenough (1995:76).

PWMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il[ai] 'voice, sound': PON[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ill, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile 'voice, tune, hisv.'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ilo,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ile-(n) 'voice, sound, his, v., v. of'; PNG[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]il 'voice, sound'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]il, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]illi- 'sound', Cf. YAP[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uul 'to buzz, hum, a bee, wasp', PPC*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu,[m.sup.w]a-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]unu'whisper', PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'chant, sing, benoisy, laugh'. Cf. PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iLi 'buzz, hum, makesound' posited by Goodenough (1995:76).

PMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri,[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]niri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri-ti'growl, rumble': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ir, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri-i 'g.,snarl, quarrel, g. at (s.t.)', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri-sek 'toresound'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir'to rumble'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'groan, moan, r.,g., grunt'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'roar, r.',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'noisy, roaring,buzzing, rumbling, whirring'; PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iRi,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iRi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iRi 'buzz, hum'(Geraghty 1990) (Fu gii 'squeak, squeal, buzz'; ARO [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iri, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri 'towhine, mew, hum, buzz', Din-ha 'whining, humming, etc.'). Cf.PMP *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]urut 'growl, whine' (Blust 1983-4:89).

PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]isa 'groan': PUL[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]it 'gasp (as a dying man)'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira 'tog. (audibly orin spirit)'. Cf. UAN *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]is' whisper'. Note also SAA ('ala) [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ite 'clench the teeth'; ARO[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ita 'to grind the teeth,show the teeth, snarl', but see PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udu,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udju 'strong, resistant'. Cf. PMc*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]use 'moan, complain'.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iTi 'chant, sing, be noisy,laugh': PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iis 'a c.', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]is 'to c., be boisterous'; MOK [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ij'c. in chorus, laugh out loud'; MRS [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iji(r)'c. while drawing up a canoe', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ij'groan, moan, mumble'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]is 'laugh, guffaw'.Cf. KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'sing, customary chanting',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-a 's. (s.t.)' [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu-li-(a) 's. (a particular song)'; ARO [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu 'to hum'.

PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ixo 'be tired': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'be exhausted, played out, unable tocontinue', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iye-(n) 'exhaustion of(s.o.)'; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'be tired (honorific)';KIR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]io, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]io[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]io 'be dizzy'. Cf. PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ei 'to beuncomfortable'; FU googoo 'weak, infirm, helpless'.

PCMc *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro 'to chant, intone': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or 'to sing'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]or 'to chant'; PON [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oor, nore accent, dialect, tune, tone, his a.'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'to murmur or complain in a low voice',(te)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'subdued complaint, murmuring',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oo 'talk sub voce'.This could be the same root as PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oro, [sS]i-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oro to snore'.


PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]use 'moan, complain': MOK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ud 'to whisper, in., hum'; KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ure 'to c., murmur'; [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ure[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ure 'murmuring, complaining, subduedgroaning'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ut, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ut[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ut 'to growl, grunt'. Cf. MRS[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ij 'groan, m., mumble'. Note also KIR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira 'to groan, moan'. Cf. KWA[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ulu 'whisper', (kwai)-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]udu-fi 'whisper to one another', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u'u 'murmur'; LAU [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udu,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]udu 'to mumble,mew'. Cf. PCMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]isa 'groan'.

PMC *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'groan, moan': CHK[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'moaning,groaning', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-res'be groaning or grunting repeatedly'; MRT [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'sound of a plane, drone, conversationat a distance'; CRL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u'm. (of a person in pain), to sound (as a distant car or plane)',[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'speak loudly, be loud'; STW[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'murmur, noise heardat a distance'; WOL [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu'make a heavy sound, roar', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-regi 'becrying, cry out'; PUA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu'roar, m.'; PCK *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu-raki; PEO *[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu(TON [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'grunt', [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu 'hum'; ROT [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu 'grumble, complain, grunt'; BUG [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu murmur, whisper, speak low'; ARE nuu'sing, hum, whistle, chirp'; ARO [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu'reply with the lips, hum'; KWA [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uu'sing, chant').

PMC ? *oo 'that (out of sight or in the past)': CHK(e)-we -we 't. (out of s. or in the p.), the (one already mentioned andnot present)', (i)-we 'then, thereupon' (lit. 'atthat'); MRT we; PUL (e)-we, we, (i)-we; CRL (i)-we; we; STW we; WOL(i)-wee, wee; PUA we (sic); PCK *wee; PON -o; MRS yew; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]. Cf. LAK (ale)-o 'that'.

PWMC oro 'be, exist': CHK wor 'be, exist',(e)-wor 'it exists', (e-se) wor, (e-so)-or 'there is not, itdoes not exist', (meyi)-wor, (meyi)-yor 'there is, thereexists'; MRT yor; PUL wor; CRL yoor (sic); STW yor; WOL yoro 'be,exist', (yo)-oro (</ye/-yoro) there is, it exists'; PUA wola;PCK *oro; MRS wer 'be, there is'. Cf. KSR asr, Dsr, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sr 'be, exist'.

PMc *pa 'side': CHK pa-, pe-n. ppa-, ppa-(n) 'side,help, s. of'; KSR pe 'side, opposite side'; PEO *ba-, baba(FIJ baba 'side of a thing, cheekbone'; KWA baba side'). Cf.PUL ppaan, ppaani-(n) 'side, along side of'. See also PMC *palua'board, plank', PCMC *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]aki crossways', PWMC *palia 'side', PMC *pajki'side', PPC *[palua.sub.2] 'opposite, answer'.

PMC *paa, 'bait, worm': CHK paa 'b.', paapa'be baited', paa-ni 'to b. (a hook), put out (s.t.) asb.'; MRT paa; STW paa; WOL paa, paapaa 'b., worm', paa-li-(i)'have it as b.'; PUA paa 'b., worm', paa-ni 'use itas b.', paapaa 'use b.'; SNS paa, PCK *paa, paapaa, paa-[ln]i;PON paa-(n) 'b., lure'; MOK pee-(n); MRS paha-(ney) 'feed,give b.' (archaic); KSR pa; PEO *baya 'worm' (Geraghty 1983)(ROT paa; FIJ baca 'worm, b.'; SAA paa; ULA pasa; ARO baa). Cf. MRShanhan 'b., lure, to chum for fish', haney 'to lure (afish)'; KIR (te)-abea 'fish b.'; YAP' waal'b.'.

PMC *[paa.sub.2] 'leaf and stalk, frond': CHK paa'f., flower garland, s.t. with a series of leaflets or petals onit', -pa 'palm f., garland, stalk with leaves (in counting)';MRT paa-(le) 'l. of coconut tree'; PUL -pa 'garland, bead belt(in counting)'; CRL -pa 'flower leis and compound leaves (incounting)'; STW paa-(ley) 'l. of coconut tree', -pa'counting classifier for coconut or taro leaves'; WOL -paa'palm f., lei, shell bead belt (in counting)'; PCK *paa; PON paa'l. of any large leaved plant such as taro'; MOKpaa-(l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'midrib of coconut f.'; KIR (te)-baa'midrib or mainstem of a coconut f.'; KSR pae 'stalk (of taroor banana), stem'; PEO *baa (FIJ bee 'stalk of taro leavesonly'). Cf. MRS pap 'coconut f., midrib of f.'.

PMC *paa, paapaa 'to count, enumerate': MRTpaa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'c. it, read it'; PUL paapa 'toc.', paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y)'to c.', paapa 'to c.', paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'c. (s.t.)'; STW paapa; WOL paapaa 'to c., number,calculate'; PCK *paapaa, paa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i; PONpaa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] to enumarate (s.t.)'; KSR[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pa 'to discuss', p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'discuss (s.t.)'. Cf. MRS benben 'arithmetic, count,audit, compute'.

PWMC *paca, papaca or *capa, cacapa 'adhere': CHK pach'attached, pasted, joined', ppach 'sticky',pacha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'smeared condition, be smeared with stickysubstance', padre-ri 'cling to, a. to (s.t.)', pache-ri,pacheri-ya-(n) kinsman, relative, his k.', pache-(yiti) 'stick to,fasten on to (s.t.)', (a)-pach 'be fastened, be stuck or gluedtogether', (a)-pacha 'attach, join, paste, glue (s.t.), add it (inarithmetic)'; MRT pashapash 'sticky'; PuL paRa-(lo) 'toa., stick', paRe-(eti-y)) 'a. to (s.t.)', (ya)-paR, -paRa'to add or join, a or j. it'; CRL pash and CRN paR 'a.,stick', CRL ppash and CRN ppaR 'be joined together; stuck',CRL pashapash and CRN paRapaR 'be sticky'; STW ppaR'sticky', (ya)-paR 'gum, glue'; WoL ppashe 'tostick, hold to s.t. firmly', pesha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(i)'stick to it', (ge)-pashepashe 'to figure out, compute,calculate'; PCK *paca, ppaca; PON pat 'be together'; MOK pas'to fit tight, cling'; MRS ddap, dedap 'cling to, stick to,a., sticky'. See also PCK *paca 'handle, tail (of fish)'. Cf.PMc *paca, pacapaca 'foot, fiat'.

PMc *paca, pacapaca 'foot, flat': CHK pachapach'foot (of humans and animals)'; WOL pesha-(n-nime) 'hand (fromwrist to fingertips)'; PUA pasapasa 'foot'; PCK *paca-,pacapaca; PON patapat 'flat (of a surface)'; MOK paspas 'flat,level'; KIR barara, barabara 'low (in height)'; MRS pede-(npay), ped (yin pay) 'a cloud formation' (pay 'ann, hand,wing'); Ks~pasrpasr 'a plate, plain (a flat or levelsurface)', p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]sra-(n ne) 'top of thefoot', t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-pas?pasr 'flat'. See also PWMc*paca, papaca or *capa cacapa 'adhere', PCK *paca 'handle,tail (of fish)', PCK *pecee 'leg'. Cf. PWMP *pa(n)tar, pantay'flat, level' (Blust 1980:123,1983-84:93).

PMc *paiki 'side': CHK peek, peeki-n 's., s.of', -peek 's. (in counting)'; PUL peeki-(i-lan) 'compassdirection (side of heaven), sky'; CRL peigh peighi- 's., half,direction', -peigh 'half (in counting)'; WOL peigi 's.,flank', -peigi 's. (in counting)',peegiyegi 'lean on ones.'; PUA peiki 's. beam of a house'; PCK ? *peeki or*p[ae]iki; KSR peik 's. (of a mountain or slope)'. Note also PONpeekiek 'to be summoned to the presence of a high chief'; MRS pek'place (in place names)'. See also PMc *pa- 'side'.

PWMc *pa-i-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'horizon' (lit.'edge of heaven'): CHK ppe-yi-nen, (oro)-ppe-yi-nen; MRTpa-yi-le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PUL (yoro)-ppa-a-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL];STW ppa-yi-le[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PCK *ppa-yi-la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i;PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'place name';MRS pa-yi-len. See PMc *lani 'sky, heaven, storm', PMc *pa-'side'. See also Marck (1994:314) PWMc *pailanji.

PMc *pakewa 'shark': CHK poko, pokoo-; PUL paawo (sic),paawa-; CRL paaw; STW paaw; WOL pagowe; PUA pakoa; SNS pakowa; PCK *pakewa;PON pako, p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MOK pako; PNGpak[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS pakew; KIR (te)-pakoa; KSR paeko; PEO *bakewa(SAA pa'ewa; KWA ba'ewa). Cf. POc *bakiwa (Ross 1988); FIJ qio; PNK*pokio; UAN *qiyu, kiyu. Note that the CHK form with its unexpected k couldbe a loan from another CHK dialect.

PMc *paku 'be cut, chopped': CHK peek, peku-(n)'chip, chip of', -pek 'chip (in counting)',pek 'bechopped, hewn', pekupek 'do chopping', peku-u-(w) 'chopit, cut it'; MRT paku 'to cut, split', paku-u-(tew) 'cutit down'; PUL pakupak 'do cutting, cut', paku-(w) 'cutit, fell it'; CRL pagh 'be cut, split', paghu-(w) 'cutit'; STW paku-u-(w) 'cut it', paku-u-(tiw) 'cut itdown'; WOL pagu 'be cut, split, cut off' pagupegu 'cut,split'; PCK *paku; PON pak 'be smashed (as of a fallen ripefruit)'; MRS pak 'taro residue for replanting after edible portionhas been cut off'; KIR (te)-baku 'top part of taro cut close toroot for replanting', baku-a 'cut the neck of, behead (s.t.)'(Bender et al. 1984); KSR pakp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'chop, cut',paki 'chop, cut, hew (s.t.)'.

PMc *palapala 'a fish': PON palapal 'rabbitf.'; KSR paelpael 'a kind of f.'. Cf. PMc *pali 'afish'.

PWMc *pale 'light, of weight': CHK ppan; MRT ppal; PULppel; CRL ppel; STW ppan; WOL ppale, PUA ppana; SNS ppare PCK *ppale; MRS(yak)-pel 'lighten ship'. Cf. PON pala-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to dry, to expose objects to the sun in order to dry them',pele-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be dried, be exposed to the sun'; MRS[h.sup.w] e[l.sub.s]a[l.sub.s] 'light in weight'; KSRm[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]laelae 'light, slim, skinny'; BUG maamatha'light, not heavy'.

PWMc *pali 'a fish': CHK paan, paan 'a kind oftrigger f.'; WOL paali 'a kind of f.'; PCK *pa[ln]i; MRS pel'boxfish'. Cf. PMc *palapala 'a fish'.

PWMc *palia 'side': CHK peniya-, peniye- 's.,helper'; MRT paliye-(n) 's. of'; PUL peliy, peliye-; CRL andCRN paliya-; STW paniye-(n) 's. of'; WOL paliye; PCK *palia; PONpali 'part' s., division, section'; PNG pali- 's,';MRS paleye- 'spouse'. Cf. KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(n) 'part, piece, cutting, segmentof'. See also PMc *pa- 'side', PMc *paiki 'side',PPC *[palua.sub.2] 'opposite, answer'.

PCMc *panipani 'sea cucumber': CHK penipen 'seacucumber'; PUL. penipen; CRL pelipel 'trepang' STW penipen;WOL pelipeli; PCK *panipani; PON penipen 's. cucumber'; MRS(ji)-penpen 's. cucumber'; KIR (nta)-banibani, (ta)-banibani'sea slug'. Cf. ROT peni, pen 's.c.'. Cf. also Mokjipenpen 's.c.' (suspected loan from MRs), KSR wae 's.c.' (which does not show expected initial p or reduplication), and PPON*payipayi 'sea urchin' (PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'small black sp. of s. urchin';MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y).

PCMc *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki'crossways': CHK pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]es, pe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]esi- 'athwart, perpendicular, across'; PUL pe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ak; WOL pe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]agi; PuA pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki'to cross over'; PCK *pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aki; PONpa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be tilted, crooked, cockeyed',pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]apa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'liecrossways'; MRS penak 'bay'; KIR banaki 'crossed at rightangles', (te)-ba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'indistinct or side sightof a person passing by', ba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'pass withoutbeing distinctly seen'. Possibly related is MOK pa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]pa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'side, beside, horizontal'. Seealso PMc *pa- 'side'. Cf. PCK *pala 'tilted'.

PMc *papa 'board, plank': CHK paap, pape-n. pappe-n'b. or p., b. of (one), b. of (more than one); MRT #paapa-(n) 'b.or p. of'; PUL paap papa-(n) 'b., p.', pappa-(n faalo)'warp beam'; CRL paap, papa-(l); CRN paap, papa- (n); STW paap; WoLpaape 'p., strake'; PuA paapa; PCK *papa; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]p 'thin b. or sheet of lumber'; MRS pap 'coconut frond,midrib of frond'; KIR (te-kaira)-baba 'a b. used as temporaryplatform or seat in a canoe', (ra)-baba 'broad'; KsR paep'raised sides of canoe' (i.e., strakes); PEO papa, pava 'b.,p.' (Geraghty (1983); POc *baba, paba, bapa (FIJ bava washstrake orupper side of a canoe'; PPN *papa 'flat, hard surface'; SAAhapa 'p., thwartof canoe'; BUG pava 'p.'; ARO baba'slab, b.'); UAN *papan 'b., p.'. See also PMC *pa-'side'.

PMc *para 'red': CHK par, parapar 'r.',(a)-para 'cause it to be r.', pare-ey 'apply r. to it',paar, pare-(n) 'tree with r. flowers (Erythrina variegata), treeof'; PUL par, parapar; par, pappar, parapar; STW parapar; WOL paare'tree with r. flowers'; PCK *para; PEO *baRa 'light incolor' (Geraghty 1990); PWMP *baRaq 'r.' (Blust 1989:127).

PMG ? *para, parara 'thunder': CHK paach; PUL pachch,pachchi-(n) 't., t. of'; CRL pachch, pachchu-(l); STW ppaclwh; WOLpachche; ULI parr (Bender et al. 1984); PuA paala, pala-; PCK 7 *parra; MOKpalar; KIR (te)-baa; KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lael. See also Marck(1994:311) PMc *parara.

PMc *parapara 'a fish': PUL parapar 'a flattishreef f. with vertical stripes'; CRL parapar 'sp. of edible f. foundoutside the reef'; WOL parepare 'a kind of f.'; PCK *parapara;PON parapar 'f. sp.', parapar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-('n 1ik)'f. sp.'; KIR (te)-baabaa 'surgeon f. (Acanthurusguttatus)'; KSR paelpael 'kind off.'.

PWMc *pasa 'depressed and flooded area': CHK paat,#paate-(n), -pat 'tidal inlet, offshore gully in the shallows, gullyof'; PUL paat, peta-(n) 'swamp, s. of'; CRLpaat 'runningwater, stream, flowing water'; CRN paat 'pond, puddle'; WOLpaate, peta-(li) 'gap, spaee between two things'; PCK *pada; PONpaad 'dent, depression, puddle', pad 'dented'; MOK pad'depression', padi-(npil) 'puddle'; MRS pat'swamp'. Cf. KSR pat 'hole, perforation, aperture'. Cf.also Marck (1994:314) PMc *pasa 'swamp'.

PWMc *pasiu or *pasui 'a fish': CHK petu, petuu-'big-eyed scad f.'; CRN patu 'pompano'; WOL patii'akule (a kind of f.)'; PCK *paduu; MRS paytiy 'goggle-eyedscad f.'. Cf. MOK podiidi 'mackerel'.

PMc *pata 'drift': CHK pas 'd. (as a canoe)',pasa-(no) 'd. away', pase-n 'd. to'; MRT pas, pasa-(to)'d., d. hither'; PUL pah 'd.', paha-(16) 'd.away'; CRL pass 'd. in the water', passe-(lo) 'd., d.away'; STW pas, pasa-(lo) 'd., d. away'; WOL pat 'landafter drifting', peta-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j-(i) 'come to land at(after drifting)'; PCK *pata; PON pas 'arrive by sea, return fromfishing'; MOK paj 'to arrive (of people)'; KSR paet 'd.,push, pull', paetpaet 'float, d.'.

PWMc *pati, pati-a 'placenta, afterbirth': CHK peey,peyiya-(n) 'p., her p.'; MRS pej, piji-(n).

PMc *patiki 'long-winded in diving': CHK ppeyis,#ppeyisa-(n) 'fortitude, ability to endure pain, ability to holdone's breath or stay under water for a long time, his f.'; PULpeeyik (sic) 'to dive deep, hold the breath long'; CRL ppeigh'to be able to hold one's breath under water for a long time, tohave enduranee', peighi-(ma) 'to be in a life-or-death ';situation, be close to death'; PCK *paiki, ppayiki; PON peyk`'skillful, of a diver able to go deep or hold his breath for a longtime'; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yk 'able to hold breath';MRS pakij, ppakij (showing metathesis) 'long-winded in diving, able tostay under water long'; KSR paetok 'hold breath for a long time,dive, long-winded'. There are problems with the KSR form.

PMC *pau 'hand, arm, wing': CHK paaw, pewu-(n); MRTpaaW, paWu-(n); PUL paaw, pawu-n; CRL paay, payu-(l); STW paay, payu-(n); WOLpaau, pau-(l); PUA paau, pau-(na); PCK *pau; PON p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'his arm'; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'its forelimb';MRS pay, peyi-; KIR (te)-bai, bai-(na); KSR po, p""o(l); PEO *baRu(Geraghty 1990). Cf. YAP paaq 'his hand or arm'. See also PPC*paudi 'abandon, let drop'.

PMC? *pau, paupau 'blow (of the wind)': CHK pe, peepe'b.', pee-ni 'blow upon it'; STW (uru)-pe 'tofan'; WOL peepee 'b. gently (as a breeze)'; ULI (ru)-peu'to fan'; PCA (ulu)-pau 'to fan'; PCK *pau, paupau; KSRpaepae 'b., fan', pae-(I[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'fan (it), b.on (it)'. Cf. MOK parpar 'waving'; MRS pal '(formant inplace names) b.', ppalpal 'wave (of a flag), flutter'. Cf.also CHK a-ani-pe 'fan' (lit. 'make wind blowing'),a-ani-pee-(w) 'f. him, beckon to her', PMC *iri, iri-pi- 'tofan', and cf. PMC *paLu 'blow (of wind)' posited by Goodenough(1995:77).

PCM *pawo 'platform': CHK poo, poo-n 'p., sleepingplatform, copra drying rack, p. of'; PUL poo 'raised sleepingp.'; CRL poo 'floor'; WOL poo 'floor, wooden floor, floorboard, veranda'; PUA paado, pado- 'floor, flooring board'; PCK?*pawo; MRS pew 'shelf, upper story (of house), loft'; KIR (te)-bao'house with raised floor, p., dais'. Note that the PUA form isunexpected here, where we would expect *pawo.

PCM *pei 'stone structure': CHK([sop.sup.w]-u-nu)-pi'name of a chiefly clan' (lit 's. s. district'); WOLpeey, #peeyi- 'raised platform made of rocks (for meeting places orhouses)'; PCK *peyi; PON peey 'altar, any ancient structure ofstones, a pile', pey-(ni-kid) 'pile of debris, dump'; MRS ppey'a platform of rocks, build a pile of rocks'; KIR (te)-bei 'apile of stones on a flat (collected to trap fish)'. Cf. MOK pey'cemetery'; KSR pot 'pile of stones, stone wall', poti'build (s.t. with stones)'. Cf. PCK *peiya or *payiya 'agrave'.

PMC *peka 'excrement': CHK paa, paa-, PUL paa; CRL paa,paa; WOL paage, page-, pegu-; PUA paaka, paka-; PCK *peka; PONp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'defecate'; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'to defecate', paka-d 'to d. on'; MRS pek 'semen,sperm', pek-(tahan) 'habitually defecate on the ground' (sic,but see tahan 'urinate'); KIR beka 'defecate', (te)-beka'e.'; POC *bekas (Ross 1988); PMP *peka 'separate,disconnect' (Blust 1980:125). Cf. PEO *vekaz 'defecate, e.'(Geraghty 1983) (FIJ veka, veka-ca; SAA he'a, he'a-si; BUG vevega;ARO Jre'a, he'a-si; KwA fe'a). Note that KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k, foko-(n) 'feces, dung, f. of' appears to be a loan fromMOK or MRS. Note also LAK (la)-heka-(la) 'its rear end (of flyingfox)'; FIJ beka 'kind of bat'; PPN *peka 'flyingfox'.

PCMc *pekopeko or *kopekope 'cough, to cough': PONkopokop; MOK kopkop; MRS [pek.sup.w] [pek.sup.w]; KIR bekobeko. Note that KSRk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]f, k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]fis an apparent loan from English. Cf. Ror koho 'c.'. Cf. also FIJvuu; SAA hu'u, KWA fu'u. Cf. also PCK *fatafaka fafaka'coughing, to cough'.

PCMc *pe[in]e-awa 'a fish': CHK pene-yaw, -yawe-(n)'kind of bass f., f. of'; CRL pele-yaw 'sp. of ediblefreshwater f.'; WOL pale-yawe 'a kind off.'; PCK*p[ac][ln]e-yawa; KrR (te)-bane-awa 'at (Chanos chanos, formerly Mugilchanos), cultivated in f. ponds'. Note also KIR bane-riki 'a kindoff.'. Cf. PCK *pa-ni- wan 'a fish' (lit'sideofcanoe').

PCMc *peni 'meat of coconut': CHK (e)-ppun., -ppunu-(n)soft m. of drinking c., white of an egg, its soft in.'; WOL peeli, peli-'white c. in.'; PON peen 'drinking c. (honorific)'; MRSpen 'grated c.'; KIR (te) -ben, beni- 'general term for a ripec.', beniben 'abounding in ripe coconuts'. Cf. KSR el 'c.oil for poi', elel 'c. milk'. Cf. also MRT penuunu 'eggwhite'.

PMC *peo 'brush aside': CHK pe 'be parried orwarded off', pee-ni 'parry (it) with the open hand'; MRTpoo-ne 'to sweep'; PUL pee-ni 'to slap', peeope 'tosweep (as with a coconut branch)'; CRL ppe and CRN] pe 'to bounee aball'; WOL pee 'hit (as a ball), strike', peepee 'sweepwith a broom', pee-li-i 'hit it, sweep it'; PCK *pee, peepee;MOK pco-k 'to wipe, sweep (s.t.)'; MRS pewpew 'sweep, brushoff', pewe-k 'to sweep, brush off (s.t.)'; KSR po-k'clear, sweep (s.t.)'. Cf. PCK *pee, pee-n[iu] 'empty (as acontainer)'.

PMC *pepe, pepepe 'to skip along, flit': CHK ppep's. (as a stone thrown on the water), bounee on the surface (as a fishor landing seaplane)', peppep 's. or bounee along', (a-tere)--pep 'to s. stones' (a-tere)-appepa 'cause (s.t.) to s. (as astone)', (kuru)-ppep 'to bounce along (as a motorboat)'; MRTpep, pep 'to s. (as a stone on the water)'; KIR bebe 'tostagger'; POc *bebe 'flultter' (PPN *pepe'butterfly', ROT pepe 'butterfly; SAA pepe 'butterfly,moth'; BUG pepepe 'to stammer', pepe-[riki] 'be startled,jump when startled'; LAU bebe 'moth, butterfly'; ARO bebe'butterfly'; KWA bebe 'butterfly, moth'; PKB bebe'flutter'). Cf. KIR bee-i 'to skim along (as a plate whenthrown)'; FIJ beebee 'butterfly'; UAN *ambay 'flutter,move to and fro'. See also PCMc ? *[p.sup.2][cp.sup.w]e'butterfly'.

PMc *peti 'trash, rubbish': CHK pii, piipi; MRT pei(sic); PUL peey peyipey; CRL peey, peipey; WOL beesi, besi-; PuA peedi,pedi-; PCK *peti; MOK pej 'pandanus cud'; MRS pej, piji-n'discarded pandanus key, placenta', ([jak.sup.w]-pej 'trash,rubbish', ([k.sup.w]e)-pejpej 'throw away trash'; KtR (te)-bdi'section of the pandanus fruit from which the pulp has been removed bychewing (i.e., the discarded part)'; KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s'trash, garbage'.

PMc *peti, pepeti, pe(t[theta])ipeti 'to float': CHK pi,pii-pi or ppi, ppii- (< *pipii); PUL ppey; CRL peipey 'flotsam';STW ppey; WOL ppesi; PUA ppedi; PCK *peti, ppeti; PON pey 'float',mpey 'bouyant'; MOK pey; MRS ppej; KIR beti, beibeti; KSR pns. Cf.LAK pati, pai-pati.

PMc *peyata 'ashes': MRT peyas 'a. (offireplace)'; PUL peyah, peyaha-(n), peyiha-(n) 'a, a. of'; WOLpeyase 'a.' (archaie); PCK *peyata; PON and NGK p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s; MOK p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j 'hearth, cooking area'; PNGpaeaes; MRS pahaj 'small oven or stove, chief's land for makingfood', (wi)-pahaj 'fireplace, a'; KSR (a)-p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t. See also Marck (1994:325) PMc *peata.

PMC *pia 'vagina': PON pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'her v.', piipi 'v.'; MOK pi, pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],pie-(n) 'v., her v., v. of'; MRS piypiy 'v.'; KIR(te)-bia 'spawn, tumor, wen, gland, knob, excrescence, fishovaries'; PEO *biRa (SAM *pia 'arrowroot starch, smegma'; SAApile 'fish roe'; ARO bira 'roe, egg yolk, dregs, starch,sediment'; KWA bila-[na] 'roe'). Cf. FIJ bebe'vagina'.

PMc *pia, pipia, piapia 'sand, beach': CHK ppi, ppiye-n's., s. of', piyept 'low lying sandy islet'; MRTpiya-(n); PUL ppi, ppiya-n; CRL ppi; STW pii, piya-(n); WOL ppiye; PUA piia;PCK *pi[ae], ppi[ae]; MRS ppey. piyepey 'sandbank'; PEO *bia,biabia (Fit biabia 'sediment'; ARO [hau]-bia 'white limestonerock, a cliff of crumbly white limestone'; KwA [fau]-bia 'a growingdeposit of limestone in running water'). Cf. PPN *pia 'arrowroot,starch', *piapia 'gum, sap, discharge (as from eyes),exudation'. Cf. also PMc *pike 'sand islet'. Cf. Marck's(1994:316) *pika.

PWMc *pici 'loosened, released': CHK pich 'untied,unfettered, released, pardoned', (ni)-pich 'unmarried person';PUL piRi-(lo) 'be released (as from jail)'; CRL ppishi-(lo)'become unfastened (as a shirt); WOL ppishi 'slip out, bedisconnected, be strained'; PCK *pici; PON pit'to escape'; MOKpis-(la) 'get free (from work or confinement)'; MRS pid-(tewtew),ppid-(tewtew) 'loose (of clothing or rope), flabby (of skin), shabby,baggy, sag'. Cf. PNK *pidi 'to throw (s.t.) away'. Cf. PMc*pici, pici-ki 'snap, vibrate'.

PMc *pici, pici-ki 'snap, vibrate': CHK pichipich'pulse, pulsate, v., vibration', ppich 'be snapped, bounced,vibrated, be a stabbing pain, a s., bounce, vibration', (nike, nika,niko)-ppich 'bow and arrow, rubber sling and dart'; PUL ppiR,ppiRi-(lo) 'to s. (as fish spear or rat trap'; CRL ppish,ppishi-(lo) 'to s. or break (like a string or rubber band), s. off (asbutton from a shirt), to s. or pop out of joint, to hurt (of a broken bone),throb (as pain)'; WOL ppishi 'slip out, be disconnected,strained'; PCK *pici, ppici; PON pit 'to spring back', pitipit'fast in the ability to perform actions'; MOK pisi-k 'to flick(a finger), to strum (a guitar)'; KIR biri 'to run'; KSR pisr'to splinter, rupture, burst, a slingshot or bow and arrow',pisri-k 'shoot (s.t.) with a slingshot,, pisr 'to hiccup, havehiccups'; POc *bidik (BUG pidi 'spring, rebound'; PNK *pidi'throw, throw away'); PMP *pi(n)Tik 'throb, beat' (Blust1980:128). Cf. MRS pir 'slip down out of position'; KSR pir 'asequence of quick movements , to beat, jerk, twitch, squirm'. See alsoPMc *fici fici-ki 'snip, cut, snap, flick', PWMc *pici'loosened, released'.

PMc *pike 'sand islet': CHK #piis, pisi-n 'sandislet, s. i. of', pise-(meew), pisa-(n), pise-(ech), pisi-(niyap)'names of islets and reefs in Chuuk'; PUL piik 'name ofPikelot Island'; STw piik 'name of small sandy islands'; WOLpiige 'islet', pige-(elee) 'name of an islet in Woleai';PCK *pike; PON piik 'sand', pikapik 'sandy'; MOK pik,pike-(n) 'sand'; MRS pike-n, piki-(n) 'flat land of, islet of(in many place names)'; KIR (te)-bike 'white sand, sandy isletwithout vegetation'; KSR p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'sand'.p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'sandy'. Cf. PMC*pia, pipia, piapia 'sand, beach'. Cf. Marck's (1994:316) PMc*pika.

PMc *piki, pikipiki, piki-ri- 'clap the hands, slap(s.t.)': CHK pisipis 'clap the hands', pisi-ri 'slap(it)', ppis 'be slapped with the hands'; PUL piki-ri-y'touch (it) hard with the hand'; CRL pighipigh 'clap with thehands', pighi-ri 'slap (it) with the hands'; WOL pigipigi'to slap, strike, hit, slam', pigi-ri-i 'slap it, strike it,hit it, slam it'; PUA pikipiki 'ball', piliki (showingmetathesis) 'slap it, beat it'; PCK *pikipiki, piki-ri-; PONpikipik, piki-r 'to pat, slap affectionately'; MOK pikpik 'topat, to drum,' piki-r 'p. or d. (s.t.)'; MRS piki-r 'tobrush off,' pikpiki-r 'to shake out (as a mat)'; KSR pik'slap', piki-l 'brush (it) off, dust (it) off'. Cf. PMP*pikpik 'sound of patting or tapping' (Blust 1983-84:95).

PWMc? *piko, piko-si 'dissarrange': MOK pukpuk 'tomess up, disarrange', puko-d 'to mess (s.t.) up'; MRS[pek.sup.w] 'entangle, confuse, disorder, trouble, bedlam, messed up,baffled, jumbled, snarled', [pek.sup.k]-tak 'be stirred up, messedup, to stir, disturb'. Cf. PON pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'confused,disordered, messy', pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ipi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'confusion, disorder, mess'; KIR beo 'tangled, snarled';KSR kupo 'tangled with', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s 'messy,confused, jumbled, crowded, mixed up, entangled'.

PMc *pili 'water': PON piil 'w., liquid',pil-(lap) 'river', pili-(tik) 'stream'; MOK pil,pil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], pile-(n) 'fresh w., his f. w., f. w.of', pil-(lap) 'river'; PNG pil 'w.'; MRS pit'drop of liquid, dribble, trickle'; KSR pul 'splashing sound,dive with a splashing sound'. The vowel of the KSR form seems to pose aproblem. See also Marck (1994:318) PMc *pili.

PMc *pina, pina-ti- 'be stopped up, stop (s.t.) up': CHKpine-(no) 'be s. up, plugged up', pine-e-(y) 'plug (it) up (ofa hole)', pinepin 'be s. up, corked, blocked'; MRT pinapen'stopper, s. up', pina-a-(y) 'stop it up'; PUL pina-a-(y)'prevent it, stop it', pinapin 'bottle cap, stopper (of holein canoe)'; CRL pilapil 'stopper' (Bender et al. 1984),pile-e-(y) 'to close, cover up, put a lid on, turn off (offaucet)'; STW pinapin 'stopper, s. up', pine-e-(y) 'stopit up', pile-sagh, pile-sagh 'become blocked or clogged'; WOLpilepile 'stopper, bung, cork, plug, be closed, corked, plugged',pile-si-(i) 'close it, shut it off', pile-ta-(a) 'patch it (ahole), plug it', pile-tagi 'be closed, shut'; ULI pilpil'stopper'; PCK *pinapina, pina-ti-; PON pinapin 'to bepatched, blocked, sealed', pina 'to patch, block, seal (it)';MOK pin, pine 'cover or stopper, its c. or s.'; MRS pine-j'hide, obstruct, cover, conceal, block'; KSR ""n 'topatch, mend', pini-s 'to p. or m. (s.t.)'. Cf. WOL punnu'be plugged up, const ipated, s. up.

PMc *pini, pinipini 'twisted, tangled': CHK ppin, pippin'snarled, tangled', pin-ni 'twist it (of a limb ormuscle)'; MRT pinipin 'braided, woven', pine-e-(y) 'braidit'; PUL ppin, CRL ppil 'be tangled', pili 'to string (agarland or lei)'; STW ppin 'braided, tied, twisted (of hair orleis)'; WOL ppili 'make leis by tying flowers together',pilipili 'tie, twist, fold', pili-(i) 'twist it, foldit'; PUA pini, pinipini 'to twist, rotate, turn'; PCK *pini,ppini, pinipini; PON pinipin 'closely twisted or curled'; KSR pin'to bind, tie (s.t.)'. Cf. PCK *ffi, fiffi 'tangled'.


PCMc *pi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, [p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u 'come into view, begin to take shape': CHKpu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'begin to take form (as breadfruit)'; MRS[b.sup.w][i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'appear or come intoexistence'; KIR [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'appear or comeinto existence, be born'.

PMc? *piri 'growth or lump under the skin, spongy core ofmature coconut': CHK piir, piri-(n) 'hard g. or 1. under the s.,his g.', piri-(n taka) 'spore of the ripe coconut when beginning toform'; PUL pir, piro (sic) 'g. or 1. under the s., coconut spongebeginning to form, toform a l.'; MOK pir, piri-(n) 'lymph nodes, 1.n. of'; MRS per 'small, sprouted coconut, tumor, swelling,wen'; KSR pili 'mumps, have mumps'; PEO *biri (KWA bili'skin eruption all over the body'). Cf. KIR (te)-bia 'tumor,wen'; PEO *puRa 'elephantiasis' (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'because': CHK [p.sup.w]e,[p.sup.w]e, wo, we; PUL [p.sup.w]e; CRL [b.sup.w]e; STW [p.sup.w]e; WOL be;PUA [p.sup.w]a; PCK *[p.sup.w][ae]; PON [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRS[b.sup.w]ey; KIR [b.sup.w]a. Cf. KSR ke. Jackson (1986:229 fn. 4) gives PCMc*[p.sup.w]a. Cf. PMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'future aspect marker'. Cf.also FIJ mel.

PMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'future aspect marker': CHK-[p.sup.w]e; MRT -[p.sup.w]e; PUL -[p.sup.w]e; CRL -[b.sup.w]e; STW-[p.sup.w]e; WOL -be; PUA -[p.sup.w]e; PCK *-[p.sup.w]e; KSR fae. Cf. POc *ba(Ross 1988). Cf. also PCMc *[p.sup.w][ae] 'because'. Jackson(1986:229 fn. 4) gives PMC *[p.sup.w]a.

PMc *[p.sup.w]aa 'to say': PON [p.sup.w]a; MOK[p.sup.w]a 's.', [p.sup.w]ee-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's. to,tell (s.o.)'; MRS [b.sup.w]ah; KSR fae-k's., tell, announce',fwae-k 'be said'. Cf. FIJ kaya, kwaya (Geraghty 1983).

PCMc *[p.sup.w][aca.sub.i] 'loose': CHK[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ach, [p.sup.w][achap.sup.w]ach 'I., slack,wrinkled'; PUL [p.sup.w]aaR; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ash 'be old andwrinkled'; WOL ? [b.sup.w]ashe 'be crooked (of bow legs)'; PCK*[p.sup.w]aca; MRS ([b.sup.w])[b.sup.w] adey(dey('rough (of skin)';KIR [b.sup.w]ara' l., unitied'.

PCMc *[P.sup.w][aca.sub.2] 'kind of round basket': CRL[b.sup.w]aash; CRN [b.sup.w]aaR; WOL haashe, bashe-; PUA [p.sup.w]aasa,[p.sup.w]asa-; PCK *[p.sup.w]aca; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]ara 'a cap-like b.made of coconut leaf' (but cf. PMc *[p.sup.w]asau 'basket').

PCMc *[p.sup.w]ai 'object of value': PON[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][yp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'bebought, be paid, cost money', [p.sup.w]ay-n 'to buy, pay, hire[(s.t.).sup.1]; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]ai 'thing, object',[b.sup.w]ai-na 'to make use of, posssess (s.t.), [b.sup.w][aib.sup.w] ai'to have property'; PEO *[p.sup.w]aRi (BUT bali 'thing bywhich, thing for the purpose of'). C. PMc *mau, mau-ni 'be traded,acquire in trade'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]ai, [p.sup.w]ai-ti 'pull up, take up': CHK[p.sup.w][eep.sup.w]e, [p.sup.w]ee-(wu), [p.sup.w]ee-yi 'pull up fromthe sea, p.u. fishtraps, pull it up'; PUL [p.sup.w]ee-(wu),[p.sup.w]ee-y; WOL beebee, bee-ye-(tage) 'take up, take it up',bee-tagi 'be taken up'; PUA [p.sup.w][ep.sup.w]e, [p.sup.w]e-(yow),[p.sup.w]e-nj(sic) 'take up from under ground, fish trap, take itup'; PCk *[p.sup.w][eep.sup.w]ee, [p.sup.w]ee-, [p.sup.w]ee-ti; KSR fai,fai-s 'pull or draw out'. Cf. Fu yavi.

PWMc *[p.sup.w] [aip.sup.w]ai 'silly, stupid': STW[p.sup.w] [ayip.sup.w]ay 'be silly, disrespectful'; PON[p.sup.w][eyp.sup.w]ey 'stupid, silly, idiotic, simple, dumb'; MOK[p.sup.w][eyp.sup.w]ey 'supid'; MRS [b.sup.w][eyb.sup.w]ey'crazy, silly, foolish'. This cannot be cognate with PEO *buRa'foolish' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. ARO [p.sup.w]ai-, [p.sup.w]ei-'pref. Of derogation'. Cf. Also KIR baba 'foolish'.

PWMc *[p.sup.w]asu 'open (as bud or blossom)': PUL[p.sup.w]ak 'open a bit (as a bud)'; PON [mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'flower bud'; MRS (hal)-[b.sup.w][ek.sup.w] 'flowerbud', (te)-bak, (kab)-bek 'male flower of breadfruit'. Cf. PCk*[p.sup.w]aku, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]aku 'be awake at night'.

PMc *[p.sup.w][ae]la, [p.sup.w][ae]la-nj, [p.sup.w][ae]la-naki'to split s.t. open': MRT [p.sup.w]ele-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e'to force (s.t.) open, to rape (s.o.)'; PON [p.sup.w]al 'beslit, cut open, operated on, divided', [p.sup.w]ala-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to slit (s.t.), cut (s.t. open), etc.'; MOK [p.sup.w]al'broken, split, operated on', [p.sup.w]ala-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to break or split (s.t.)'; PNG [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]la-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ek 'to split a coconut'; MRS[b.sup.w]el-(kek), [h.sup.w]el-(kek) 'cracks in skin of soles offeet', [b.sup.w]el-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ak 'be split open, spreadlegs wide open'; KIR [b.sup.w]ena-a- 'divide (s.t.) in two parts,split (s.t.)'; KSR fulfal 'to split, saw lengthwise',f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'chasm, cleft,creavsse, canyon', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n'to split (s.t.)'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]alili 'encircling or covering a whole':CHK #[p.sup.w]een, [p.sup.w]enni-, -[p.sup.w]aan 'environs, go in acircuit around s.t.', [p.sup.w]enni-I-(y) 'go all the way aroundit'; PUL [p.sup.w]alli-i-(y); 'go around it, surround it'; CRL[b.sup.w]al 'to walk around', [b.sup.w]ali-i-(y),[b.sup.w]eli-i-(y), 'to surround (s.t. or s.o.), to go all the wayaround (s.t.)'; WOL haanni, hanni 'inspect, go around'; PUA[p.sup.w]aanni 'inspeet, go around inspecting'; PCk *[p.sup.w]alli;MRS [b.sup.w]alli-(n) 'covering of, clothing of'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]anin 'the whole, entire thing', [b.sup.w]anin'be whole or entire'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]alu 'cover, lid': CHK(e)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]en, -[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]enu-(n) 'c. or I.', c.of'; [p.supl.w]enu-u-w) 'c. it', [p.sup.w][enup.sup.w]en'c., l., c. with a l.', (e)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]enu 'make itcovered'; MRT [p.sup.w] alu 'to c. (s.t.)'; PUL(ya)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]al,-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ale-(n)'c., l., c.of'; CRL [b.sup.w] [alab.sup.w]al 'c., l., [b.sup.w]alu-w 'toc. (s.t.)'; CRN [b.sup.w] alu 'to c. (s.t.)'; WOL haluhelu'covering, to c.', balu-u-(we) 'c. it'; PUA [p.sup.w]onu'a c., to c.', [p.sup.w] onu (sic) 'c. it';PCk*[p.sup.w]alu; PON (ko)-[mp.sup.w]al, (ko)-[mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'c. an earth oven with leaves, (koduu)-[p.sup.w] al'to c. up',(koduu)-[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'be covered up'; MOK(ko)-[mp.sup.w]al and PNG (ko)-[mp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'c. anearth oven with leaves'; MRS [b.sup.w]al 'covered over',([k.sup.w]e)-[b.sup.w]al 'c. an earth oven with leaves'; PEO*[p.sup.w]alu (ARO [p.sup.w] aru, [b.sup.w] aru, [p.sup.w]aru-si,[b.sup.w]aru-si 'to shut, cork, put the I. On', [p.sup.w]anu,[p.sup.w]an u, [p.sup.w]anu-si 'to ono-si 'to stop up, block,choke, cork'. KSR kafa, kafa-I 'cover, put a lid on' areevident loans from English.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]A 'hole': CHK[p.sup.w]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. [p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n),-[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hole or cavity, its h., hervagina', h. (in counting)', -[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'emptily'; PUL-[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hole(in counting); WOL bba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'crevice, haveholes'; PUA [p.sup.w]aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a,[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 'vagina'; PCK*[p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'fish trap',[b.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'hide in a hole'. Cf. Fu maga'vagina'. See also Marck (1994:319) PCMC *p'a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a.

PCMC *[p.sup.w][ap.sup.w]u 'toothless shark':MRT[p.sup.w][oop.sup.w]; PUL [p.sup.w][oop.sup.w], [p.sup.w][op.sup.w]u-(n)'kind of s., s. of (Bender et al. 1984); STW [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][p.sup.w] 'sp. Of s.'; WOL paabu'a kind of s.'; PCK *[p.sup.w][ap.sup.w]u; MOK [p.sup.w][oop.sup.w]'a white s.'; MRS [b.sup.w][ab.sup.w]; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w][ab.sup.w]u 'a s. with flat snout' (Bender et al.1984).

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ara 'rocky ledge': PON[p.sup.w][arap.sup.w]ar 'ridge cap'; MRS [b.sup.w]ar'rock'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]aa 'continuous hard coral rock orledge'. Cf. WOL porou 'beach rock'; KWA walo 'rccf'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]aro 'curved, bent': CHK [p.sup.w]or,[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]or 'c., b.', [p.sup.w]ore-e-(y) 'bend it,curve it', (o)-[p.sup.w]ora 'make it c.',(eyii)-[p.sup.w]oro-[p.sup.w]or 'be c., make a curving course'; PUL[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]or; CRL [b.sup.w]or, [b.sup.w]ar; WOL baro, bbaro; PUA[p.sup.w]alo; PCK *[p.sup.w]aro; KIR [b.sup.w]ao 'crooked'. Cf. KSRfor, furo-k 'twist, spin'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]aro 'box, hole': CHK [p.sup.w]oor,[p.sup.w]oru-(n); PUL [p.sup.w]oor, [p.sup.w]oro-(n); CRL [b.sup.w]oor,[b.sup.w]oro-(l); WOL baaro, baro-; PUA [p.sup.w]aalo, [p.sup.w]alo-; PCK*[p.sup.w]aro; PON [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'hole, cave'; MOK [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'hole', [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][rp.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r 'full of holes'; KSR faer 'cavity, hole, pit',faerfaer 'full of cavitics'. Cf. KIR (te)-buro 'provision box,overflow hole, hollow where water stays'. See also Marck (1994-319) PMC*p'aro,

PWMC *[p.sup.w]asa 'late': PON [p.sup.w] and 'l.,slow'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w] at 'l., too l. for s.t.'. KSRpaet 'l., delayed', instead of expected *faet, is presumably a loanfrom MRS.

PMC *[p.sup.w]asau 'basket': CHK [p.sup.w]otow,[p.sup.w]otowu-; MRT [p.sup.w]otaw; PUL potoowo (sic); CRL [b.sup.w]utow; CRN[b.sup.w]utow; STW [p.sup.w]otaaw (sic); WOL betau; PUA [p.sup.w]atao (sic);PCK *[p.sup.w]adau; MRS [b.sup.w]ejaw 'b. of fine weave; pocket,pouch'; KIR [b.sup.w]arai-(too) 'a small hat' (but cf. PCMC*[p.sup.w][aca.sub.2] 'kind of round basket'); KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Note MRS j instead of expected t, whichsuggests that it is a loan, but from what source is not clear. Cf. FIJ kato'basket, box'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ata 'dried out, withered': CHK[p.sup.w]as, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]as 'dry, d. o., light in weight';PUL [p.sup.w]ah 'dry, w.'; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]as.[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]asa-(lo) 'be dried up'; WOL bbase, bbate 'bedry, dead, thin skinny', [p.sup.w][atep.sup.w]ate 'bethirsty'; PUA [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ata 'be dry',[p.sup.w][atap.sup.w]ata 'be completely dry, w.'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ata, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ata; KIR [b.sup.w]ata 'black, darkcolored, sunburnt'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]au 'to pound food'; CHK[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]oo- 'breadfruit pounder',[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]oo-ni 'p. it (breadfruit)'; MRT[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o 'p.'; PUL [p.sup.w]o 'p.(breadfruit)'; CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]o 'pestle for pounding, to p.with a pestle', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ooo-li 'to p. (food) with amortar and pestle'; WOL bboo 'to p. (breadfruit), poundingstone', bboo-li-(i); 'p. it'; PUA ppao (sic); PCK*[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]au; PON [p.sup.w]ay 'woodenimplement for splitting breadfruit'; KSR faefae 'kind of poi(mashed food)'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]ana 'a snapper fish': CHK poow, powu-(n)'sp. Of s., s. of'; CRN [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ow 'sp. of s.';PON [p.sup.w]eew 's. (Lutjanus semicinctus)'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]aua'a f.'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]auSu 'nose': CHK [p.sup.w]eet,[p.sup.w]eetu-; MRT [p.sup.w]oot, [p.sup.w]ootu-; PUL [p.sup.w]oot,[p.sup.w]ootu-; CRL [b.sup.w]oot, [b.sup.w]ootu-; STW [p.sup.w]oot,[p.sup.w]ootu-; WOL booti; PUA [p.sup.w]autu; PCK *[p.sup.w]autu; MOK(s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d, -[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]di-; MRS[b.sup.w]awat(iy); KIR [b.sup.w]airi; KSR fw[epsilon]; PEO *[b.sup.w]aRu[sz]u(Geraghty 1983) and *[b.sup.w]aRucu (Geraghty 1990) (SAA qualusu). Note YAPp'eeth-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uun) 'his nose'. Cf. POC *isu'nose' (PPN *isu; FIJ ucu; BUG ihu; ARO isuisu 'noseornament'; LAK [ma]-isu; PKB *isu); UAN *ijun.

PMC *[p.sup.w]awu 'fishing pole': CHK [p.sup.w]oow,[p.sup.w]oow-, [p.sup.w]oow, [p.sup.w]owu-, 'f. p.', [p.sup.w]ow'to fish with a p.'; MRT [p.sup.w]oow, [p.sup.w]owo-; PUL[p.sup.w]owo(sic); CRL [p.sup.w]oow, [p.suup.w]ow; STW [p.sup.w]aaw; WOLbaau, bau-; PUA [p.sup.w]aau, [p.sup.w]au-; PCK *[p.sup.w]au; PON[p.sup.w]ow; MOK [p.sup.w]o; MRS [b.sup.w]ay; KSR fo. Cf. YAP baaw'fishing pole', KSR [p.sup.w]e([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-i)'fish for w. a pole (at night)'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ax[ae] 'come to view, reveal': CHK[p.sup.w]a, [p.sup.w]aa- 'c. to v.', [p.sup.w]aa-ri'show', (a)-[p.sup.w]a 'pick or gather breadfruit'; MRT[p.sup.w]aa-re 'announce'; PUL [p.sup.w]a, [p.sup.w]aa-;'appear', [p.sup.w]aa-ri-(y) 'show'; CRL [b.sup.w]u'be or become visible, to appear' [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]a 'appearsuddenly'; WOL baa, bbaa 'emerge to view, come from behind',(ga)-baa 'dig it up'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ae, [p.sup.w]ae-ri-; PON[p.sup.w]ar 'appear'; MOK [p.sup.w]ar 'emerge, come toview'; PNG [p.sup.w]ar 'to appear, rise (of sun); KSR faek'say, tell, announce'; PEO *[p.sup.w]aka, [p.sup.w]a[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ka (SAA qa'a 'to rise [of heavenly bodies]',qa'a-[qito] 'to sprout, spring up [of plants]'; ARO[p.sup.w]aa 'to rise'). See also PCK *[p.sup.w]aya 'swarm offish', PMC *[p.sup.w]ere 'to sprout, blossom'. Cf. also PMC*[p.sup.w]era 'go or come through'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ece, [p.sup.w]ece[p.sup.w]ece 'white, powderedlime': CHK [p.sup.w]ech, [p.sup.w]eche[p.sup.w]ech 'be w., be alight color', [p.sup.w]eech, [p.sup.w]echa-, [p.sup.w]eche- 'p.1.'; MRT [p.sup.w] [eshep.sup.w]esh, [p.sup.w]eesh; PUL [p.sup.w]eR,[p.sup.w] [eRep.sup.w]eR, [p.sup.w]eeR; CRL [b.sup.w]esh, [esheb.sup.w]esh'white, have lime on it', [b.sup.w] 'coral lime'; CRN[b.sup.w]eR; STw [p.sup.w] [eRepp.sup.w], [p.sup.w]eeR; WOL beshe bbeshe,beshebeshe, beeshe, beshe-; PUA [p.sup.w] [esep.sup.w]ese, [p.sup.w]ese.[p.sup.w]eese [p.sup.w]ese-; PCK [p.sup.w]cce, [p.sup.w] [ecep.sup.w]ece; PON[p.sup.w][epsilon]t[epsilon][p.sup.w][epsilon]t,[p.sup.w][epsilon][epsilon]t; MOK [p.sup.w]os 'limestone'; KsRfasrfasr, fasr. Cf. YAP weach 'lime, w.'; PWMP *budeq'w.' (Blast 1980:56). Cf. Jackson (1986: 229: fn. 4) PMc*[p.sup.w]*pace 'coral lime'. Cf. BUG pura. See also Marck's(1994:317) PMc *p'[ae]t'e.

PMC *[p.sup.w]eci 'hot': CHK [p.sup.w]ich,[p.sup.w]ichi-kkar, e-[p.sup.w]ichi 'h., burning h., heat it'; PUL[p.sup.w]ER, [p.sup.w]eRi-kkar, ya-[p.sup.w]-eri-(y); CRL [b.sup.w]eshi-kkar, a-[b.sup.w]eshi; CRN eRi-kkar, eRi; STW [p.sup.w]eRi-kkar; WOLbeshi, beshi-kkare, ga-beshi-i; PUA [p.sup.w]esi, [p.sup.w] esi-kkala; PCK*[p.sup.w]eci, [p.sup.w]eci-kkara, ka-[p.sup.w]eci-i-; MOK[p.sup.w][esp.sup.w]es; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]srf[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sr, fisr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k.

PWMC *[p.sup.w]ee 'khot divination': CHK [p.sup.w]ee'd. by numbers (with knots in four coconut leaves, counting each byfours and using remainder numbers in their permutations)',[p.sup.w]ee-(y) 'divine for'; PUL [p.sup.w]e(sic),[p.sup.w]ee-(ni); CRL [b.sup.w]ee, [b.sup.w](li), [p.sup.w]ee-(y); WOL bee;PCK *[p.sup.w]ee; MRS [b.sup.w] eye 'left over, result of d.',[b.sup.w]eye 'k. in d.'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]eka 'kind of bat': CHK (ninnu)- [p.sup.w]e'small species of furibat'; PON [p.sup.w][epsilon][epsilon]k; MoK[p.sup.w]eek; KSR fat; PEO *[b.sup.w]eka 'fruitbat' (Geraghty 1983)(FIJ beka, Bekwa 'bat [Geraghty 1983]; PPN [peka.sup.w]'bat').

PMC? *[p.sup.w]eki 'carry, take': MRT [p.sup.w]eke'to lift, c. (s.t.)'; PUL [p.sup.w]ek 'to c. (on the shouldersor in the hand)', [p.sup.w] eki-(y) 'to c. (s.t.)'; CRN[b.sup.w] [eib.sup.w]ogh, [b.sup.w] [oob.sup.w]ogh 'to bring, t.,c.', [b.sup.w]ughi, [b.sup.w]oghi 'to c., get, t., bring, transport(s.t.)'; CRN [b.sup.w] [ogob.sup.w]og 'to bring, t., c.'; STW[p.sup.w]iki to bring (s.t.)'; WOL begi 'to t.', begi-(i)'to t. (s.t.)'; PCK *[p.sup.w]eki; PON [p.sup.w]ek 'to lift,adopt (s.t.)'; MOK [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to lift',[p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to lift (s.t.)'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]ek 'to t., c.', bek 'to t., c., receive, get, capture(s.t.)'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to steal (s.t.), commitadultery with (s.o.)'. Cf. PUA [p.sup.w]e, [p.sup.w]e,[p.sup.w]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to t. (s.t.) up fromunderground'. Cf. Also SAA qa'i 'to lever, prize'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]elu 'break': STW [p.sup.w]El, [p.sup.w][elup.sup.w]El'to break': WOL beliel 'snap off, breakoff', beli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k-(i) 'snap it off, break itoff', beli-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi 'be snapped off, brokenoff'; MOK ki-[p.sup.w] ele-k 'bend s.t. with a movement of thewrist, twist s.t. off, break s.t. with a snap', ki-[p.sup.w]El'bend (s.t.) with a movement of the wrist, twist (s.t.) off, break(s.t.) with a snap'; PEO *[p.sup.w]elu 'bend (Geraghty 1983:123).Cf. MRS [b.sup.w] [ilak.sup.w] 'b., crease, fracture (s.t.)'; KIR[b.sup.w] [enab.sup.w]ena 'to split'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ullu,[p.sup.w]ulu 'break'. See also KSR fok 'break, smash (ofbrittle objects)', fokfok 'broken, smashed', fuku-l'break or smash (s.t.)'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]elu, [p.sup.w] [ep.sup.w]elu 'dirt,soil': CHK [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]un, [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]unu-'soil': PUL [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]el, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]eli-'soil' CRL [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]elu; PON[p.sup.w]eli-[p.sup.w]El' dirty'; MRS [b.sup.w]-il(tewenwen)'filthy, dirty' (ttewen 'dirty, corrupt, nasty, obscene,vulgar, gross'); KIR te-[b.sup.w] on, [b.sup.w]oni- 'black soil,loam which has been sifted'. Cf. PMc *[p.sup.w]elu 'dirt, soil,dirty' (Jackson 1986:229, fn. 4, and Marck 1994:316); WoL boole,bola-(li) 'center (of an island), c. of'; KSR folfd 'blue,indigo, dark blue'. Cf.also PEO [bp]wela 'mud' (Geraghty 1983)(PPN *pela 'dirty, decayed'; ARO [b.sup.w]era a swamp',[b.sup.w] [erab.sup.w]era 'be in flood") and PCMc *[p.sup.w]alu'taro swamp, dirt as found in t. s.'.

PMc ? [p.sup.w]enu 'cause, beginning, basis': CHK[p.sup.w]un, [p.sup.w]unu-(ta) 'be begun, originated',[p.sup.w]unu-(n) 'c. of, reason for, because', [p.sup.w]unu-u-(w)'begin it'; CRL [b.sup.w] El 'begin' [b.sup.w]elu-(w)'to start (s.t.)', [b.sup.w] ele-(taa-) 'b. (of s.t.)';CRN [b.sup.w]ene-(taa-) 'b. (of s.t.)'; WOL bbblu, belu- 'c.,reason', belu-u-(we) 'originate it, begin it', bon-ne'because'; PCk *[p.sup.w] enu; KSR fono-, f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'buttocks, hip, (? Bottom)'. Cf.MRS win, wini-(n) 'base, root, c., reason'; FIJ vuu-(na); PKB*vuhu, vuu 'trunk, basis, reason, c.'; UAN *puqun. Cf. PMc?*[p.sup.w]uku 'base, tail'.

PCMc ? *[p.sup.w] [ep.sup.w]e 'butterfly': MRS [b.sup.w][ap.sup.w] [b.sup.w] [ib.sup.w]; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w] [eb.sup.w] e. Cf. Poc*bebe (SAM pepe 'b.'; FIJ beebee 'b.', SAA pepe 'b.,moth'; LAU bebe 'b., month'; KWA bebe 'b., month';PKB *bebe 'flutter'). The KIR form may be a loan from SAM, and theMRS a loan from KIR. If so, this would be the same root as in PMc *pepe,pepepe 'to skip along, flit'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]era 'go or come through, pass': CHK[p.sup.w]ER, [p.sup.w]ere- 'come, go'; CRL [b.sup.w]ar,[b.sup.w]er, 'to go all the way through, pierce s.t. through': WoLbbere 'get s.t. through a hole'; PON [p.sup.w] ar 'appear, a race'; MoK [p.sup.w]ar ' to be through, penetrated, emerge orcome to view'; MRS [b.sup.w] eyrah-(dik) 'begin going'; KSRfaer 'p., go, come' (a loan?). Cf. KSR faesr 'p., go,come'; KIR baaki 'gone ashore (as a boat on the beach)'. Cf.also PMC *[p.sup.w]awu 'fishing pole', PMC *[p.sup.w]ax[ae]'come to view'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ere 'to sprout, blossom': CRL[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ar, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]er 'to emerge, s.'; PON[p.sup.w][epsilon]r 'appear, b. (of fruit and flowers)';KIR[b.sup.w][eb.sup.w]e (sic) 'sprouting, budding'; KSR fili'arrive'. Cf. MRS [b.sup.w]el, [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]el'bloom'. Cf. also PMC *p[p.sup.w]awu 'fishing pole', PCK*[p.sup.w]uku or *[p.sup.w]uku 'sprout' (of a seed)'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]exe, [p.sup.w]e[p.sup.w]exe 'twins': CHK(ni)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]e, (ni)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ee- 'twin (ofsiblings)'; MRT (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]e; CRL (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ey't. of the same sex' (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]eya -(alu) 't ofopposite sex'; CRN (li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]eya-(anu) 't. of oppositesex'; WOL (li)-bbeye; PCK *(li)-[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]eye; PONm[p.sup.w][epsilon]r; MOK u[m.sup.w][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r;MRS[b.sup.w]ew (eastern dialect); KIR[b.sup.w]e[b.sup.w]ee; KSR fak. Cf. PUA(ni)-[p.sup.w] u 'twins'. Cf. also the reconstruction *[p.sup.w]exaby Jackson (1983:384; 1986:229 fn. 4).

PMc *[p.sup.w]ili 'to slip off, put aside': CHK[p.sup.w]in, [p.sup.w]ini[p.sup.w]in, [p.sup.w]ini-ti 'slipped on or off(of clothing), thing taken off and given to s.o. one meets on a path, s. iton or off'; PUL [p.sup.w]il; CRL [b.sup.w]ili-ti, [b.sup.w]uli-tu,[b.sup.w]uli-ti; WOL bilibili, bili-ti; PCK *[p.sup.w]ili,[p.sup.w]ili[p.sup.w]ili, pwili-di; PON [p.sup.w] il 'to put down or p.a (as one's beliefs); KsRfil, fill 'place or p. a. or away'.

PMc *[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ili[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ili-ta'sap, gum, resin, gummy': MRT [p.sup.*]ele-s 's.',(a)-[p.sup.w]ili-sa 'get s.'; PUL[p.sup.w]il 'bring down toddyfrom a tree'; WOL bili-se 'gum, s., glue, be glued',bili-sa-(a) 'glue it'; PUA [p.sup.w]uunu, [p.sup.w]unu- 'g.,s., glue', [p.sup.w]unu[p.sup.w]unu 'be sticky'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ili-ta; PON [p.sup.w]ill, [p.sup.w]ili'g.';MOK[p.sup.w]il, [p.sup.w]ili- 'g., s.'; MRS [b.sup.w]il's.', [b.sup.w]il[b.sup.w]il 'gummy, r.'; KSR ful'breadfruit s., g.'. Cf. POc *belut(Fu bulubulu-ti 'besticky'; PPN *pulu 'g., r.' SAApulu 'pitch, r.'; AROburu 'g. of buru (Parinarium) tree used to caulk canoes, to stick';LAK hdu 'juice, s.'); UAN *pulut 'glue, paste'.

PMc *[p.sup.w][iu]Sowa 'sweat': PON [p.sup.w]udo,[p.sup.w]udaw, [p.sup.w]udowE 's., perspiration, his s.',[p.sup.w]udo wado 'sweaty'; MOK [p.sup.w]udo 'to s.'[p.sup.w]udoo-n 'his s., s. of', [p.sup.w]udoo-di 'to havesweated'; KSR fiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's., perspiration, toperspire'.

PWMC *[p.sup.w]iti 'group': CHK [p.sup.w]ii-,[p.sup.w]ii[p.sup.w]i 'g., sibling of same sex, be siblings of s.s.; MRT[p.sup.w]ii, [p.sup.w]ii[p.sup.w]i; PUL [p.sup.w]i-, [p.sup.w]ii[p.sup.w]iy(sic); CRL [b.sup.w]ii, [b.sup.w]ii[b.sup.w]i; STW [p.sup.w]ii,[p.sup.w]ii[p.sup.w]i; WOL bisi-, hisibisi; PuA [p.sup.w]iidi, [p.sup.w]idi-,[p.sup.w]idi 'sibling of same sex, befriend'; PCK *[p.sup.w]iiti,[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]iti-, [p.sup.w]itipwiti; PON [p.sup.w]ii-(n) 'g.,team'; MRS [b.sup.w]iji-(n) 'flock or crowd of'. Cf. KIR-[b.sup.w]ii 'unit of ten in counting'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]oca 'turtle shell': CHK [p.sup.w]ooch,[p.sup.w]ocha-(n) 'armor plating of a turtle's s. orcrocodile's back, its a p.'; MRT [p.sup.w]oosh, [p.sup.w]ocha-(n)PUL [p.sup.w]ooR, [p.sup.w]oRe-(y); CRL [b.sup.w]oosh; CRN [b.sup.w]ooR; STW[p.sup.w]ooR; WOL booshe, bosha-(li); PUA [p.sup.w]oosa, [p.sup.w]osa-; PCK*[p.sup.w]oca; PON [p.sup.w]EEt; MRS [b.sup.w]ed; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]ora; KSRfisrE- 'piece of t. s.'.

PMc ? *[p.sup.w]oi, [p.sup.w]oa 'odor, smell': CHK[p.sup.w]oo-; MRT [p.sup.w]eW, [p.sup.w]ewu-(n), [p.sup.w]owu-(n); PUL[p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w]owu-(n); CRL [b.sup.w]oo-; STW [p.sup.w]oo-; WOL boo,boo-; PUA [p.sup.w]oo; SNS [b.sup.w]ou; PCK? *[p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w]owe-; PON[p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w]ow[epsilon] 's., o., aroma, its s.'; MOK[p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's.,its s.'; MRS [b.sup.w]iyi-, [b.sup.w]i-; KIR (te) -[b.sup.w] oi'scent, o., s.', [b.sup.w]oi 'to s., have o.'; KSR fo'to s., have o.', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(l), foli-(n) 'its s., s. of'; POc ? *bo-i, bo-a 'tos., have o., a s. or o.' (PPN *poa 'fish o.'; FU boi, boi-ca's., have o., s. of', bona 'stink because rotten'). Cf.UAN *bahu; PAN *baSu. There are problems here, especially the KSR l.

PMc *[p.sup.w]ono, [p.sup.w]ono-ti, [p.sup.w]ono-ta 'be shut,blocked, to shut, block, close': CHK [p.sup.w] on 'be enough';MRT [p.sup.w]on 'filled up'; Put. [p.sup.w]ono-(lo) 'becrowded, packed, filled'; CRL: [b.sup.w]ol and CRN [b.sup.w]on'have s.t. in the eye'; STW [p.sup.w]on 'be crowded, have nomore room'; WOL bone 'be thick, bushy'; PCK *[p.sup.w]on[ao];PON pon 'stuffed up, clogged'; MOK pon 'blocked'; MRS[b.sup.w] [en.sup.w]'b., clogged, obstructed, constipated,stymied'; KIR [b.sup.w]ono 's., closed, stopped, obstructed',[b.sup.w]ono-ta 'to cover, s., c. (s.t.)', (te) [b.sup.w]ono'sea wall'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]nf[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n'jammed, b.', f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]no-s 'to block,blockade, jam, check, obstruct, stop (s.t.) with a cork'; PEO *pono-t(Geraghty 1990) (FIJ bono, bono-ta 'to b., dam up'; PPN pono'c., b. up'; SAA pono 'to c., mend', pono-si 'tostuff up'; BUG pono 'be closed up, stuffed up'; LAU bono'to c. a hole'; ARO bono, bono-si 'to c., stuff up, dam';ARO [p.sup.w]ono [p.sup.w]ono-si 'to stop, b., choke', bono,bono-si 't o c., stuff up'; KWA bono 'closed, s.,constipated', bono-ta 'stopper, plug', bono-si-[a] toblock'); UAN *pened. Note that the PON and MOK initial stops are not theexpected reflexes. Sec PMC *[p.sup.w]on[ao] 'whole, complete'. Cf.PMC *[p.sup.w]alu 'cover, lid'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]on[ao] 'whole, complete': WOL bone'mature'; PON [p.sup.w]on 'w., entire', [p.sup.w]ono[p.sup.w] on 'round, circular, a circle'; MOK [p.sup.w] on'w. (quantity)'; KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'w., c.,entire'; PEO *bono (ARO bono 'to spread over (as grass orweeds)'. Cf. CRL [b.sup.w] ell and CRN [b.sup.w] onn 'be completelyplanted (of a field)'; KIR [h.sup.w] on 'really, truly,indeed'. See also PMc *[p.sup.w]ono, [p.sup.w]ono-ti, [p.sup.w]ono-ta'be shut, blocked, to shut, block, close'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ono 'promise': CHK [p.sup.w][p.sup.w] on,[p.sup.w][p.sup.w] one-(n) 'a p., agreement, vow, pledge, oath, p. of(s.t.), to p., make a contract, take an oath',[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ono-(ffe[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]en) 'make an agreement,contract, or covenenant'; MRT [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]on 'agree,p.'; PUL [p.sup.w]on 'to p., agree'; STW [p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]on'agree, p.'; PCK *[p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]ono; PEO *bono (PPN *pono'truth, correctness'). Cf. SAA qo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i and ULApo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to p.'; LAU (dau) bo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'take hold of' (dau 'take, hold').


PCMc *[p.sup.w]oto 'swelling': CHK [p.sup.w]oo,[p.sup.w]oo- 'swelling of any kind', [p.sup.w]o,[p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]o 'be swollen, be pregnant'; MRT [p.sup.w]oo;PUL [p.sup.w]o, [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]o; CRL [b.sup.w]oo, [b.sup.w]o,[b.sup.w]oo[b.sup.w]o; STW [p.sup.w]oo; WOL boo, booboo; PUA [p.sup.w]oo; PCK*[p.sup.w]oo, [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]oo; PON m[p.sup.w]os 'boil,swelling', m[p.sup.w] asa-(da) 'to swell up, rise (as bread)';MOK um[p.sup.w]as 'sickness, chicken pox'; MRS [b.sup.w] [b.sup.w]et 'swollen, swell, lump'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w] oto 'a bulbousroot', [p.sup.w]oto 'having a bulb'. Cf. MRS [b.sup.w]ej,[b.sup.w]eji- 'swollen corpose'; KSR fui 'bud, swelling';PEO *boo 'boil, swelling' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu boo 'aboil'; ARO [p.sup.w]oo[p.sup.w]oo 'elephantiasis').

PMc *[p.sup.w]uasa 'slingshot': MOK [p.sup.w]uad; MRS[p.sup.w]iwat; KST fat 's'. #f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ti 'shoot(s.t.) with a.s.'. The MOK and KSR forms could be loans from MRS.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]uce 'foolish, stupid, crazy': CHK[p.sup.w]uch, [p.sup.w]ucho[p.sup.w]uch 'c.', [p.sup.w]uche-(er)'cry out in distress'; PUL [p.sup.w]uR 'c'.[p.sup.w]u[p.sup.w] [p.sup.w]uRe-(er) 'scream'; CRL [b.sup.w]ush'naive, ignorant, foolish, senilc'; CRN [b.sup.w] uR' naive,ignorant, foolish, senile'; WOL busho 'c., stupid'; PUA[p.sup.w]uuse, [p.sup.w]use- 'a fool'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ucc; PON[p.sup.w]ut 'joyous, lusty'; MRS [b.sup.w]ed 'mistake, error,wrong'; KIR [b.sup.w]ure 'to err, blunder, do wrong'. Cf. PEObuRe 'f.' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *[p.sup.w]uk[ao] 'knot, node': CHK[p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk 'a k., be knotted, tie in knots', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]uk, [p.sup.w]uke-(n) 'a k., k. of' [p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk'k. (as in a tree)', [p.sup.w]uko-(y) 'k. it'; CRL[b.sup.w] ughe-e-(y) 'tie (it) in a k.', [b.sup.w]ugho[p.sup.w]ugh'a k., tie knots'; CRN [b.sup.w]uge-(y) 'k. it'; STWpu[k.sup.w]o[p.sup.w]uk, [p.sup.w]uko-(y); WOL bugobugo 'a knot, tie,bind, fasten', bugo-si-(i) 'tie it, connect it', bugo-tagi'be tied, fastened'; PUA [p.sup.w]uko-[p.sup.w]uko 'knots, tieknots, bind,' [p.sup.w]uko-di 'tie it together, k. it'; PCK*[p.sup.w]uk[ao], [p.sup.w]uk[ao], [p.sup.w]uk[ao] [p.sup.w]uk[ao],[p.sup.w]uk[ao]-ti-; PON [p.sup.w]uko[p.sup.w]uk 'a k., tie knots',[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]-(n) 'k. of', [p.sup.w]uk[epsilon] 'to tie(s.t.)'; MOK [p.sup.w]uk 'k. made to be temprary'; KSR foko'k., n.', fuko-e 'tie (it) in a knot'; POc ? buk-a'thing tied'. Cf. Fu buki, buki-a 'tie, fasten', buku,buku-ya 'tie a k.'; BUG (vari)-puku 'ak., to tietogether'. Cf. MRS [b.sup.w] iw[b.sup.w]iw 'tie a know; divinationusing knots', biwij-iy 'tie s.t.' Cf. also PMc ?*[p.sup.w]uku, [p.sup.w]ukua 'node, joint, knot, knee' and PON[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]l, and PON [p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]l,[p.sup.w]uk[epsilon]l[epsilon] 'k., joint, n., its k.'

PWMc *[p.sup.w]ukari 'sedge': CHK [p.sup.w]uker,[p.sup.w]ukeri-(n) 'a s. (Fimbristylis polymorpha and F. cymosa), aplant (chrysopogon aciculatus)'; PUL pukar (sic) "Fimbristyliss.'; CRL [b.sup.w]ugher, [b.sup.w]ughar 'F. cymosa',[b.sup.w]ughari-(nnas) 'F.atollensis'; CRN [b.sup.w]uger'F.cymosa'; WOL bugori 'grasses of several types',bugori-(nase) 'a swamp plant with good smell'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ukari;MRS [b.sup.w]iker 'a plant (Cyperus ferax)'.

PMc *-[p.sup.w]ukiwa or *-[p.sup.w]ukua 'hundred': CHK(i)- [p.sup.w]uku, -[p.sup.w]ukuu-; MRT -[p.sup.w]uku; PUL (ye)-[p.sup.w]ukuw; CRL -[b.sup.w]ughuw; CRN [b.sup.w]ugu; STW-[p.sup.w]ukuw,WOL(se)- [p.sup.w]uguwe; ULI-buguy; PCK *-[p.sup.w]ukua; PON (e)-[p.sup.w]iki; MOK (e)-[p.sup.w]ki; MRS (ji)-[b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]iy; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]u[b.sup.w]ua; KSR -fok, -foko. Cf. PMC ? *pwuku, pwukua node,joint, knot, knee'.

PMc ? *[p.sup.w]uku 'base, tail': KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]uki'b., butt-end, buttocks, t., reason, cause, motive'; PEO *buku,puku (Fu buku 't.'; LAK vuu 'b., reason, cause'). Cf. UAN*pu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ku[rR]. Cf. YAP buuk 't.';PKB *vuhu*'base, cause'; PMP *puqun. Cf. also PMC ? *[p.sup.w]enu'cause, beginning, basis', PMC *iku 'tail'.

PMC? *p*uku, [p.sup.w]ukua 'node, joint, knot, knee':CHK [p.sup.w]uku, [p.sup.w]ukuwa-, [p.sup.w]ukuwe- 'n.,j.,k.,knee'; MRT [p.sup.w]uku, [p.sup.w]ukuwa-; PUL [p.sup.w]ukuw'knee' (Bender et al. 1984); CRL [b.sup.w]ughuwa- 'n.,protruding j., protuberance'; CRN [b.sup.w]uguya- 'n., protrudingj., protuberance'; WOL buguwe 'outside curved projection,knee'; PUA [p.sup.w]ukua; PCK *[p.sup.w]ukua; PON [p.sup.w]uki[epsilon]'his knee'; MOK [p.sup.w]iki 'knee'; MRS [b.sup.w][b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]ey, [b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]iyey 'knee'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w][ub.sup.w]us 'knee or elbow j.'; KSR fuku-(n)'j. of'; POc *buku, bukua (FIJ buku 'anything knotted andhumped'; BUG puku 'swelling, lump, k., tumor', [vari]-puku'a k., to tie together'; LAK bukua 'swollen,protruding'); PMP *buku 'knee' or *bu([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])knq 'bend, bent' (Blust 1980:130). Cf. PMC *[p.sup.w]uk[ao]'knot, node', PMC *-[p.sup.w]ukiwa or *-[p.sup.w]ukua'hundred'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ula, [p.sup.w][up.sup.w]ula 'to flame,flare': CHK [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]una-(n) 'blaze,flash, flame, its b.'; MRT [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ol 'flame',[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ola-(ta) 'flame up'; PUL [p.sup.w]ul (sic)'burn' (Bender et al. 1984: [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'burn, flameup'); CRL [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'to burn, be burning',[b.sup.w][up.sup.w][p.sup.w]ul 'to be burning, in flames'; STW[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]un 'be alight'; WOL bbule 'burn, lightup', bulobulo 'shiny, flaming', bbubbule 'flame,light'; PUA puna (sic) 'glow, flame, blinking of lights'; PCK[p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ula, [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ula; PON m[p.sup.w]ul'flame'; MOK um[p.sup.w]ul 'flaming'; MRS [b.sup.w]il'burn, hot, fever'; KSR fol 'hot, heated, sweaty'; PEO*bula (PPN *puLa 'shine, glow'; ROT pula 'be alight,bum'). Cf. YAP (gu)-bul 'to flare up'. Cf. also BUG beubethu'to blaze, burn, a flame'.

PWMC *[p.sup.w]ulak[a.sub.1] 'a fish': CHK [p.sup.w]una'kind of unicorn f.'; PUL [p.sup.w]ula 'a common reeff.'; CRN bula 'kind of surgeon f.'; WOL bulaga-(aleye) 'akind of f.'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ulaka; PON pwulak 'unicorn fish (Nasounicornis)'; MRS[p.sup.w]ilak 'unicorn f.'. MRS heavy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] expected. Cf. KWA bula 'Pacific sea perch'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]ulak[a.sub.2] 'Cyrtosperma taro': CHK[p.sup.w]una, [p.sup.w]unaa-; MRT [p.sup.w]ula; PUL [p.sup.w]ula; CRL[b.sup.w]ula; STW [p.sup.w]ula; WOL bulage; PUA [p.sup.w]unaka; PCK*[p.sup.w]ulaka; PFO *bulalka (SAM pula'a). Cf. MRS qiwbilken 'avariety of inedible t.'. Cf. also LAK ula 'Cyrtosperma t.' andPEO *buRaka (Geraghty 1990).

PMC *[p.sup.w]uli 'shell': CHK [p.sup.w]iin,[p.sup.w]ini- 'cowrie s.'; MRT [p.sup.w]iil; PUL [p.sup.w]iilcowrie s. scraper'; CRL frill 'cowrie s.'; STW [p.sup.w]iin;WOL (u)-bili; PUA piini, pini- (sic) 'shellfish, mussel'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ili; PON [p.sup.w]ili (sic) 'cowrie s.'; MRSli[b.sup.w]-([b.sup.w][ik.sup.w]ey) 'any cowrie s., any s.'(showing metathesis); KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]un 'a bivalvularshellfish'; KSR ful, fuli-n 'shellfish, s. of'; PEO *buli (FIJbuli; SAA pull 'cowrie s.'; ARO buri 'cowrie'); PMP*buliq (Blust 1980:56). MOK and PNG [p.sup.w]un 's.' are apparentloans from KIR. Cf. YAP wul 'large cowrie'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]uli, [p.sup.w]uli[p.sup.w]uli, [p.sup.w]ulita'gum, sap, resin, gummy': see PMC *[p.sup.w]ili,[p.sup.w]ili[p.sup.w]ili, [p.sup.w]ilita.

PWMc ? *[p.sup.w]ulo, [p.sup.w]ul[ou]lo 'heart': PUL[p.sup.w]ull; CRL [b.sup.w]ull, [b.sup.w]ulle-(l) 'h., his h.'; WOLbunne, bunne-(i) 'h., keel section of a canoe, my h.'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ull[ao]; MRS [p.sup.w]e[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'h. oftree, root of matter, core, pith'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'descend, getlower': WOL bu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u, bu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-(tiwe) 'bend down, g. 1., 1. one's body',bu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(matto) 'to sit down'; PUA[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-(tio) 'to sit down'; PCK*[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON koro-[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'small waterfall'; MRS [b.sup.w][i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL].sup.w] 'fall down', [bi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]i-(t)'fall down on s.o. or s.t.'; KIR [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'going down, descending', [b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i[b.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be long (of hair), flooding(after miscarriage), 'to set (of the sun)'. See also PCK*p[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to fall'. See also Marck(1994:319) PCMC *p'u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u.


PMC *[p.sup.w][up.sup.w]u 'trigger fish, constellationSouthern Cross': CHK [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w], [p.sup.w][up.sup.w]u-'t. f., S. C.', (taa-nu)-[p.sup.w] 'rising of the S. C.';MRT [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w]; PUL [p.sup.w][up.sup.w] (sic); CRL[b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]; STW [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w]; WOL buubu, #buubu-; PCK*[p.sup.w][up.sup.w]u, -[p.sup.w]u; PON [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w] 'triggerfish'; MOK[p.sup.w][up.sup.w]; MRS [b.sup.w][ib.sup.w] 't.f.', [b.sup.w][ib.sup.w], [b.sup.w][b.sup.w]i- 'S. C.'; Km(te)-[b.sup.w][ub.sup.w]u; KSR fif 'akind off.'; PEO *mpumpu (SAApupu 'S. C.'; ARO bubu sp. of Baliates f.'; KWA bubu'reef t. f.'). Note that the consetllation is named for the fish.

PMC *[p.sup.w]uro 'collide, fall': CHK [p.sup.w]ur'be bumped, stubbed, trip', [p.sup.w]uro-(ffe[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]en) 'be bumped together, be in collision'; PUL[p.sup.w]uro-ti-(y) 'to hit, c. with, bump against'; CRL[b.sup.w]ur 'to f. forward on one's face'; WOL buro 'beoff one's feet, f., tumble down'; PCK *[p.sup.w]uro; PON[p.sup.w]uur 'to descend into, f. into, step into (as a hole)'; KSR? f[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'slip, drop, slide'. Cf. PCMC*[p.sup.w]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'deseend, get lower'.

PCMC *[p.sup.w]urua 'insides': PON [p.sup.w]uri,[p.sup.w]uriy[epsilon] 'stomach (of certain fish like tuna), core (as ofbreadfruit), hemorrhoid, its s.'; MOK [p.sup.w]iri,[p.sup.w]urr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], [p.sup.w]irii-(n), [p.sup.w]urre(n),[p.sup.w]irii(n) 'fish stomach, breadfruit core, its s., s. of';MRS [b.sup.w]erew, [b.sup.w]iriwe- 'seat of the emotions, throat, heart,gills', [b.sup.w]iriy 'uvula, esophagus'; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]uua 'rumen, sack, pocket, bag, throat, mouth'(Sabatier 1971). Cf. KIR (te)-buroo 'the heart' (a MRS loan?).

PMC *[p.sup.w]usa, [p.sup.w]usa-ka 'bad, improper': CHK-[p.sup.w]ut 'disliked, b.', (o)-[p.sup.w]ut, (o)-[p.sup.w]uta'to dislike', (choo)-[p.sup.w]ut 'woman', [p.sup.w]uta-k'b., i., unsuitable'; PUL -[p.sup.w]ut, (yo)-[p.sup.w]ut,(Roo)-[p.sup.w]ut; CRL (a)-[p.sup.w]uta, (o)-[b.sup.w]uta 'to dislike orhate (s.o.)', (shoo)-[b.sup.w]ut 'woman, female'; CRN(Roo)-[b.sup.w]ut 'woman, female', [b.sup.w]uuta-g 'b., i.,rude, ugly'; WOL -buto, (paa)-bute 'be unfortunate, in b.condition', (shoo)-buto 'woman'; PCK *[p.sup.w]ude,*[p.sup.w]udaka; MRS [b.sup.w]et, [b.sup.w]itey 'disobedient, naughty,disobey s.o.; KIR [b.sup.w]ua-ka 'wage war, be tempestuous,stormy', (te)-[b.sup.w]ua-ka 'war', [b.sup.w]ua-kaka 'b.,objectionable' (with loss of *s before *k?); KSR f[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]s 'messy, confused, entangled'. Cf. Fu vuca'rotten'.

PMC *[p.sup.w]u[sS]o 'foam': PON [p.sup.w][udop.sup.w]ud'f., scum'; KIR [b.sup.w]uro 'to boil',[b.sup.w][urob.sup.w]uro 'frothy, foamy, boiling',(te)-[b.sup.w][urob.sup.w]uro 'f., froth, bubbles'; PEO *buso, fuso(Fu vnso 'to effervesce, forth'; SAA hutohuto 'froth,foam'; ARO huto, hutohuto 'froth, foam'). Cf. MRS [b.sup.w]i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.sub.s] i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.sub.s]i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.sub.s] i[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w.sub.s]'to boil (of water only)'. Cf. PCK *[p.sup.w]uro,[p.sup.w][urop.sup.w]uro 'bubble, foam'. Marck (1994:315) includesthe forms in PCK *[p.sup.w]uro, [p.sup.w][urop.sup.w]uro 'bubble,foam' with these forms in his PMC *p'usop'uso 'foam,froth'.

PCMc *[p.sup.w]uta[ei] 'feces': CHK [p.sup.w]ise,[p.sup.w]isee-; PUL [p.sup.w]ihe; CRL [b.sup.w]use; CRN [b.sup.w]uhe; PCK*[p.sup.w]utai; PON [p.sup.w]ise 'feces'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]utae.Cf. MRS dey 'defecate from trees (of birds)'; PEO *taqe- (Geraghty1983); POC *taqe (Ross 1988) (PPN *taqe; PKB *tahe; Fu dee-[na], daa [<*dae]; SAA 'ae; BUG tae; KWA ae); UAN *taqi.

PMC *[p.sup.w]uto 'navel': CHK [p.sup.w]uu,[p.sup.w]uwa-(n) 'n., his/her n.'; MRT [p.sup.w]uwa-(n); WOL[p.sup.w]uuse, [p/sup.w]usa-(l); PUA [p.sup.w]uuta, [p.sup.w]uta-'navel', [p.sup.w][p.sup.w]ua 'waist, center'; PCK*[p.sup.w]ut[eo]; PON [p.sup.w]uus, [p.sup.w]use; MRS [b.sup.w]ije-; KIR(te)-[b.sup.w]uto, [b.sup.w]uto-(na); KIR frt, fite-(l). Note also PUL[p.sup.w]uuk 'n.'; CRL [b.sup.w]uugh; CRN [b.sup.w]uug. Cf. PPN*pito; SAM pute; Fu vicovico; BUG sope; SAA Poo; KWA boo bou-(na); PNK *buso;UAN *pusej.

PMC *[p.sup.w]utu 'step, tread, apply one's foot':CHK [p.sup.w]u 'place one's foot', [p.sup.w][uup.sup.w]u's., t., to place one's foot on s.t., treadle, pedal',[p.sup.w]uu-ri 's. on, t. on'; PUL puu-ri-(y) (sic) 'to stampor t. on'; CRL [b.sup.w]u [b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u 'to s., standon', [b.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u 'to s. on s.t., be standing ons.t.', [b.sup.w]uu-ri 'to s., stomp, t. on (s.t.)',[b.sup.w]uu-ragh, [b.sup.w]uu-regh 'to stomp the feet (as when throwinga tantrum)'; PCK *[p.sup.w]u[t[empty set]]u, [p.sup.w]u[t[emptyset]]u-ri-; MRS [b.sup.w][ijb.sup.w]ij 'kick, a dance',[b.sup.w]ij-(jik) 'to kick, be kicking', (je)-[b.sup.w]ji'spur, cut with spurs, kick'; KIR (te)-[b.sup.w]utu 'a smallweapon with a single shark's tooth used by women'; KSR futfut'kick', futu-n 'kick, stomp (s.t.)'; PEO *butu (FIJ butu,buta-ka 'stamp or t. on'; SAA puu 'to t., stamp, standfirm', puu-li 'strike with the talons [of birds]'; BUG bubutu'stamp the foot in dancing, t. hard', butu-li 'to trample,kick', butu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]agi 'to withstand'; KWA buu'tread, step', buu-li-[a] 'scrape with the foot'). Cf.PON [p.sup.w]uur- (with directional suf.) 'descend into, fall into, s.into (as a hole)'; MOK [p.sup.w]uuj, [p.sup.w]uuji 'push,shove' (loan from English?); KIR butubutu 'to crowd', butu-a'to push or press against (s.t.)' (loan from SAM putu, putuputu'be crowded').

PMC ? *[p.sup.w]uu 'to sound (when blown, as atrumpet)': CHK [p.sup.w]u, [p.sup.w]uu-; PEO pupuu (TON pupuu).

PMC *raani 'day': CHK raan, raani-; MRT raan, raani-;PUL raan; CAL raal, raali-; CRN raan; STW raan; WOL raali; PUA laani; PCK*raani; PON raan; MOK reen; PNG raan; MRS rahan, rahani-; KSR lwen; POC*raqani, nraqani (ULA dani 'be d., be daylight'; BUG dani; KWAgani); PAN *daqaNi (Blust 1980:61). See also Marck (1994:308) PMC *raani. Cf.PEO *rangi 'light, shine' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'be d., be daylight; BUG ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'toshine [of the sun]'; ARO da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-si 'd., shine on'; KWA da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'd.').

PMC *rae 'branch': CHK raa, raa-n 'b. with leaves,b. of', raara 'have many branches'; PUL raa raa-n; CRL raa;raa-l 'b.', raara 'be full of branches'; WOL raa 'b.of a tree, bough', raaraa 'be branchy'; ULI raa- 'b.,twig'; PUA laa 'b.', laalaa 'be branchy'; SNS laa'b.'; PCK *raae, rae-; PON raa 'b., tentacle'; MOK ranaa, raa-(n) 'b., its b., b. of'; MRS rah 'b.'; KIR(te)-ae 'driftwood'; KSR lee, lwe 'b., twig, limb'. Cf.PPN *LaaLaa 'small b.'; KWA laa 'leaf used to wrap pudding infor cooking', laalaa 'Calamus vine'; POC *raqan and PAN *daqan(Ross 1988); PMP *da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kaq, da[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]keq'b.' (Blust 1986:33). See also PCK *irae 'tree, stick, timber;log'.

PCMc *raki 'season of southerly winds': CHK raas,resi-(n) 's. of southwesterly winds, breadfruit s., year, s. of';MRT raak, reku-(n) 's., year, s. of'; PUL raak, raki-n 'mainbreadfruit s., s. of southwesterly winds'; CRL. raagh, raghi-'year'; CRN raag 'year'; STW raak 'year'; WOLraagi, ragi- 'year, summer s.'; MAP (mje)-rak 's.'; PCK*raki; PoN raak 's. of plenty, breadfruit s.'; MOK r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'breadfruit s.'; PNG r[epsilon]k 'breadfruits.'; MRS rak 'south, summer'; KIR ajaki 'south'(showing reduplication with loss of consonant in some roots with aCi). Cf. Fudraki 'weather'. See also Marck (1994:312) PMc *raki.

PMc *rak[ou]m[u.sup.w] 'crab': CHK [rokum.sup.w],#[rokum.sup.w]e-(n); PUL rookum (sic); CRL [roghum.sup.w]; STW [rookum.sup.w](sic); WOL [ragum.sup.w]u; PuA lakumu (sic); PCK *[rakum.sup.w]u; PON[rokum.sup.w]; MOK [rokum.sup.w]; PPC *[rakum.sup.w]u; PEO *rak[ou]mu (BUGragomu 'a crab').

PMc *raku, rakuraku 'be scraped out, scooped up': CHKrek, rekurek 'be scooped out', reku-uw 'scoop it out';MRT rekurek 'scrape out, dig out', reku-(w) 's. (s.t.)out'; STW rakurak scrape out', reku-(w) 's, (s.t.) out';WOL reguregu 'take a handful, eat clumsily', regu-u-(we) 'takea handful of it, eat it clumsily'; PCK *raku, raku-u-; PONr[epsilon]kir[epsilon]k 'to scratch with the fingernails, to claw',r[epsilon]ki-i 'scratch or claw (s.t.)'; MOK r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'to work at serving, dish out (food), scrape with thehands', r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki 'to dish (s.t.) out, scrape(s.t.) with the hands'; MRS [rak.sup.w][rek.sup.w]" 'scoop up,scratch'; PEO *raku (SAA rau 'scrape up, gather with thehands'; ARO ra'u ra'u-ha'i 'take a handful');PMP *ra([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])kup 'gather in the cupped hands'(Blust 1983-84:100). Cf. PAN *dakuC 'snatch, grab' (Blust 1986:54)

PMc *rama, ma-rama 'bright, luminous': CHK ram, ramaram'be orange red, saffron colored, b. colored'; (a)-rama 'colorit a b. color (as with tunneric)', ma-ram 'moon, month',sa-ram 'light (as of the sun), be b., full of light'; MRT ma-ram'moon'; PUL ma-ram 'moon, month', ha-ram 'light,daylight, be light'; CRL ma-ram 'moon, month', sa-ram'brightness, light, illumination, be b.'; CRN ma-ram'moon', ha-ram 'brightness'; STw me-ram 'moon';WOL me- rame 'moon, month', te-rame 'light, be lit,brightened', (ge)-ta-re.'na-(a) 'brighten it'; PuAma-lama 'moon, month'; SNs ma-lama 'moon'; MAP ma-ram'moon'; PCK *rama, ma-rama, ta-rama; PON ma-ram 'moon';MRS me-ram 'b., light, flash, glow, luminous'; KIR ma-ama'moonlight, be moonlight', (ka)-ama 'the constellationSouthern Cross'; KSR mre-lw~m 'moon, month', (kre)-lwem'clear, b.'; PEO *na (PPN *rama 'torch, fishing withtorches'); UAN *damaR 'torch, light'. See also Marck(1994:308) PMc *marama 'moonlight, moon'. Cf. BUG marara'light'; KWA la1a 'light'.

PMc *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'be warmed': Mwrre[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uren 'warm oneself by the fire'; PULra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ji-i-(y) 'warm (oneself) as by a fire';Car. ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'warm (oneself)'; STWra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'warm (oneself); PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'warm oneself by a fire', ren 'dried (as of copra ortobacco)'; MOK ranran 'warm oneself'; PNG(k[epsilon])-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'heat on a fire'; MRSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'warm oneself by thefire'; KIR a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'warm'; KsRla[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'warm up, heat up, dry up'; PEO *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i (BUGra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to shine [of sun]', rara[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'heat'). Cf. UAN *gara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'behot'. Cf. also PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmericcolor', PCK *ca[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to warm oneself'. MRSra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (showing vowelalternation) expected.

PMc *rara 'to heat, be warm': CHK rar, rarrar 'bew.'; MRs rar 'to bleach pandanus leaves over a fire, to dry leavesby fire'; PEO *rara (FIJ rara 'to w. oneself at a fire'; PPN*rara 'to heat'; SAA rara 'hot, pungent, be shriveled up,withered, parched'; BUG rara-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to warmoneself at a fire'; LAU rara 'be withered, ripe'; KWA lala'warm'; LAK lala 'to hold over a fire').

PMc *rato 'whale': CHK raaw, rawe-(n) 'whale, w.of'; PUL rawa-(fanu); CRL. raaw roos, #rooso-l; STW raaw; WOL mesa,raso-; PuA laado, lado-; PCK *rato; PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s; MOK roj;MRS raj; KIR (te)-ato, ato-(ni-marawa); KSR lot.

PMc *ra[w[empty set])u 'pull out with the hands from insides.t.': CHK re, reere 'grope, reach with the hands where one cannotsee', ree-yi 'grope for, reach into and under for (s.t.)',ree-(few) 'method of fishing at night by reaching into holes in rockpiles with the hands'; PUL ree ree-yi 'to catch fish with thehands'; KIR auau 'to engage in drawing forth', (te)-auau'fishing by drawing out fish from holes in the rocks'; PEO *rau(SAA rau 'to scrape up, to gather up with the hands'; ARO rau'to snatch, seize'). Cf. PPN *laqu 'pinch, pull up'; KWAlafu 'take off, lift, pull up'; PKB *lapu 'to pull; and UAN*ra[h[theta]ut 'to tear off, .split'.

PMc *ra[w[theta]]u, ka-ra[w[theta]]u, ka-ra[w[theta]]u-si'scraped, to serape': CHK e-ree-ti, a-ree-ti's, it, sand it,make it smooth', kke-re kka-ree 'be scraped', kke-rre-t'sand or s. smooth, be sanded or scraped'; CRL ghe-ree-ti 's.(the skin off a breadfruit)', kke-re 'to s,'; [W.sub.OL]'to s. off, to rub against', reeree 'be scraped off, be rubbedagainst', kke-ree 'be scraped, swept', ge-ree-ti-(i) ', sweep it'; PCK? *rau, ka-rau, ka-rau-di; PON ko-royroy 's. meatout of a coconut', ko-r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d 's. (it)out'; MOK k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d 's.with a hard object'; KSR k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lal[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to scratch, claw, tear', k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-lau-s'scratch, claw, tear (s.t.)'; UAN *ra(m)bus 'tear away'.Cf. PMC *kara, kara-si, kara-sa 'to scrape', PMC *kari 'toscratch'.

PMC? *[raya.sub.1] 'inland': see PMc *[rea.sub.1]

PMC? *[raya.sub.2], 'girl': see PMc ? *[rea.sub.2]

PMC *re-, ra- 'they (3PL subject marker): MRT re-: CHK re-,ra-, ro-; PUL re-, ra-; CRL re-, ra-; STW re-; WOL re-; PUA le-; PCK *re-,*ra-; PON re; MRS yer, re-; KIR a; KSR el-(tael). Cf. BUG -ra'them'.

PCMC *re-; ri- 'person of or belonging to (a clan, nation, orplace)': CHK re-, ree-; MRT re-; PUL ree-; CRL re-; ree-; STW re-; WOLre-; ULI re-; PCK *re-, ice-; MRS ri-; KIR i-. Cf. PUA lei- 'actor oragent'.

PMC ? or *[raya.sub.1] 'inland': CHK (ewu)-ra, -raa-'river, stream' (lit. 'inland current'); UAN *Daya'inland'.

PMC? *[rea.sub.2] or *[raya.sub.2] '[girl.sup.1]: CHK(niye)-ra, -raa- 'girl, young woman', ([tim.sup.w]e-ra'menstrual hut' (lit. 'girls' house'); UAN *dayan'girl'.

PMc *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmeric color': CHKre[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ere[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'be yellow green, saffron colored (associated withturmeric)'; MRT ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aran 'yellow,orange'; PUL raa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'turmeric'; CRLraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'yellow ginger' ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be orange, yellow'; STWraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'turmeric, yellow powder',ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ara[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'yellow'; WOLraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'turmeric', ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]era[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'be yellow',(pee)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'a kind of yellow flower'; PUAlaa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'turmeric',la[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'be yellow'; PCK *ree[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a, re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, re[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]are[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d 'dark (of colors)'; MOKra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] yellow';KIR(te)-e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'variety of coral on flats that emitsmuch color'; KSR ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'yellow'; PEO *re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a (SAM lega'turmeric'; ARO re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'be white,glistening, splendid'). Note that Km (te)-re[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'red cloth', renarena 'to paint (s.t.) red' are loansfrom SAM lega 'turmeric'. Cf. PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o'curcuma, turmeric, ginger, yellow', PMC *ra[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ira[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'bewarmed', PCK *[yalle-p.sup.w]uta 'a tree (Pittosporum)'.

PMC *rere 'tremble (with fear)': CHK rer; PONr[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r; KSR rarrar; PEO *rere (Fu rere 'fear';ARO [rere-/[b.sup.w]eru/ 'run away [b.sup.w]eru 'run' \')Cf. PMc *cece, cecece 'shake, tremble'.

PMC *ria 'sibling': PON ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'possessive classifier for siblings'; MOK riari 'besiblings'; MRS riy-(liki-) 'cross cousin' (liki-'outside'); KSR lili, lwe-(l), li-(n) 'brother, male s., hisb., b. of'. Cf. PWMC *rii 'tied, joined'.

PCMC *riea 'miserable, wretched': [C.sub.HK] riya'be m., in torment, in anguish'; MRT riya envy of so, doing s.t.when one feels one can do it better'; CRL riya 'be frustrated, havea skin rash as an object of bad gossip'; STW riya 'sin, feelsinful'; WOL riyaa 'get in trouble, suffer the consequences (ofwrongdoing)'; PCK *riac or *riea; PON riaa-(la) 'be cursed(resulting in misfortune)'; MOK na 'to sin'; MRS riwe-'fault, sin', rew 'angry, jealous, disappointed'; KIRiee-a 'to deceive, mislead (s.o.)'. Cf. PUA lia (sic)'holiness, sacred object, taboo, be holy, sacred, forbidden'.

PWMC *rii 'tied, joined': CHK ri 'be bound, t.up', ruri 's.t. t. on, band, ribbon, bandage, lashing, bonds,fetters', rii-(y) 'tie, lash, wind, bind (of thread, rope,etc.)'; WOL riirii 'marriage, wedding, marry, be united, wed';ULI riiri 'to many'; PuA liilii 'to marry', hi-ni'many him'; PCK *rii, rurii; MRS riyi- 'spouse'. Cf. KIRiein 'be married', (te)-iein 'marriage, married state';PWMP *ri([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])kit, Dinkit 'touching or joined alongthe length' (Blust 1983-84:103). Cf. also PMC *ria 'sibling'.

PWMC *riku or *ruki 'gather from the ground': PUA luku'to pick up'; PON rik 'g. objects from the ground'; MRS[rik.sup.w]([b.sup.w]ew) 'g. missiles for throwing'. Cf. PPC *rata'cleared land'.

PMC *ripi, ripiripi, ma-ripi 'shattered, broken intopieces': CHK rup, rupurup, me-rip, ma-rip, #me-riperip 'be s., b.into p.', ripi-i-(y), rupi-i-(y) 'shatter it, break it top.',#(e)-me-ripa, (e)-me-ripi 's. it'; MRT ripirip 'breakthings', ripi-i-(y) 'break it', ma-rip 'break,crack', ma-ripirip 'small b. pieces'; PUL rip 'tos.', ripi-i-(y) 'break it, shatter it', ripi-ya-(n)(sic)'object s. by him'; CRL rip 'be cracked, b.', ripirip'be shattering things, be breaking into p.', ripi-i-(y) ', break it', ripi-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ugh) 'be s., b.',ripi-(sagh) 'piece of s. object, be s.', ma-rip 'brwak intop.', ma-ripirip 'be b. into p.'; STW ripi-i-(y) 'break itin half', ma-rip 'break, crack', ma-ripirip 's.pieces', ma-ripi-i-(y) 'break it into many p.'; WOL ripirip'to break, destroy, crush, smash', ripi-i-(ye) 'break it,destroy it', ripi-([eta]egi) 'be b., destroyed, crushed,smashed', ma-ripi 'break, be s., b.'. ma-ripiripi 's. inmany p.', (ge)-ma-ripi-(i) 'break it'; PUA ma-lippi (sic)'be cracked'; PCK *ri pi, ripiripi, ripi-i-, ma-ripi; MRS[r.sup.w]ip 'b.', [r.sup.w]ip[r.sup.w]ip 'break, tear down,demolish'; KIR (ma)-ibi 'b. (as s.t. brittle)', (te)-ma-ibi'b. piece', (ka)-ma-iba 'cause (s.t.) to be b.'; KSR lip,liplip 'split, sprain', mi-lip 's., smalsh', mi-lpi'cut out in small bits'. The MRS form and the CHK variants with uare puzzling; if their rounding is attributed to the labial consonant, it maybe of some significance that the consonant remains unvelarized. Cf. KIRibeibe 'engage in breaking up or open', ibe-a 'to break (s.t.)open (as a coconut)'; and cf. PON ma-rop 'be smashed, b.'; MOKrep 'b.', rep-(la) 'b. through', repi-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'break s.t.'. Cf. Also PPN *lipi 'cuttinginstrument'; FIJ ribiribi-a 'the sharp edge of some things (as ayamcut into small pieces)'; SAA ma-ri'iri'i 'b. intosilvers.'.

PMC *roco 'be dark': CHK roch, rochoroch 'bed.' roche-(n) 'darkness of', rocho-(no) 'get d.',(o)-roch 'to wait for d., fight under cover of darkness', (o)-rocha'to darken (s.t.)'; PUL rooR (sic) 'to be d.',roRa-(ppu[eta]) 'to be d., to be ignorant'; MRT rosh'd.', rosho-(la) 'darken, become d.'; CRL rosh 'tobe d.', rosho-([p.sup.w][p.sup.w]u[eta]) 'be very d.'; CRNroR; STW roR; WOL roosho, rosho- 'night, darkness', (ga)-rosho-(o)'make it d.'; PUA looso, loso- 'darkness', loso 'tobe d.', losoloso 'to be balck'; PCK *roco, rocoroco; PON root'darkness', rot 'a.', roto-(la) 'become d.',rotorot 'pagan, uncivilized'; MOK ros 'darkness', rosros'pagan'; PNG r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s 'd.'; MRS(ma)-re[k.sup.w] 'd., darkness' (r and d do not cooccur); KIR roo'be d.' (showing metathesis); KSR losr 'd., pitch blackunilluminatred'; POC *rodo (SAA rodo 'night', rorodo 'belowering, of clouds'; BUG rodo 'night'; LAU rodo'night'; ARO rodo 'd., black, night'; KWA logo'darkness, night'; PKB *Lodo 'night'). See also Marck(1994:308) P MC *rot'o. Cf. TON looloo 'absolutely dark, pitchdark'; UAN *DeDem 'be dark'.


PWMC *rota 'be finished, used up': CHK ros 'be allgone u. up, f., depleted, consumed', (o)-ros 'be exterminated,annihilated', (o)-rosa 'finish up, use up, annihilate (s.t.)';PUL roh 'be f., u. up, exhausted (as a supply)', (ya)-roha-a-(lo)'finish it up, use it up'; CRL ros 'to be f., u. up,depleted', roso-(lo) 'be completely finished', (a)-rosa'to finish it, consume all of it use it all up'; WOL rete 'befinished, completed, ended, concluded, consumed', (ga)reta-(a)'finish it, complete it, accomplish it', (ga)-reta-(li) 'thelast or end of'; PCK * rota; PON ros 'be consumed, u. up'; MOKroj 'empty, run out, u. up'; MRS [r.sup.w]ej 'ebb tide'.Cf. KIR iti 'u. up, consumed, all gone'.

PMC *rua 'two'; CHK (e)-ruuw, (e)-ruu 'the numbertwo, two' (in serial counting)' ruwa-, ruwe-, ruwo- 'two (withclassifiers)'; MRT ruwa-; PUL ruuw, ruwa-; CRL ruuw, ruwa-, ruwo-,ruwe-; STW ruwa-; WOL ruuwe, ruuwa, ruwa-, ruwe-; PUA lie-; PCK *ruwa; PON(a)-ri, (a)-re, ria-; MOK ria-; MRS riwe-; KIR ua-, uo-; KSR lo-, lu-; PEO*rua; POC *rua (Ross 1988) (FIJ rua; PPN *rua; SAA rue; ULA rua; BUG rua; AROrua; KWA lua; PKB *Lua); UAN * Duwa (Dyen *Dewha); PAN *DuSa (Ross 1988). Seealso PMC *ru[ao]-ua 'two (general class of objects)'.

PMC *ru[ao]-ua 'two (general class of objects)': CHKruwuuw, ruuwu, ruu; PUL ruwoow; CRL ruwoow, ruwouw; WOL ruwouwe; PUA lieow;PCK * ruwouwa; PON riaw; MRS riwew; KIR uoua; KSR luo. See PMC *rua'two', PMC *-ua 'general classifier in counting (suffixed tonumerals)'.

PWMC *ruki 'gather from the ground': see PWMC *riku.

PMC *ruku, 'tip, go under water': CHK ruk, rukuruk'tip, be unsteady, tip with the outrigger going down under water',ruku-(no) 'tip over'; CRL rugh 'to under water (ofoutrigger)'; WOL rugurugu 'be deceptive, crooked, tricky'; PCK*ruku; PEO *ruku (PPN *ruku 'to dive'; BUG rugu 'duck thehead'; ARO ru'u 'go underground, disappear'; KWAlu'u 'enter, pass through a door'). Cf. PCK *riki 'toturn quickly'.

PMc *[ruku.sub.2] 'to stoop': STW nik 'enter withhead down'; WOL nigu-(tiw) 'to bend forward from the waist,bow'; PON (pai)-ruk (dai)-ruk 'to bend forward from thewaist'; MOK ruk 'to bow, bend'; PPC *ruku; POc *ruku-s (SAAru'u 'to draw back, retire', ruu-si 'to shrink,shrivel'; LAU ruu 'to enter'; BUG rugu 'to duck thehead'; ARO ru'u-hi 'to retire to'; KWA lu'u'enter, pass through the door'; LAK luu, luluu 'to duckunder'). Cf. MRS dik*al 'bow one's head, bend', badik'to duck, lower the head, humble oneself, bow down'. Cf. also PCK*roko 'bend, curve', PMC *[ruku.sub.1] 'tip, gounderwater', PWMc *riku or *ruki 'gather from the ground'.

PMC *rut[iu] 'become aware, wake up, be surprised': CHKru 'a. (suddenly)', ruu-(ke) 's., astounded, astonished';MRT ruu-(ke) 'S.'; PUL ru 'be s., astonished, alarmed',('ya)-ru, (ya)-ru-(w) 'to startle, surprise, shock (s.o.)';CRL. ru 'be startled, scared, frightened, shocked', ruuru 'beworried, anxious', (a)-ruu-(w) 'scare, shock, surprise(s.o.)'; STW rru 'S.'; WOL rusu 'be frightened,scared', (ga)-rusu-(u) 'frighten him, scare him'; PUAludu-(aki-ni) 'be s. at it, frightened by it'; PCK *rutu; Mas[r.sup.w]ij 'wake up, awake, roused, conscious'; KIR uti 'toarise, awake'; KSR lut 'be s., startled, amazed'; PEO *rutu(SAA ru'u 'to draw back, retire').

PMC *[sS]aa 'ruined': CHK ta 'be destroyed, inpieces, in ruins', (a)-taa-(y) 'destroy it, break it inpieces'; PUL taa-(16) 'be r.'; CRL. (a)-taa-(y) 'destroy,devastate, smash'; PCK *daa; KIR rae-a 'in disorder,disarranged'; PEO *zaqa (Fu caa 'r.'; TON haa 'bad',ha'aha'a 'cluttered up ; SAA ta'a 'bad'; LAUtaa 'bad, evil'; ARO ta'a 'bad'); UAN *zaqat. Cf.POC *saqat 'bad' (Ross 1988).

PMC *[sS]aa, [sS]aa-i- 'weave a net': CHK tta 'meshguage', ttaa-yi 'w. (a net)', ttaa-yi-ya'net woven by(so.)'; KIR raai 'to twist and tangle easily (as a thread or line);POC *saa (LAK rara 'to set up (a fish net)'. Cf. MOK daur, dow'to make (a net)'; MRS ttaw 'mend a net'; TON ski, sia-'i 'to w. a net or spiderweb'.

PCMC *[sS]aana 'to flow strongly': MOKdee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'giving lots of sap (of a coconut tree),spout of coconut leaf along which coconut sap is drained into acontainer'; PNG d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'giving lots of sap (of a coconut tree)'; MRS taya[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'choice coconut tree for collecting sap'; KIRraa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'to flow, to run as rain water'. Notethat the MOK and PNG forms are probably loans from MRS.

PMC *sae 'torn': CHK ttaa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])'be torn (as clothing)', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ey)'rip it, tear it; PUL taa-(ru[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a-16) 'tearit away (as a sail)'; CRL. ttaa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'betorn, ripped', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a), taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-i-y) 'to tear or rip (s.t.)'; WOL taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e) 'be ripped, torn', taa-(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-a)'rip it, tear it'; PCK *dae(ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-); KIRraerae 'engage in stripping (as fronds from a tree)', rae-a'to tear (s.t.)', rae-(bae-a) 'strip a coconut tree of itsfronds', rae-(bitia) 'to tear (s.t.) in pieces'; KSR(si)-S[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tear, rip, rend', se 'to tear(s.t.)'; PEO *saRe 'tear, rip' (Geraghty 1990) (PPN *sae).

PMC? *[sS]afa, [sS]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'to gather,pick': CHK taf 'be gathered, picked (of green leaves)',tafataf 'gathering, picking, plucking (of leaves)',tafe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'g., p. (s.t.)'; PUL taf 'to p.(of leaves)', tefa-ni 'p. (leaves) with the hands'; CRLtafataf 'pick leaves (from branches)'; PCK *dafa, dafadafa,dafa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON dape-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'topull (s.t.) apart or off'; MoKd d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]pd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'to squeeze by pulling',dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to rip (s.t.) off'; PPC *dafa,dafa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PEO ? *[sz]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]j (SAAtaha-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to eat the first fruits'). Cf. PMC ?*[sS]afi, 'pick, pluck, tear off', PCK *daf[ei] 'beopen', PMC *tafa, tafa-si 'to cut in pieces, slice'.

PMC ? *[sS][afi.sub.1] 'pick, pluck, tear off': CHKtefitef 'to tear, rip', tefi-i-(y) 'tear, rip (s.t.)';MRT tafi 't.'; PUL tefa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'pick (s.t.)with the hands (as breadfruit, bananas, etc.)', tefe-naa-(to) 'pickand bring (leaves)'; CRL tafataf 'to pick leaves frombranches', tafe-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to pick (leaves)';WOL tefitefi 'to pull loose, pull off, draw down, tug',tefi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(i) 'pull it loose, pull it off',tefi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi 'be pulled loose, drawn down,tugged'; PCK ? *dafi, dafi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PEO * [szjafi (SAAtahi 'to rend'; ARO tahi, tahitahi 'to cut, cut off [as inshaping an arrow]'). Cf. PuA dei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i and SNsfei-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'tear it apart, tatter it'; PON dap'have the foreskin of the penis withdrawn', dape-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to pull apart, pull off'; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]pd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p 'to squeeze by pulling',dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to rip (s.t.) off, break (a lock)open'; KIR rae-a 'to t. (s.t.)', (te)-rarai 'section of abunch of bananas'; KSR sis[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't., rip,rend', se 't., shred, rip, rend (s.t.)', sr[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]sra 'to shred, rip', srwe 'to shred, cut, or t. (s.t.)to bits'.

PMc * [Ss]af[i.sub.2] 'be wide open'" CRL ttaf'be w.o. (of wound, vagina, eyelid rolled back)', tafi 'to o.(s.t.) w.'; CRN tefi 'to o. (s.t.) w.'; WOL ttafi 'beopened (of vagina), pulled apart', tafi-i-(ye) 'o. it with thefingers, pull it apart'; PCK *dafi, dadafi; PEO *zafi (FIJ cavi'penis after circumcision'; ARO tahi 'come apart'). Cf.PPC *daf[ei] 'be open'.

PMc *saisai, sai-ti 'sew': CHK teete, tee-yi; PUL teete,tee-y; CRL teete, tee-yi; STW teete tee-yi; WOL teetee, tee-ye; PUA teitei,tei-di; PCK *daidai, dai-ti; PON deydey; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]yd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y;, MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ta, t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; POc *saqit (Ross 1988)(PPN *saqi; ARO ta'i; KWA tai; PKB *sehi); UAN *zaqit. Cf. MRS taytey,tayi-k 'bind, roll up (as a line or film on a spool)'; SAA tau-ri'scw'. Cf. PEO zaqi-t 'copulatc; (Geraghty 1983); and cf. PEO*[cz]aRu 'needle' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *sakau 'reef, reef island': CHK tee'uninhabited low i.', (wii)-tee 'clan name (on lowisland)'; MRT tee-(n) 'i. of'; PUL tee 'uninhabited r.i.'; CRL tee 'small atolls, low islands'; STW tee'ininhabited low i.'; WoL tegau-(lape) 'name of an i. inWoleai', tee 'any outer i.'; PUA takau 'group of islands,archipaleago'; PCK *dakau; PON deke 'i.'; MoK d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'atoll, small i., islet, a. of'; MRS tekay 'stripof r., long r. between two islets'; KIR (te)-rakai 'r.'; KSRtaka 'i., atoll'; PEO zakaRu 'r.' (Geraghty 1983),*caKuRu (Geraghty 1990); POc *[sz]akaRu (FIJ cakau 'r.'; PPN hakau'coral r.'; SAA taalu 'shoal water, coral patch'; BUGhagalu 'r., sea'; ARO ta'aru 'shoal, shallow spot insea'; PKB *sakaLu 'r.'); PMP *sakaRu (Blust 1989:163). Seealso Marck (1994:308) PMC *Sakau. Note the doublet in WOL.

PMc *[sS]ake 'ride': PUL taata 'to r. on'; CRLtaay taaya-(l) 'means of transportation, r., vehicle that providestransportation, his m. of t.'; CRN taay 'means oftransportation'; WOL tagee-(ye) 'r. it, sail it'; PUA take'r. on, rise, climb'; PCK *dake; PON dake 'r. in or on (avehicle), be the first or best, top (all others)'; MOK dak 'to r.on a vehicle', dak[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'r. on it'; PPC*dake; MRS (yek)-tak 'to load, haul'; PEO * [sz]ake (SAA ta'e'to rise up, stand'; LAU take, tatake 'to stand'; AROta'e ta'e-ri 'to embark in a canoc'; KWA ta'eta'e-li-[a] 'to embark, get aboard'; PKB *saqe 'to climbup). See also PMc *Sake 'up, upward'.

PMc *[sS]aku 'needlefish': CHK taak 'n. f.',teku-(naar), teku-(raar) 'marlin'; PUL taak; CRL taagh; CRN taag;WOL taagu, tagu-, tagu-(raare); PUA taku-(lala) 'sword fish'; PCK*daku; PON daak; MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k; MRS tak; KIR (te)-raku; PEO*saku (FIJ saku 'swordfish'; PPN *haku); PMP *saku (Blust 1980:140). Cf. PMc *[ss]aku-laara 'swordfish, marlin'.

PMc *[sS]aku-Iaara 'swordfish, marlin': CHK telai-naar,teku-raar; PUL taaku-laar (sic); CRL tagha-laar; WOL tagu-raare; PCK *dakua'yellow-fin tuna'; PON deki-laar; MOK dak-lar; PPC *daku-laara; PEO*saku-layaR + a 'sailfish' (Geraghty 1990). Note assimilation ofCHK n and WOL l to following r. See also PMc ? *lea or *laya 'asail', PMc *[sS]aku 'needlefish'.

PMc *salu, salusalu 'to scrub, wash': CHK ten 'bescrubbed, scoured, washed (of hands and dishes, but not clothes)', tenu'to s., w., rub, dust (s.t.), shine (shoes)', tena-a-(no),teno-o-(no) 'wipe (s.t.) off', tetten 'washing, scrubbing,scouring, erasing'; MRT talu 'to w. (hands, dishes, rice)';PUL tela-a-(lo), tala-a-(lo) 'to w. (s.t.) off', tale-(wu) (sic)'washed object, to w. (as hands or rice); CRL tattal 'to w. kitchenthings' (Bender et al. 1984), talu-(w) 'to w. (dishes,hands)'; STW tettal 'to w. things', talu 'w.(s.t.)'; PCK *dalu; KSR taeltael 'to w.', taeltaeli 'tow. (genitals)'; PEO salu (SAA talu-hi 'to draw out water, draw at awell'; LAU talu 'to sprinkle'; ARO tank taru-hi 'to draw,dip, get water'; KWA talu-si-[a] 'to carry or w. away [of runningwater]').

PMc *sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to smell s.t.': MRTte[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(w) 's. it'; PUL te[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-u-(w) 'to s., sniff (s.t.)'; STW tte[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 's,', te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 's. it'; PUAta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 's. it'; PCK *da[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u; MRS (ya)-te[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] 'to s.(s.t.)'. KSR (mi)-s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n'smelly, stinking of urine'. Cf. CHK ttin 'to s., perceiveoder', tini 's. it'. Cf. JAB [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'tosmell (an odor)'.

PCMc *sapa 'able, prepared': CRL tap 'be free to doa task without outside interference', tape-(legh), tapu-(legh) 'beable to do a job despite outside distractions, be ready, prepared'; CRNtape-(neg) 'be ready, prepared'; WOL tape 'be ready,prepared'; PCK *dapa; KIR raba-(kau) 'skillful, dexterous, knowingand ready'. PUA lepakau 'be capable, able, smart' appears tobe a loan from KIR, perhaps from crewmen on D.D.O'Keefe's tradingboat that operated out of Yap in the late nineteenth century.

PMc *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'to help': CRL tapatap 'to h., aid, assist',tepa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to h. (s.o.)'; STW (a)-tapatap'h., give h.', tipa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'h. (s.o.)';WOL (ge)-tapetape 'to h., support, assist', tepa-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(i) 'to h. or assist (s.o.)'; PUA tapatapa 'toh.', tapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to h. him'; PCK *dapa,dapa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; MRS jipa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'h.,aid', jipa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(ey) 'h. (s.o.)'; KSRtaptap 'to h.'; PMP *taba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'h.,assist' (Blust 1989:168). Cf. KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]taef 'toh.', taef[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], taefwe- 'h. (s.o.)'; SAA ape'to encourage (s.o.)'. Cf. also PCMc *tape, 'busy', PMc*tap[ac], tap[ac]-ki 'lift up, carry, bear in one's hands'. Itlooks as if the Chuukic forms with initial t have resulted from an early(possibly PCK) borrowing from another Mc source.

PWMc *sasana 'dream': CHK ttan 'd.', ttana'd. about (s.t.)'; PUL ttan 'to d.', ttana-a ''; CRL ttal; CRN ttan; WOL ttale PuA ttana; PCK *ddana; MRS ttena-k'to d.'. Cf. FIJ tadra tatadra 'to dream'.

PMc *sawa 'reef pass, channel': CHK taaw, -taw tewe-(n)'p. in a reef, p. of'; STW taaw, tawe-(n); WOL taawe, tewa-'channel, harbor'; PUA tao (sic); PCK *dawa; PON daaw; MOK daw; PNGdaw, dewe-(n); MRS tew, tewe- 'channel, p. into a lagoon', tewah'place for beaching canoes'; KIR (te)-rawa 'channel to alagoon or harbor'; POC *sawa (FIJ (mataa)-sawa 'landing place on abeach'; SAA tawa 'opening in the shore reef'; KWA takwa'landing place'); UAN *sawan 'landing place'. See alsoMarck (1994:315) PMC *sawa.

PCMc *sawa-ti-, sawa-ta 'to break, destiny (s.t.)': WoLtewa-si-i-(ye) 'b. it, d. it, tear it up'; PUA tawa-di 'bebroken', (ka)-tawa-di 'to b. it, d. it'; PCK *[dt]awa-ti; KIRrawa-ta 'wounded', (te)-rawa-ta 'a wounded one'.

PMc *sawee 'unimpeded': CHK tawe 'be convenient, befinished, done'; PUL tawe 'be free, not busy'; CRL tawe'be free to do s.t., be free from interference in one's work';WOL tawee? 'to be able, get through, be possible'; PCK *dawee; KSRtwe-(n) 'be good at'.

PCMc *sawu 'enough, sufficient': PUL tow 'be e. (infood distribution)'; CRL tow 'have e.'; WOL tau 'be e.,s.'; PCK *dawu; KIR rau 'comfortable, quiet, undisturbed',rau-(aki) 'satisfied, having had enough food'. Cf. PON daw'overtired (as a muscle)'. Note that KIR tau 'e., s.' hasan unexpected intial t, and cannot be a true cognate.

PMc *[sS]i- 'moving, going': CHK ti- 'm., g.',(e)-ti-(no) 'go off', (fi)-ti 'accompany, go with (s.o.),attend (school)'; MRT (fi)-ti 'accompany (s.o.)'; PUL(fi)-ti-(lo) 'go away with s.o.'; CRL (fi)-t 'mixtogether', (fi)-ti 'be in addition to, go together with';STW' (fi)-ti 'go with, accompany (s.o.)'; WOL (fi)-ti-(i)'accompany it, go with it'; PUA (ka)-ti-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'throw it'; PCK *di; KIR ri-([m.sup.w]oa) 'to go before, gofirst', ri-([m.sup.w]ii) 'to go after, go behind, go later';PEO *zi-, zizi (FIJ cici 'to run', cici-va 'run to (aplace)'.

PMc *[sS]i-, [sS]i-ki-, [sS]i-ka 'sew, stick through':CHK ti-k 'be sticking through, be piercing', ti-la 'stitch orsew (thatch)', tti-k 'be scwn or stitched', ti-kek'needle'; PUL ti (faaR) sew thatch (pandanus)', ti-k'sew', ti-ki-i-(y) 'sew it', ti-kek 'needle';CRN ti-geg 'needle'; WOL ti-gi-(i) 'sew it; PCK *di-, di-ki-,di-kaki; PON di-k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'needle'; MOK di-k'to protrude'; KIR (te)-ri-ka 'wooden needle fornetting'; PEO *si-ka 'net-needle' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA si-ke'a thorn'). Cf. PMc *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi 'inserted,penetrated'.

PCMc *sia- 'lips': MRs tiye-; KIR (te)-ria.

PCMc *siki 'very, more': CHK -ttik 'very,intensifying adjective', (para)-ttik -ttiki-(n) 'bright red, b.redness of'; Put. -kkit 'repeatedly, constantly'; CRL -ttigh'hot, spicy, overly flavored (of food)'; CRN -ttig 'hot,spicy, overly flavored (of food)'; PCK *ddiki; KIR riki 'again, inaddition, more (following an adjective, as in the Eng. suf. -er)'.

PMc *[sS]iko 'scoop up': CHK tuk, tukotuk 's.up' and tuko-(ppi) 'do sand scooping'; CRL tughe-e-y 's.up, shovel up (sand, rice)'; CRN tuge-y 's. up, shovel up (sand,rice)'; KIR riko-a, rikoriko-a 'pick up'; PEO *ziko(f) (TONhiko 'pick up, gather up'; SAA si'a si'o-hi 'gather,collect'; BUG siko-mi 'take, gather, collect'; ARO si'o,si'o-hi 'to find, pick up'; KWA si'o-fi-(a) 'pickup'). Cf. Fu ciqo 'catch s.t. thrown'.

PWMc *sili 'louse egg, nit': PUL. tiil, tili-(n)'tiny growth stage of various fish'; WOL. tiili, tiili- 'l.e., first stage of louse development'; PON diil; MOK dil 'smalllice'; MRS tel 'nit, larvae of lice'. Cf. KIR (te)-rina'larvae from which lice spring' and cf. YAP thiis 'nit, louseegg'. Cf. PCK *dili 'a small fish'.

PMc *[sS]ili, [sS]ili-fi 'inserted, penetrated': CHK tin'be i., put in between', (e)-tini 'insert it, put itbetween', tini-fi 'to go among or between (things)'; PUL til'to place, put'; CRL. til 'to push brush or grass or otherobstructions out of one's way when traveling in the forest',tili-fagh 'to wedge an object into a crack or space between objects forsafekeeping or storage', tili-faghe-(li) 'to shove or wedge (s.t.)into a space for storage', tili-(fatal) 'to wander between andamong objects or people'; WOL tili-fegi-(li) 'stick it in, piercewith it, thrust it into s.t.'; PCK *dili, dili-fi-; PON dil 'topenetrate, go through, pass into'; MOK dil 'to enter' dili-m'to put under (s.t., in weaving), to stick through (s.t.)'; KIR(ka)-rina 'cause (s.t.) to enter'; PEO *zili, zili-fi, zili-faki(FIJ cili, cili-va 'to cut or lance the body'; TON hili, hili-faki'put or lay or place on s.t.'; SAA sili, sisili 'toenter', sili-hi 'enter, go into [s.t.]'; BUG hili, hiihili'to transgress, violate', hili-vi 'to infringe, violate, gothroughout'; ARO siri 'inside', siri-hi 'go in,penetrate', siri-ha'i 'go in, enter'; KWA sili,sili-fi[a] 'drip through, leak through'). Cf. PMC *[SS]i-,[SS]i-ki, [SS]i-ka 'sew, stick through'.

PMC *[sS]in[ae] 'shine': CHK ttin, ttine-(n) 's.,shining, brightness, ray, beam, s. of'; PUL tin 'to s.',tini-n 'shining of'; CRL ttil 'to s.', tili-(l)'shining of'; CRN ttin 'to s.', ttini-(n) 'shiningof'; WOL ttule 'to s., glow, twinkle'; PUA ttine 'light,to s.'; PCK *ddin[ae] ; PEO *zina 'shine' (Geraghty 1983); POC*sinaR (Ross 1988) (Fiji cina 'lamp or torch'; SAA sine'torch', sine-li 'to lighten, give light to'; BUG hina'midday, sun overhead', hina-ra 'a light, to s.'; LAUsina 's.', sina-li 'moon, month'; ARO sina 'sun,torch', sisina 'torch'; KWA sina 'sun'); UAN *sinaR'light'; PAN *SiNaR 'sun, s.', and PAN*SiNa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'sunbeam, light' (Wolff 1993). Thereconstruction by Marck (1994:309) of PMC * [sz]ina is not supported by theKIR and MRS forms cited. Cf. KSR t""n 'color'. See alsoPMC ? *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'sunlight'.

PMC? *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'sunlight': KIRriri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'clear sunlight, sunshine, toshi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e brightly'; PEO *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a(FIJ siga 'day, daylight'; KWA si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-li'moon, month'); UAN *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aR 'light'.See also PMC *[SS]in[ae] 'shine'.

PCMC *si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu] 'leak out, drip':CHK ttu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to flow (of sap or sweat)'; WOLttu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'to emerge, come out slowly, pour out (ofsweat)'; PCK *ddu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u; PON din 'to drip,leak', di[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]idi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'drop'; KIR ri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'eaves'. Cf. MOK dun 'to drip'. Cf. KWA (uta)si[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]osi[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'drizzle'.

PMC *sipa 'emotion, feelings, sentiment, attitude,mind': CHK tiip, tipa-(n) 'e., etc, his e.', (nee)-tip'place of e. (in the abdomen)'; PUL. tiip, tipa-(n); CRL tiip,tipa-(l); WOL tiipe, tipa-(le); PUA tiipa, tipa-; PCK *dipa; PON diip, dipe'sin, his s.'; MOK dip-(kel) 'to suffer a moral lapse';MRS tipe-n 'way of, manner of'; KIR riba-a 'hate or dislike(s.t.)'; KSR tip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'his personality'.Cf. FIJ ciba 'faint, lose consciousness'; ARO siba,siba-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i siba-ni 'to look for, search, seek'.

PMC *[sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-ki 'slice, chunk, to cut, toslice': CHK tiip, tipe-(n), -tip 's., chunk, cut segment (ofbreadfruit and taro only), chip (of wood from adzing), s. of, s. (incounting)', tipetip 'chips', (e)-tip 'pass chunks ofbreadfruit', #tipe-ri 's. or cut (s.t.) into chunks'; MRTtiip, tipa-(n) 'piece, p. of', tipa-k 'cut it intopieces', -tep 'classifier for s., piece'; PUL. tiip 's.(as of breadfruit or taro)', tipaa-ki-y) (sic) 'to s. (asbreadfruit or taro), to cut (as coconut fronds)', (ya)-tip 'to s.breadfruit', (ya)-tipa 'to s. it'; CRL tiip, tipa-(l)'s., chunk, piece, s. of', (sa)-tip, (sa)-tipa-l 's., piece(of firewood, banana, breadfruit), s. of'; STW tiip, tipa-(l)'piece, p. of' tipatip 'pieces', tipa-ki 'cut itinto pieces'; WOL -tipe 'cut up segment of breadfruit' (incounting)', tipe-(shigi) 's. or chop into pieces', ttippe'break away from main body, chip off the main part, come off, be removedfrom s.t.'; PCK *diip, dipa-, dipa-ki-; PoN dip 'grain (of wood),s. or chip (as of b readfruit or taro) (in counting)',dip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to s. (breadfruit or taro)'; MOK dip's., chip'; PNG dip 's., chip'; MRS tipe-(n)'fragment of, cut piece of', tip-(dikdik) 'small pieces',tep 'wood shavings'; KSR sipsip 's., cut, mince', sipi-k's., cut (s.t.)', ip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l 'part, piece,scrap, fragment of it', ipip 'be chopped in small pieces'; PEO*[sz]ipa, [sz]iba (FIJ civa, civa-ta 'cut into small pieces [as yams forsoup]'; BAU sipa 'slice a yam, husk a coconut'). Cf. PUAka-ma-tipi 'cut or break it into pieces'; YAP thip 'woodchips, sawdust'.

PMC *siwo 'down, westward': CHK -tiw tiwetiw; MRT -tew;PUL -tiw; CRL -tiw 'd.', tiwe-(y) 'chop or cut (s.t.)down'; STW -tiw; WOL -tiwe; PUA -tio; PCK *diwo; PON -di'downward'; MOK -di 'd.'; PNG -di; MRS tew'westward', tew 'disembark, climb d.'; KIR -rio'downard, westward', ruo 'descend, come or go d.'; KSRtu-(fokfok) 'keep on coming d.'; PEO *-zifo (Geraghty 1983); POC(Ross 1988:463) (FIJ siwo 'debased, put d.'; PPN *hifo'downwards', *sisifo 'west'; SAA siho 'descend,disembark'; LAU sifo 'go d.'; PNK *sivo 'descend, god.'). See Marck (1994:324) PMC *sio. See also PCK *diw[ao] 'changelocation'.

PMC *[sS]ixi, [sS]ixi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'push,shove': CHK ti 'be crowded, pushed together', tiiti 'p.,s., shoving, pushing', tii-ni 'p. it, s. it, sned it',tii-naa-(no) 'send it away'; MRT tiiti 'to p'.,tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p. it in'; PUL tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'send, order, p'. tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aa-(lo)'send it away'; CRL tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to p.(s.t.)'; STW tiiti 'to p.', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'p. it'; WOL tiitii 'p. s., jostle', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-(i) 'p. it, s. it, jostle it'; PUA tiitii 'p.,s.', tii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p. it, s. it'; SNStii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'push it'; PCK *dii, diidii,dii-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON dir 'be overcrowded, filled,plentiful'; MOK dir 'many, much', (ka)-diri 'to fill(s.t.)'; MRS ji-(rahak) 'p.; KIR rii-na 'to feel of (s.t.),handle, touch'; POC *sigi, siki (SAA siki 'to tap, touch with thefingers', siki-hi 'to infect, carry contagion [to s.o.]; BUGhingi-li 'to touch [s.t.]'; ARO sigi 'tap with thefinger', sigi-hi 'to infect with'; LAK sigi-li 'fill upwith liquid', (idogo) sigi-ri-(a) 'place a leaf funnel in a waterbottle'). Cf. Fu cigi 'fill up a crevice or push a thing intoit'. Cf. Also KSR is[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]s, is o-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL], isiso-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'stick in, p. in, cram in'.Cf. PPC *die 'squeezed, pushed together'.

PCMC *soa 'far, distant': CHK too-(w) (from *too-[awa])and too-(waaw) (from *too-[awaawa]) 'far, distant'; PULtoo-(wo-lo); CRL taaw 'be far', taawu-(lo) 'be very far';WOL ttaawe; PUA ttao; PCK ? *doa-; PON doo 'distant, far off'; MOKdoo 'distant, far off'; MRS ttew-([lak.sup.w]) 'distant',tew 'long time'; KIR raroa 'remote, distant'. Cf. KIRrau-(tari) 'rinse off salt water'; POC *sauq (FIJ sau'outside'; SAA [ha'a]-tau 'far off, distant'; BUGhau 'be far, a long time'; ARO [ha'a]-tau 'far off';KWA tatau 'far, distant, for long'). UAN *Za[h[theta]]uq. Cf. AlsoFIJ yawa 'distant, far away'. Note: there could be a problem here.

PMC? *[sS]oka 'pierce, stab': WOL togatoge 'p., s.,to stick s.t. into (a young coconut)'; PCK *doka; PON dok 'bestabbed, speared, skewered', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to s., spear, skewer (s.t.)'; MOK dok 's., poke,inject', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 's., etc.(s.t.)'; PEO *zoka 'p., spear' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ coka'to p'.; PPN *hoka 's., p.').

PCMC *soko 'toward speaker, hither': CHK -to, -too-; MRT-to; PUL -to; CRL -to; STW -to; WOL togo; PUA -toko; PCK *-doko; PON -do; MOK-do; MRS [tek.sup.w], KIR roko, See also PMC *[sS]oko 'reach,arrive'.

PMC *[sS]oko 'reach, arrive': CHK to 'be reachable,be reached, attained', too-ri 'r., a. at, attain to (some place orthing)', too-(neni) 'be able to, be capable of'; MRT tooto'a.'; CRL too-ri 'r., . at'; WOL togo 'arrive, land,come ashore, be safe home'; PUA toko; PCK *doko; MRS (yi)-[tek.sup.w]'come'; KIR roko 'come, a.'; PEO *soko 'a. (ofship)' (Gerghty 1983) (Fu soko 'to sail, voyage'; SAAto'o, to'oto'o 'to hit, encounter, succeed'; LAU too'to hit, possess, have'; BUG hogo-vi 'to hit'; AROto'o, to'o-hi 'to hit, stirke, succeed, convince'; KWAto'o 'to receive, catch, hit'; LAK soo 'just now,recently'). Cf. KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to come, land',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to come'; FIJ coa'to have arrived', soasoa 'to reach land alive after being ina gale'. See also PCMC *soko 'toward speaker, hither'.

PMC *[sS]ola, [sS]ola-a 'to mix': CHK ttona'mixture', tonaa-ni 'm. (s.t.)'; MRT tol[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to knead, rub together'; CRL (a)-tola-(fenalli) 'm.(things) together'; STW tolaa-li 'm. it'; WOL telaa 'bemixed well, mingled, blended', telaa-li-(i) 'm. it, mingle it,blend it' PUA tona 'be mixed well, mingled, blended', tona-ni'to mix, blend, fuse (s.t.)'; PCK *dolaa, dolaa-[ln]i-; PON dol'to m.', d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'tom. (s.t.)'; PNG d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'm.'; MRS tewlah'to knead preserved breadfruit'; PEO jola 'm.' (Geraghty1983) (SAA dodola 'mixed', dola-li 'to commingle,dilute'; BUG joajotha 'be mixed', (horu) jotha 'tom.'; ARO dora, dora-hi 'm., mingle'; KWA dola 'm.').Cf. PUL toola 'to rub together (as leaves to obtain fragrance)'.

PMC *[sS]ola 'fade from view': CHK ton 'visible,discernible', tono-(no) 'fade from view', (o)-tona 'tomake visible, to view (s.t.)'; PUL tolo-(lo) 'to disappear',tolo-n 'setting of (a star)'; CRL tol 'to disappear'; WOLtolo 'disappear, submerge, go out of sight, vanish'; PUA tono'to set (of sun)'; PCK *dolo; MRS [l.sup.w] et 'disappear, dieout' (showing methathesis). PMP * celeb 'to sink, submerge'(Blust 1989). Cf. PMP *telem 'to sink, disappear under wter' (Blust1986: 100), *teleb 'sink, vanish' (Blust 1989:171).

PMC *so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o, so[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]oso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'to smart, sting': CHKto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; MRT to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to sting', to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(y) 'sting(s.o.)'; PUL to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to burn, itch, sting, have a sharp taste', to[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-(y) 'to sting (s.o.)'; CRL([b.sup.w]oo)-tto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oton 'smell sweaty, unclean,unwashed'; STW to[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oto[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PCK*do[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o; KSR (mi)-s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ns[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'smelly, stinking of urine'. Cf.MRS je[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'pain in arm caused by throwing'; FIJcoga 'sharp point, barb'. See also PCK*li-[m.sup.w]a-do[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'stinging jellyfish'.

PMC *[sS]oro, [sS]oro-fi- 'grab, capture, seize': CHK#tur 'be grabbed, taken, seized', #(o)-turu 'cause to bearrested', turu-fi 'to catch hold of, c., g., snatch, seize(s.t.)'; PUL tottor 'to catch with the hands', toro-fi-y'grab, catch (s.t.)'; CRL toro-fo 'to catch s.t. (eithercatcher or prey must be moving)'; WOL tottom 'to catch with hands,c., gather, seize', toro-fi-(i) 'catch it, overtake it, seize it,c. it'; PCK *doro, doro-fi-; KIR roa-a 'catch (a fish) with rod andline', rooroo 'to be at anchor, to anchor'; PEO *soRo-f'catch' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *[sS]owu, [sS]owu-ti- 'to dig': CHK ttu 'dig,be dug' tuutu 'do digging', ttuu-(w) 'dig (earth)';PUL tow 'dig earth (as with a shovel)'; PCK *dowu; MRS uew 'todig taro', tiwij(iy) 'dig tam (tr.)'; KIR rourou 'to digup taro', rou-ta 'to dig (s.t.) up'; PEO *sopu-t (FIJ sovu,sovu-ta 'hollow out [a canoe]'). Cf. SAA toliu 'to chop',tohu-le'i-ni 'to chop (s.t.)'; BUG jou 'dig a hole, hew,carve', jo ujou 'to hollow out'; KWA tofu 'cut thingsup'. Cf. also LAK ovi, ovovi 'gather tam', See PPC *dowu'stab, pierce, be stabbed, pierced'.

PMc *[sS]ua 'dug hole': KIR (te)-rua 'pit,grave'; POc *sua 'root up, dig up, lever up' (FIJ cua'stick by which a fish net is lifted'; PPN *sua 'turn over,raise up'; ARO sua 'to root up earth as a pig'; LAK sua, sue-a'push up the stones of the earth oven with a stick'); UAN *sual'lever'. Cf. CHK tuu, tuwa-n 'vulva, her v.' (vulgar).

PMc *suku 'hit, strike': CHK tuku-u-(w) 'daub(s.t.)', tuku-u-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]eni) 'daub (s.t.) on(st.)', tuku-(ya) 'dance in which hardwood staves are struckagainst one another'; MRT tuku-u-(w) 'to punch'; PULtuku-u-(w) 'h., s. (s.t.)'; CRO tughu-u-(w) 'to punch, h. (so.or s.t.);, tuugh 'closed fist'; CRN tuug 'closed fist';WOL ttugu 'to touch, border on, s. lightly, come in contact', tugu'give a blow with the fist'; PCK *duku, dduku, duku-u-; KSR tukutuk'to pound', tuk 'pound (s.t.)', tok 'apounder'; PEO *suku, suku-mi (FIJ suku, suku-ma 'to touch a womanin front or behind'; BUG juujuku 'to s., hurt, harm, be cruelto'; KWA su'u-mi-[a] 'poke, flick with the fingers'). Cf.PPC *Tukj 'pound, knock', with which there seems to have been somesemantic confusion.

PMc *sukusuku, suku-ma, suku-mi 'be wrapped, a package, towrap (s.t.)': CHK tukutuk, tukutuku-(n) 'p., packet, bundle,parcel, p. of', -tuku-m 'p., packet (in counting), tuku-ma-(n)'p. of it', tuku-mi 'make (it) into a p. or bundle, wrap (it)up'; MRT tuku-me 'w. it'; PUL tukutuk, tukutuku-(n) 'p.,leaf p., p. of', -tuku-m 'p. (in counting)', tuku-mi'tow. (it) in a leaf p.'; CRL tughutugh, tughutugh 'anytightly wrapped bundle', tughu-mi 'w. (st.) into a bundle';CRN tugutug 'any tightly wrapped bundle', alga-mi 'w. (s.t.)into a bundle'; STW tuku-mi 'w. it'; WOL tugutugu'funeral gift', tugu-me 'wrapped preserved breadfruit',tugu-mi-(i) 'w. it, cover it'; PUA tukutuku 'be wrapped, tow.', tuku-mi 'to w. it, hide it'; PCK *dukuduku, duku-ma,duku-mi-; PON kidikid 'to w.' (showing metathesis), kidi-mi'wrap (s.t.)'; MOK kidkid 'to wrap', kidi-m 'w.(s.t.)'; MRS kete-m 'bundle of mats' (showing metathesis),kiti-m 'mat used to cover a corpse, tow. (a body)'; Km ruku-ma'a package' ruku-ma, ruku-mi-(a) 'to f old or w. (s.t.) up, f.or w. it up'. KSR sroko-m, sroko-mi 'to w., envelop, w.(s.t.)' appear to be loans.

PMc *sulu 'torch': PUL tuul 'torch'; CRL tuul;WOL tuulu, tulu-; PuA tuunu, tunu-; PCk *dulu; PON diii 'dried coconutfronds, t.', ndil 'torch made of dried coconut leaves, to fish withtorches'; MOK dil; MRS til; KIR (te) -rin, rini- 'dried coconutleaf'; KSR sul; PEO *suluq (PPN *sulu, susulu); UAN *suluq. Cf. KWA unu't., light'. We cannot account for CHK teen, #teenuor the PULdoublet teel.

PCMc *[sum.sup.w]uru 'the star Antares': CHK[tum.sup.w]ur 'the s. A., name of a sidereal month'; PUL[tum.sup.w]ur 'A., a sidereal month'; CRL [tum.sup.w]ur 'A., asidereal month'; STW [tum,sup.w]ur; WOL [twn.sup.w]iri; PUA[tum.sup.w]uli 'a sidereal month equated with March'; PCK*[dum.sup.w]uri; PoN [dim.sup.w]ir (Bender et al. 1984); MoK and PNG[dum.sup.w]ur 'constellation name'; MRS [tim.sup.w][ir.sup.w]'A., constellation tau, alpha, sigma Scorpionis'; Km[rim.sup.w]ii-(maata) 'Cor Scorpionis (A.), summer'.

PMc *susu 'breast, to suckle': CHK ttu-(n) 'herb.', ttuut, tuttu- 'suck (of a nursing child)'; MRT tuut,ttu-(n) 'b., herb.'; PUL tuut 'b., nipple'; CRL utt,uttu-(l) 'breast, her b.', tuut 'suckle, nurse (from ab.)'; STW tuut 'b.'; WOL ttu-(u), ttu-(le) 'my b., herb.', tutu 'b.'; ULI theth 'b.'; PUA tutu 'b.,suck mother's b.'; PCk *dudu; PON diidi 'her b., to suckle, tonurse'; MOK diidi 'b., suckle'; PNG diidi 'b.'; MRSyittit, tittit, yitti- 'b., nipple, teat'; KSR twetwe-(l), titi-(n)'her b., b. of'; PEO *zuzu- 'b.' (Geraghty 1983); POc*susu 'breast' (Ross 1988) (FIJ) susu 'to nurse a baby',sucu 'to suck the b.'; PPN *huhu 'nipple, b.'; SAA susu'b., milk, to suck the b.'; BUG susuu 'woman's b., milk,to suck the b.'; LAU susu 'b., suckle'; ARO susu 'b., tosuckle'; KWA susu 'b., b. milk, to suckle'; PKB *susu 'tosuck, breast'); PAN *supsup 'sip, suck' (Blust 1989:167). Notethat YAP thuuth 'b.' appears to be a loan from ULI.

PMC *-Saa, mee-Saa 'interrogative suffix': (mee)-t,(mee)-ta 'what?', ([p.sup.w]aa)-t, ([p.sup.w]a)ta 'why?';PUL (mee)-ta 'what?, why?', ([p.sup.w]e)-ta 'why?'; CRL(mee)-t, (mee)-ta 'what?', ([b.sup.w]e)-ta 'why, suppose, whatif'; WOL (me)-ta, (me)-ttaa 'what?'; PUA (me)-ta (sic)'what?', ([p.sup.w]ame)-ta 'why'; PCK *-daa, (mee)-daa;PON da, daa, daa-(m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'what?',(m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-nda 'why? to what purpose?'; MOK da'what?'; MRS tah 'what?, which?'; KIR raa 'what(s.t.)?' (follows the noun), (te)-raa 'what?': KSR[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], (me)-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'what?'; PEO*zaa (Geraghty 1983) (TON haa; SAA taa, taha; LAU taa; KWA taa), Cf. PMC*Safa 'what? what relationship?' See also PMC? *faiSa 'dowhat, what?', PPC *p[a.sup.w]-ki-da 'because, why'.

PMC *Safa 'what? what relatonship?': CHK tafa-'w.r.?'; PUL tefa-, 'w.r.? where?'; CRL tafa-, tefa-'w.r.?'; PCK *dafa-; MRS teye- 'w.r.?'; KIR raa'w.?' (follows noun); KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'w.!';PEO *zafa 'w.?' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ cava 'w.?'; SAA taha'w.?'; BUG hava 'w.?'; PNK *zova, zava 'w.?').Cf. PON depe and MOK d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'how many? how much?'.

PMC *Sake 'up, upward': CHK -ta, taa- 'up, upward,eastward, rising', taa-ni-yon 'sunrise'; PUL -ta; CRL -ta; WOL-tage, tage-(li-alo) 'sunrise'; PUA -take; PCK *dake; PON -da, dak;MOK -da, ak; MRS tak, -tah- 'eastward, upward,' taki-(n hal)'sunrise'; KIR -rae; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k, -yak'upward', tak 'rise'; PEO zake-f 'go up, climb'(Geraghty 1983); POC *sake (ROSS 1988) (PPN) *hake; FU cake; SAA ta'e;PKB *saqe 'to climb up'); UAN *sakay. See Marck (1994:324) PMC*sake 'up(wards), east(wards)' and PMC *[sS]ake 'ride'.

PMC *Sali 'in a line or row': CHK ten 'be in1.', teni-(n) '1. of', tetten '1., rank, r., list, grade,generation, lineage'; PUL tali-(n) '1. of'; CRL tali-l'r. of, 1. of', tal 'make rows or lines', tali'plant (s.t.) in rows'; CRN teli-(n) 'r, of, 1, of', teli'plant (s.t.) in rows'; WOL ttali '1. up. form a 1.',-tali 'rows, lines (in counting)', (ge)-tali 'walk in a l.,form a procession'; PCK *dali; PON d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'tomove in great numbers, to swarm'; MRS tal 'procession of mournersor tribute bearers'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'march, parade,.Cf. KIR (te)-rinan 'a r., rank, l.', rinan 'stand in a r. or1.'. Cf. also Saa (ta'a)-tala 'a line, row'; ARO tara-i'in a row'; KWA tala 'in a line'.

PMC *Sama 'outrigger float'; CHK taam, tame-(n)'o.f., o.f. of'; PUL taam, teme-(n); CRL taam, tama-(l); WOL taame,tema-li; PUA taama, tama-; PCK *dama; PON daam, d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'o.f., its o.f.'; MOK dam'outrigger boom'; MRS (rey)tam 'outrigger side of acanoc', tem-rak 'sail w.o. on south', tem-yan 'sail w.o.on north'; KIR (te)-rama 'outrigger'; KSR em'outrigger'; PEO *zama 'outrigger' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJcama; PPN *hama); POC *saman (ROSS 1988). Cf. MRS yam 'sail withoutrigger out of water, tp (of a canoe)'.

PMC *Sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'iner thigh, crotch':CHK taa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n) 'leg andfoot together, his l.'; CRL taa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(l) 'upper, inner part of the t., hisu.t.'; STW ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(l) 'inside of his or hert,'; PCK *dana; PON daa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't., his t.'; MRS(law)-te[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ay, (lew)-tenay 'inside of t., c.';KIR (te)-ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a, ra[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(na)'leg, t., his l.'; KSR e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae 'areabetween two legs', (in)-ye[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ae 'groin';POC *sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'bifurcation, (ROSS 1988) (FIJ saga'c.'; ROT saga 't.'; SAA ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'thec. of the legs', ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ata[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'forked stick'; ARO ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'crotch, fork of the legs'; KWA [ma]-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'crotch, branching place'; LAK sala 'thigh, groin'); UAN*sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'fork, branching', Cf, PULhee[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]an 'portions of arm above and below elbow, legbelow knee, t., portions between nodes (as of sugar cane and bamboo)';KSR taenwe-(s) 'a mode of sexual intercourse'.

PMC *-Seke 'friendly, kind': PON (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'kind, generous'; MOK (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'be kind'; PNG (ka)-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'friendly,kind'; KIR (te)-reke 'chum, close friend'; KSR(ka)-w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'friend', (kaka)-w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'getting friendly or acquainted'.

PMC *Siwa 'nine'; CHK ttiiw, ttiwe-, ttiwa-, ttiwu-; MRTtiwa-; PUL ttiw, ttiwa-; CRL tiiw, tiwa-, tiwo-; STW tiiw, tiwa-; WOL tiwe;PUA tio-; PCK *diwa; PON duwa-; MOK duwa-; PNG duwa-; KIR rua-; KSRy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]; PEO *ziwa (Geraghty 1983); POC *siwa (Ross 1988)(FIJ ciwa; PPN *hiwa; SAA siwe, siwa-na 'n., ninth'; BUG hia; LAUsiqa; ARO siwa; KWA sikwa; PNK *(wala)-siwo (<walu-siwa?); UAN *siwa. Cf.MRS riwah-tim-jiwen 'nine'. See also PCMC *Siwa-ua 'nine(general class of things)' and PPC *diwa-ike 'ninety'.

PCMC *Siwa-ua 'nine (general class of things)'; CHKttiwu-vw, (e)-ttiwu-uwa-(n) 'ninth'; PUL ttiwo-ow 'n.'(ya)-ttiwo-owa-(n) 'ninth'; CRL tiwo-ow 'n.',(a)-tiwo-owa-(l) 'ninth'; CRN tiwo-uw 'n.',(a)-tiwo-uwa-(n) 'ninth'; WOL tiwo-uwe; PuA tio-ow; PCK *diwo-uwa;PON duwa-w; MOK du[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-w; KIR rua-i-ua 'n.'. SeePMc *Siwa 'nine', PMc *.-ua 'general classifier in counting(suffixed to numerals)'.

PMc *Solo 'peak, hill': CHK toon, tone-(n) 'p.,high point, pinacle, mast-head, p. of'; PUL tool, tolo-(n)'mast-head, m-h. of'; CRL tool 'mountain p.'; PCK *dolo;PON dool 'small mountain, h.'; MOK and PNG dol'mountain'; MRS te[l.sup.w.sub.s] 'mountain, h.';[l.sup.w.sub.s] 'top of canoc's mast' (metath.); KSR eol, ol'mountain', yol 'pile, stack', yoli 'make (s.t.) ina pile', yolyol 'plenty'; PEO *zolo (FIJ colo. 'inlandcountry, mountain country'; SAA tolo 'h., h. country'; LAUtolo 'h.'; ARO toro 'h., inland country'; KWA tolo'mountains, mountainous interior'). Cf. BUG hothoho'forest'. See Marek (1994:320) PMc *zolo.

PMc *Soru- 'near, beside': MRS ti[r.sup.w.]i-,(yi)-ti[r.sup.w]i- 'next to, close to, n., b.'; KIR (i)-rou-(na)'with, by, on account of him'; KSR y[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l) 'his vicinity', yuru-(n)'vicinity of, n.'. Cf. PMc *aro-'shore, beach, vicinity'.

PMc *Suu, SuuSuu,Suu-fi- 'dive, bathe': CHK tu'd.,duck the head under water', tuutu 'b., take a shower, be bowed (ofthe head)', tuu-fi 'd. for (s.t.)'; MRT tuutu 'tob.'; PUL tu 'to d. deep', tuutu 'to swim, b.',tuu-fi-(y) 'to d. for (s.t.)'; CRL tu, tu 'to submerge, d.from the surface', tuutu 'to b.', tuu-fi 'to d. for(s.t.)'; STW tuutu 'to b.'; WOL tuutuu 'b.,tuu-(lo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o) 'to d. in'; ULI thuthu (sic)'b.'; PUA tuttuu (sic) 'to b.'; PCk *duu, duuduu,duu-fi-; PON du 'go under water, d', duudu 'b.', duu-p'd. for (s.t.)'; MOK duudu 'b.',duu-p 'b.(s.o.)'; MRS tiwtiw 'b.'; KSR yi, yiyi 'b., take ashower'; PEO *si[q[theta]]u-v 'wash' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA suu,sun-hi 'd., sink,d. for'; BUG huu 'to d., sink'; LAU sun'to d., sink'; BUG huu 'to sink, d., go down'; LAU sun'to d., sct [of heavenly bodies]'; ARO sun, suu-hi'd., d.for'; KWA suu, sun-fi-[a] 'd., sink, d. for'). Cf. KSR twetwe'to wash' twe-n 'wash, soak (s.t.)'; FIJ su 'pourwater on things, irrigate' su-ya 'pour water on (s.t.)'; PEO*suqi 'pour wate r on' (Geraghty 1983). Cf. also PEO *jo[bpv]u'to dive' (Geraghty 1983); POc *[sj]obu 'descend, d.';PMP*ziuq (Blust 1983-84). Cf. PCK *du[p.sup.w][u.sub.3] 'set (of sun),go down'.

PMc *taa, taa-ki 'chop': WOL saasa 'to gash, slash,cut, split, c.', saa-gi-(i) 'stab it, slash it, gash it, cut it,'; MRS jek; jekjek 'to cut, hew, c,, prune, salute with thehands'; PEO *taRa (Geraghty 1990, who infers a PMc *taa); UAN *taRaq.Cf. KSR tiyet 'dissect, cut up', tiye 'dissect (it), cut (it)open', tiyok tiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'get out'. MRS shortvowel unexplained.

PCMc *taa,taa-ni to like, be fond': CHK saasa 'to 1., bef.', saa-ni 'to 1. it'; KIR tan-na 'be enamored of, 1.(.s.t.)'. Cf. PPC *taka, taka-ni 'stomach, have stamach for'.

PCMc *taapa 'knife': CHK saap, saape-(n) 'k., k.of'; MRT saap; KIR (te)-taaba 'k.', taaba 'to pare(s.t.), whittle, scrape'. Cf. KSR tae 'wooden k.'.

PCMc *taaw(ae) 'ashamed': CHK saaw, 'be a.',saawa-asi-ni 'be a. because of him', (a)-ssaaw 'embarrasing,causing embarrassment'; PUL hawo (sic); CRN haaw; KIR taawa-i 'a.because of failure to succeed'.

PCMc *tae, tae-ki- 'removed': CHK sa, saa- 'beremoved, emptied' and saa-si 'remove it'; PUL. haa-ki-(y)'remove (as clothes)'; CRL. saa-ghi 'lift, move, or remove(s.t.)'; CRN haa-gi 'lift, move, or remove (s.t.)'; WOLsaa-saa 'peel off' and san-gi-(i) 'peel it off'; PCK*tae, tae-ki-; KIR tae 'extracted, drawn out' and tae-ki-(a)'root it up, tear it up'.

PMc *tafa,tafa-si 'to cut in pieces, slice': STW'safasaf 'to c., s.', safa-ti 'c. or s. (s.t.)'; WOLtafatafe 'to c., s., write (by carving letters)',#tefa-(a),#tefa-(li-i) 'c. it, s. it'; ULI taftaf 'to s.'; PUA tada'to s. soft things', tadatada 'to s., c.'; PCK *tafa,tafatafa; PON sap 'to c. into pieces', s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c. (s.t.) into pieccs'; MRS jay'to c., chop'; KSR tae-t 'chop', twe 'to chop or c.(s.t.)'; PEO *tafa, tafa-si 'to c.' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ tava'c. with a knife'; PPN *tafa 'to C.'; SAA aha, aha-si'to c., score, notch'; ARO aha, aha-si 'to c., sever, score,notch'; KWA afa 'to mark, incise'); PMP *tabas 'cut awayunderbrush' (Blust 1980:92) Cf. PUA tapatapa 'to c., split'.Cf. also PMc? *[sS][afi.sub.I], 'pick, pluck, tear off', PMc*[sS]afa, [sS]afa-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i- 'to gather, pick', PPC*daf[ei] 'be open', PMc *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki 'be cut,lopped, to cut (st.) off'.

PWMc *tafaali 'again, return': CHK sefaan, safaan,safaani(n), sefaanni-(n), sefanni-(n) a., once more, r., r. of'; MRTS[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]faali 'do (s.t.) a, r. (s.t.)'; PUL.hafaall, hafalli-, hafaali-; CRL sefaal, sefaal-; CRN hafaal; STW sefaan; WOLtefaali; PUA -tadani; PCK *tafaali, tafaalli; PON sapaal 'repeat anactivity, do a.'; MOK japaal; MRS jaha[l.sub.s] 'turn avehicle'. Cf. KSR taepal 'to turn'.

PMc *tai, ta-'not': CHK -se, se-, sa-; MRT -se; PUL -ha;CRL -se' CRN -he; STW -se; WOL -tai, ta-; ULI -te, te-, -ta(Bender etal. 1984); PUA ta- 'not (neg. prefix)'; PCK *-tai, ta-; PON sa-,sai(kint[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'not yet'; MOK ja-; PNG ja-; MRSja-, ja-([k.sup.w][k.sup.w]ireyrey) 'seldom play, not be athletic,([k.sup.w][k.sup.w]irey 'play'), ja-([rren.sup.w][ren.sup.w])'deaf, hard of hearing' ([ren.sup.w] 'hear'); KIR-tai'neg. imperative aspect marker'; KSR se-, s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-.

PMC *taitai, tai-mi, tai-ma 'sharpen': CHK seyi-mi'sharpen it', seyi-m, #seyi-mi-(n) 'whetstone'; MRTsayisey (Bender et al. 1984); PUL hayi-mi; CRL seisey, sei-mi; STW sai-mi;WOL taitei, tai-mi-(i); PUA taetae, tae-mi (sic); PCK *taitai, tai-mi-; PONs[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ys[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y 'be sharpened',say-m; MRS jemjem 's., whet', jem-(ey) 's. (s.t.)'; KIRtai-mi-(a) 's. it', tai-ma 's. (s.t.)'; KSR twe-twe's.', twe-m 'whetstone'; POC * tajim (ROSS 1988); UAN*tazim.

PWMC *takaka 'slice of copra': CHK sakka-n, #ssaka-n's. of it (of c. or meat of ripe coconut)', -ssak 's. ofc.' (in counting)', (a)-ssak 'to cut c., extract c. from thecoconut shell', (a)-sakka, #(a)-ssaka 'to cut it (c.)' PUL#haakk, hakka-n 'halved husked coconut shell, s. of it' -hakk's. of c. (in counting)'; CRL (a)-sakk 'slices of c.',(a)-sakka 'to s. (c.); CRN (a)-hakk 'slices of c.', (a)-hakka'to s. (c.)'; WOL tegagu 'shell (of skull, coconut),cup', tegagu-ch-[chim.sup.w]e (< *tegagu-li-[shim.sup.w]e)'skull'; PUA takkakku-(ase) 'navigator's cup with ahandle'; PCK *takak[au]; MRS jekak 'c. pieces taken out of theshell'. Cf. MOK dakdak, daka-j 'remove meat from a coconut',(orin) dakdak 'c.'; KIR (te)-takataka 'c.,' takataka'be very dry (as the kernel of a ripe coconut)', KSR kaki 'c.,mature coconut'.

PMc *takuru 'back (of body)': CHK sekur, sekuru-; MRTsakure-; PUL hakur; CRL saghur; CRN hagur; STW sakuru-; WOL taguru; PUAtaluku; PCK *takuru; MRS [jak.sup.w]ir 'shell of turtle or crab';KIR (te)-akuu (showing loss of *t when followed by *k); PEO *takuRu (Geraghty1990). Cf. KSR tok, t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(l),tuku-(n) 'b, his b., b. of'; Poc *takuR, dakuR (Ross 1988) (FIJdaku).

PMc *tala, tala-[sS]I 'slack, loosen': CHK sene-ti'untie, 1. (a rope)'; PUL hale-ti-(y) 'untie, disentangle,excuse, pardon (s.t.)'; CRL sali-ti 'to relax or reduce (tension),make peace between (people)'; STW sani-ti 'untie (s.t.)'; WOLtela-ti-(i) 'untangle, free, solve (s.t.)'; PUA tana-ti 'tosave. Rescue, forgive'; PCK *tala-di-; MOK jala-d 'to release oruntie (rope), jal-d-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'be free, be one's ownboss'; MRS jaljal 'to 1., unwind, unsnarl'; KIR tana-ra'to loose (another's hold), take off (ornaments after thedance)', (ma)-tana 'be s.', (ka-ma)-tana-a 'to 1.,slacken (s.t.)'; PEO *tala, tala-[sz]i (FIJ tala, tala-ca 'clearrubbish away'; PPN *tala 'untie, undo').

PMC *talai 'adze': CHK sene, senee-(n) 'a., a.of', senee-ni 'chop (it) with an a.'; MRT sale; PUL hele; CRLsele; CRN hele; WOL telaa; PUA tanae; PCK *talai; PON sil[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; MRS jeljel 'stone axe'; KIR (te)-tanai 'adze';KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]la 'axe', tulwe-(n-t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k) 'adze'. Cf. SAA 'ala 'to break off or lop (ofbranches)'; ARO ara, ara-I 'to chop, chop down (a tree)',ara-ra'i 'to chop'.

PCMC *tale 'clear, distinct': CHK sana-, sane- ?'prominent, standing out'; PON sansal 'clear, evident,obvious'; MOK janjal 'clear (of speech), open, obvious'; KIRtane 'clear, distinct'.

PMC *tali 'rope': CHK saan, seni-(n) 'r., r.of', seni, seni-iy 'coil or wind (a r.)'; MRT saal,s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]le-(n); PUL haal, hali-(n) 'rigging, riggingof'; CRL saal, sali-l 'r., r. of', sali 'to coil (ar.)'; CRN heli 'to coil (a r.)'; STW saan 'r., line,sennit'; WOL taali, tan-ni 'r., line, r. of', tali-i''tug of pull (a r.)'; PUA taani, tani- '4.'; SNS taani'r., string'; PCK *tali; PON saal 'r., cord, string', sal'to gather r., haul on a line'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l'r.', jal 'to wind (r.)'; MRS jaljel 'roll up orcoil', jaliy 'roll or coil up (r.)'; KIR tan 'toturn', tana 'to wind sennit on the left hand'; KSR sal; PEO*tali 'rope' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ tali 'r., plait,interweave', dali 'a pandanus tree from which r. is made'; PPN*taLi 'to plait'; SAA 'ali 'a cord'; ARO ari'r.' [tari 'r. of special kind' is an evident loan]; KWAali 'plait'; LAK tali-a 'to coil [r.]', tali [la-sulabe]'make a vine binding for a climber's feet'); UAN *tali. Cf.YAP tael 'rope, string'.

PCMc *tali-'facing': CHK seni-(kasa) 'boardconnecting outrigger booms on the lee (asa) side'; MRS jal- 'toface' (with dir. suffixes); KIR tan-, tani- (with dir. suffixes)'at the ~ side (of an island), facing (hither or away)'. MRS heavyl results from assimilation to following directionals, which begin heavyconsonants.

PCMc *talia 'side dish of meat, fish, or sauce': CHKseni, seniya-(n) 's. d., his s. d.', seniye-ni 'put as a s. (s.t.)'; PUL haaliy (sic) 'accompanying food',haliya-le-(y) 'to eat (s.t.) as accompanying food'; CRL saliya-,saliyali, saliili 'meat or sauce eaten together with rice or Taro';PCK *taliya; PON sali 'eat meat or fish, the meat or fish part of ameal', sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'eat (the meat or fish part of ameal)'; MRS jaleuley 'meat course, sauce, gravy'; KIR(te)-tanna (<*tania) sauce, relish, appetizer'.

PCMc *talilapa 'builder, bind together': CHK sennap,sannap 'canoe b.'; PUL hallap, hellap', hallapa-n'builder, b. of'; CRL. sellap 'expert canoe b.; CRN hallap;WOL sennape 'canoe b., master craftsman'; PCK *tallapa(<*talilapa); KIR tannaba-a 'to wind (s.t.) up (as fishline)'.

PMc *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'ear, mushroom,fungus': CHK seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], seni[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a-(n)'e., his e.', seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n sooma),senine-(n enu)' seni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-(n soope) 'any of alarge number of fungi' (lit. 'ghost's ear, spirit'sear'), ([p.sup.w]o)-sseni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'moldy smell,earthy smell, to smell moldy'; MRT sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-; PULhali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], hali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n),hali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n hooma) 'tree f., m.'; CRLsali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ([b.sup.w]oo)-sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'smell musty or moldy from long storage'; CRN heli[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]; STW sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], sali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-; WOLtaline 'e.', tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(a) 'listen to,obey'; PUA tani[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; SNS tari[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a; PCK *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON sale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],sale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'e., his e.', sale[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e-n eni 'fungus, mushroom' (lit. 'ear of ghost';MOK jale[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(walek) 'big-ear taro'; MRS(law-)jil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL](iy) 'e.'; KIR(te)-tani[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PEO *talina (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ daliga;PPN *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; ROT faliga; SAA 'ali[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e 'e., m.'; LAU alina 'e.'; KWA alina'm.'; PKB *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'e., edible f.');PAN *tali[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a

PMc *tama 'father': CHK saam, seme-(n) 'f., f.of', sama-(n), sema-(n) 'his f.', samasam 'treat as af.', seme-ni 'acquire as a f.'; MRT sama-; PUL hama-(n)'his f., hama-(n) 'f. of'; CRL saam 'f.', sema-(l)'his f.; CRN haam; STW saam, sema-; WOL taame tema-(li) 'f., f.of', tema-li-(i) 'have him as a f.'; PUA taama, tama-; SNStama (sic); PCK *tama; PON saam, s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'f., his f.'; MOK jema-(a) 'his f.'; PNG seme-;MRS jema-; KIR tama-(na) 'his f.; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL][m.sup.w]e-(l) 'his f,'; POC *tama (Ross 1988) (FIJ tama;SAA 'ama- 'f.' [ref.]', ma'a 'f. [voc.]';BUG tama-; LAU maa 'f. [voc.]'; ARO ama-; KWA ama-[na]; PKB tama'f.'); PAN *tama (Ross 1988).

PWMc *tanisi 'finger or toe': PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]nd 'appendage, f., t.', s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ndi-(np[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'f.'; MOK jaid, jandi-(n) 'f. or t,f. or t. of'; MRS Janit, janti-(n) 'f., crab claw, f. of'.

PMC *tanitani 'skin disease': CHK senisen 'tinea,ringworm', ([p.sup.w]oo)-senisen 'smell of ring worm'; PONsensen 's. d. caused by a fungus, be moldy or old tasting',([p.sup.w]oo)-sensen 'moldy smelling'; MRS jan 's. d., whitespots on skin'; KIR tantan 'spotted (as the skin)'; KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n 'a s.d.'.

PMc *tano 'ground, low': CHK soon. sonu-n, o-sona'level ground, leveled site of, make it level (of g.)',sono-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) 'uneven', (teki)-son 'be l.,humble', (mo)-sono-son 'meek, humble, lowly'; PUL hoon, hono-'surface, g.', hono-(fiR) 'be smooth, level, flat', hoon'bottom', hon 'to be lower', (taki)-hon 'be I.,short'; CRL sossol 'be l., be near the ground, be l. in rank orgrade'; STW sool 'land, soil'; WOL taalo, talo- 'earth,soil, g.'; PUA totano (sic) 'earth, g.'; PCK *tano; PON son'aligned, settled, arranged, ordered'; KIR (te)-tano 'earth,soil'; POc *tanoq (Ross 1988) (SAA 'ano 'g.'; BUG tano'earth, g.'; ARO one 'g.', [I]-'ano'down'; KWA ano 'land, g.'; PNK *-tano, 'down,westward'). Cf. WOL saalo, salo-, taalo, talo- 'west,downward', -salo 'below, downside'. Note TON tano 'placeof burial, cemetery', tanu 'to bury or intern (s.t.)'; BUGtano 'earth, ground', tanu-vi 'to dip, soak in water';KWA one 'ground', alu 'bury'; POc tanoq 'earth'(Ross 1988); UAN *tanem 'bury, plant'. Cf. also PCK *itano ,)'deposited, put away'. See Marck (1994:317) PMc *tano 'soil,earth, ground'.

PMc *tano-mi- 'to catch (water) in a container': MRTsano-mi; STW solo-mi; WOL talo-mi-(i); PCK *tano-mi; PEO *tano (FIJ tano-a'large wooden bowl for preparing kava'; BUG tano 'tocollect').

PMc *tanifa 'a small fish': CHK senif senife-(n)'herring, h. of'; PUL hanif, hanifa-(y) 'anchovy, a. of';CRL salif 'sp. of s. f.'; PCK *ta[nn]ifa; PON sayp'sardine'; MOK jayp 'f. sp.'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i 'a kind of f.'



PMC *ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri 'tuna': CHKse[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir, se[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri-(n) 'yellowtail t., t. of'; MRT sa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ur 'big t.'; PULha[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'yellowfin t.'; WOL ta[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iri 'king-size t.'; PCK *ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri; MRS([m.sup.w]e)-ja[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ir 'porcupine fish';KIR(te)-ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ii 'yellow-fin t.' (Bender et al.1984); PEO "'ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]jiRi 'pelagic fish'(Geraghty 1990) (SAA aa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ili 'kingfish'; Aroa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iri 'shoal of porpoises'); UAN*ta[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iRi 'kind of fish'. Cf. LAK tariga'a fish'.

PMC *tao 'a thwart, tie': CHK sso 't. of acanoc', (fo)-sso 'step or rung of a ladder'; PUL ho, hoo-(n)'canoe t., t. of'; CRL sso, soo 'canoe t.'; WOL ttoo'canoe t.'; PUA ttao 'canoe t.'; PCK *ta[w[theta]]O,tta[w[theta]]O; PON soo-(ro[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'ridgepole of abuilding'; MRS jewjew 'outrigger Spar, ties between spar andoutrigger'; PEO *tao (BUG tao 'ridge, saddle of a mountain',[labu] tao 'to nail crosswise'; ARO aoao 'to extend beyond ass.t. sticking out'; KWA aoao 'shelf in a house'). Cf. Fu soka'ribs of boat'; PAN *senkar 'cross seat of boat' (Blust1970:142).

PMC? *[tapa.sub.1] 'a fish': KIR (te)-taba 'af.'; KSR taep 'a kind of f.'.

PMC *[tapa.sub.2] 'cheek': CHK Saap, sapa-(n), sape-(n)'c., his c., c. of'; MRT saap. sapa-(n); PUL hapa-(n), hapa-(n);CRL (au)-sap; CRN (au)-hap; STW saap, sepa-(n); WOL taape tepa-(le); ULItapa-(l) 'his c.'; PUA taapa, tapa- 'c., gill (of fish)';SNS tapa (sic); PCK *tapa; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'his c.'; MOK jepa 'c., his c.'; MRS jap, jepa-,jepe-; KIR taba-(na) 'his c.'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]pae-(l)'his c.'; PEO *taba (PPN *tapa 'edge'; SAA 'apa'part, side, half'; LAU aba- 'hand, arm, part, leaf'; BUGtaba 'sea shore'; ARO aba 'half, part, side'); UAN*tambarj 'side'. See also PCMC *[tapa.sub.2] 'face,turn'.

PMC *[tapa.sub.3] be caught, snagged': CHK sap 'be c.,s., stuck, hung up'; PUL hap 'be taut, s., c., be late,detained'; PCK *tapa; UAN *taban.

PCMC *tapa, ka-tapa 'speak, spoken': CHK a-pasa'say it, utter it', kka-pas, kka-pase-(n) 'speech, talk,utterance, language, to s., say, talk, s. of', kakka-pas'converse'; MRT a-pasa 'to speak it', kka-pas 'word,language'; PUL ya-paha 'to say it, s. it', kka-pah,kka-paha-(n) 'speech, word, language, s. of'; CRLa-paha 'tosay (s.t.)', kka-pas, kke-pas 'word, speech, talk, language';CRN kka-pah 'word, speech, talk, language', a-paha 'to say(s.t.)'; STW a-pasa 'say it', kka-pas 'word,language'; WOL kke-pate 'word, language, speech', kkekke-patekke-pate-pate 'be talking', -pate 'a fragment of speech (incounting)'; PUA tapatapa 'say, announce', tapa 's. aboutor announce (s.t.)'; PCK *pata, ka-pata, kka-pata or *tapa (all ChuukicIgs. represented here have undergone metath. with exception of PUA); KIRka-tabataba-a 'to call (a bird) for ensnaring'. Cf. PUA paata,pata- 'a piece that is cut out' and kapakapa 'to talk behindone's back'. This may be the same root as PMC *tapa, tapa-[kn]i'to answer'.

PMC *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki 'lift up, carry, bear in one'shands': CHK sap 'be holding up with open palm (of the hand)',sapa, sassapa 'to hold (s.t.) up in the open palm'; MRT sapa'carry (s.t.) with both hands, to support (s.t. or s.o.)'; STW sepa'to support, hold up (s.t.)'; PON sape 'to c. (s.t.) inone's arms'; MOK japa-k 'to I. (s.t.) up from the rear end (asin catching turtles)'; MRS jepak 'support, hold up'; KIRtabetabe 'to engage in carrying, carry repeatedly', tabe-ka'to lift or take (s.t.) up in the hands', tabe-ki-(a) 'l. itup'; KSR taptap 'to support, uphold, bear',tahp[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'to support, uphold, or bear (s.t.)';PEO *tapa, tape (FIJ tabe tabe-a 'to hold or carry in the hands',tabetabe 'the bringing of food in baskets'; SAA 'apa-a 'astaff'; ARO abaaba 'to carry'); UAN *tapak 'flat of thehand, sole of the foot'. Cf. FIJ taba 'upper arm (of human),foreleg (of animal), taba-(caca) 'single-handed, odd, having nomatch'; LAU aba- 'hand, arm, leaf'; SAA 'apa'leaf', 'apa'apa 'wing, shoulder, leaves '; PEO*taba. Cf. also PMC *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa, [st]apa-ni 'to help'.

PMC *tapa, tapa-[k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]]i 'to answer':PON sap[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to respond,a'; MOK japo-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a., talk back to(s.o.)',jap[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to give an a'; KIR taba-ka'to snap at (s.o., as a dog), kick (at s.o., as a horse)'; KSR top'an a', topu-k 'to a (so.)'; PEO *taba (BUG taba 'topay, wages, reward'). This may be the same root as PCMC *tapa, ka-tapa'speak, spoken'.

PMC *tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki 'be cut, lopped, to cut (s.t.)off': CHK sep 'be e. off, lopped off (of coconut fronds andpandanus leaves)', sepesep 'cutting or lopping off (of leaves andfronds)', sepe-si 'to e, it or lop it off'; MRT sepasep'cutting off', sepa-ke 'c. down (leaves of any-thing)',sepa-te 'c. down (coconut leaves)'; PUL hepa-ki-y ''; CRL. sapasap 'machete with broad blade', sape-ghi'chop it with a machete'; CRN hapahap 'machete', hapi-gi'chop it with a machete'; STW sapasap 'large knife',sepa-ki 'c., lop off, trim (s.t.)'; WOL tape 'to c. (usuallyleaves)', tepa-gi-i 'c. it', tapetape 'big knife';PuA tapatapa 'to c., split', tapa-ki 'split it'; PCK*tapa, tapatapa, tapa-ki-; PON sap 'to c. into pieces', sepe'c. (s.t.) into pieces', sapa-k 'to harvest (ofbananas)'; MOK jap 'c. with an upward stroke', japa-k 'c.(s.t.) with an upward stroke'; MRS jepjep 'c. off, shorten,mow', jepa-k 'c., hack, chop off, split, slash (s.t.)'; KSRsipsip 'c., chop, or slice into small pieces', sipi-k ' c.,chop, or slice (s.t.)'. Cf. FIJ teba 'a fighting iron axe';SAA opa 'divide, separate'; BUG tobi 'fell (a tree), clear(the bush)'; LAU oba 'take from, separate, divide'; KWA obu'to beat down undergrowth'; PMP *tabas 'c. awayunderbrush' (Blust 1980:92); PAN *tebaS 'to cut, clearvegetation' (Blust 1986:97). Cf. PMc *tafa, tafa-si 'to cut inpieces, slice'.

PMc *tapaka[w[thetha]]u 'a mat': STW sepaaw 'm.made from young coconut leaves'; WOL tapegau 'coconut leafm.', tapegau-u-(we) 'put a coconut m. on it'; PUA tapakau'young, white, unopened coconut leaf'; PCK *tapakau; MRS jepkaw'coarse floor m.'; KSR sahpk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'm. sewnof pandanus leaves'; PEO *tapakau (TON tapakau 'large coconut leafsuitable for use in making floor mats'; SAM tapa'au'coconut-leaf floor m.'). PUL sepaawo (sic) 'coconut leafm.' is clearly a loan from another Chuukic language, and the KSR formmay be a loan from MRS.

PCMc *[tape.sub.1] 'busy': MRS jep 'place ofwork'; KIR tabe 'b., engaged, employed', (te)-tabe 'thestate of being employed'. Cf. PMc *tap[ae], tap[ae]-ki 'lift up,carry, bear in one's hands', PMc *[st]apa, [st]apa[st]apa,[st]apa-rji 'to help'.

PCMc *[tape.sub.2] 'face, turn': CHK sap, sap 'f.,present a side in a given direction', with directional suffixes sape-no,sape-no, sape-ta, sape-ta, sape-to, sape-to, sape-tiw, sape-tiw, sape-wow,sape-wow, sape-wu, sapewu, (a)-sapa 'to turn (s.t.) to f. in anotherdirection', (a)-sapasapi-n (ppewut) 'the warding off of(sorcery)'; CRL sape- (with dir. suf.) 'f. or proceed (in adirection)'; CRN hap 'f. or proceed (in a certain direction)';WOL sape 'turn, f.'; PCK *tape; Km (ka)-taba-a 'to divert onefrom what he is doing, to interrupt', (ka)-taba-a 'to give way, toturn aside to let another pass'. Cf. KSR taep[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-l'to turn (s.t.)'. Cf. also UAN *tamba[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'side'. See also PMc *[tapa.sub.2] 'check'.

PMc *tapia 'bowl, constellation Delphinus': CHK sepi,sepiya-(n) 'b., dish, platter, plate, constellation D., his b.',sepiye-ni 'acquire (a b.)'; MRT sapi, sapiye-(y) 'b., myb.'; PUL hapiy, hapey 'b.', hapiya-ni-(y) 'keep or own (ab.)'; CRL sapi, sapiya-(l) 'b., his b.'; CRN hepi; STW sapi;WOL tapiye 'b., dish, constellation D.'; PUA tappiia (sic)'wooden plate'; PCK *tapiya; MoK japi 'wooden b.'; MRSjapey 'wooden b., constellation D.'; PEO *tabiRa (Geraghty 1990)(ARO abira 'basket made of coconut leaf'; BAU abira 'woodenbowl'); UAN *tambiR + an. Cf. BUG tabili 'wooden mortar'.

PCMc *[tap.sup.w]akea 'kind of turtle': PON[sap.sup.w]ak[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hawksbill t.'; MOK[jap.sup.w]ako 'sp. of t.'; MRS [jeb.sup.w]akey 't. withmutli-colored shell'; KIR (te)-[tab.sup.w]akea 'kind of t. withbrilliant shell'. See also CHP [p.sup.w][aap.sup.w]a 't.' andCRN [p.sup.w][aap.sup.w]a 't.', which may well be derived from*[p.sup.w]akea.

PMC *[tap.sup.w]o 'district, division': CHK[soop.sup.w], [sop.sup.w]u-tiw, [sop.sup.w]o-notow, [sop.sup.w]o-ta,[sop.sup.w]u-n 'district, village, lower d., eastern d., upper d., d.of', -[sop.sup.w] 'half, division, part (in counting)'; PUL[hoop.sup.w]; CRL [soob.sup.w] [sob.sup.w]o-(l), -[sob.sup.w]; CRN[hoob.sup.w] [hop.sup.w] o-(n); STW [soop.sup.w] [sop.sup.w]o-(n),[sop.sup.w]' WOL taabo, tabo-; PCK *[tap.sup.w]o; PON [saap.sup.w],[sap.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'land or homestead, his 1.'; MOK[jap.sup.w] [jop.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n 'land, island, 1.of'; KIR (te)-[tap.sup.w]o 'place'; KSR taef[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'half of'. Cf. FIJ tamo 'portion, section'.Cf. also PMC [tap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.w]o-[sS]a 'end, terminate'. Seealso Marck (1994:322) PCMc *tap'o.

PMC *[tap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.w]o-[sS]a 'end, terminate':CHK [sop.sup.w] 'be at an e., terminated', (nee)[sop.sup.w]u-(n)'e. of it', [sop.sup.w]o-(noo-n) 'e, of it',(o)-[sop.sup.w]a 'make an e. of it', (o)-[sop.sup.w]u-(ni)'make a termination feast for it', [sop.sup.w]e-(ey) 'bring tocompletion'; MRT [soop.sup.w] 'e. part (of canoe)'; PUL.[hoop.sup.w] 'e.', [hop.sup.w]e-(lo) 'finish completely';WOL taabo, tabo- 'e.', tabo-(gapi) 'western e.',(ge)-tabo 'make use of s.t. before it disappears', sabo 'befinished, completed'; PUA [taap.sup.w]o, [tap.sup.w]o- 'top, front,egde'; PCK *[tap.sup.w]; PON [sop.sup.w] 'reach e. of a round ofkava'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d,j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][p.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-d[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]- 'pinnacle of a tree, growing e. and its base; MRS[jap.sup.w]e-(n) 'point of, e. of'; KIR (te)-tabo 'e.'(te)-tabo-(ni-bai) 'finger'; KSR saef 'come to an e.'.Cf. FIJ tavo 'side, e., area (Geraghty 1983:374) PMP *tapus'finished, completed' (Blust 1986:96) and cf. PMc *[tap.sup.w]o'district, division'.

PMc *[tap.sup.w][u.sub.1] 'taboo, ritual restriction, betaboo': STW (a)-[sop.sup.w][usop.sup.w] 'stated proscriptions,statements of taboos'; WOL taabu, tabu- 'taboo, ban, ritualrestriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboosign)'; PuA [taap.sup.w]u, [tap.sup.w]u, 'taboo, ban marked by ataboo sign'; [PC.sub.K] *[tap.sup.w]u; KIR [tab.sup.w]u 'be taboo,forbidden, sacred', (te)-[tab.sup.w]u 'a taboo'; PEO *tabu (Futahu; PPN *tapu; SAA 'apu BUG tabu, LAU abu; ARO abu 'sacred';KWA abu). Cf. MRS [jab.sup.w]iy 'taboo' (archaic). Cf. also PMc*[tap.sup.w][U.sub.2] 'future negative', PWMc *[aap.sup.w]a'no'.

PMc *[tap.sup.W][u.sub.2] 'future negative': CHK-[sap.sup.w] 'future negative, will not, must not'; MRT [sap.sup.w]'future negative'; PUL -[hap.sup.w]. -[hop.sup.w] 'exhortativenegative'; CRL -[sop.sup.w], -[ssop.sup.w] and CRN -[hob.sup.w]'future negative', [soob.sup.w] 'no, I won't'; CRN-[ha/f 'future negative', [soob.sup.w] 'no, Iwon't'; CRN -[hob.sup.w]' 'future negative';[haap.sup.w] 'no, I won't'; STW [sop.sup.w] 'futurenegative'; MRS [job.sup.w] 'not (future)', jahab'no'; PEO *tapu (ARO abu 'don't'; KWA ahs- [pref. tovb.] 'be unable to ...'). Cf. also PMc *[tap.sup.w][u.sub.1]'taboo, ritual restriction, be taboo', PWMc *[aap.sup.w]a'no'.

PMc *tara 'sacred, holy': PON sara-wi, sara-wii-(n)'s., h., a religious service, magic, taboo, r. s. of'; MOKj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r-wi 'h., s., a religious service, to hold areligious service'; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-wi; 'h.'; PPON *tara-wii; MRS jar 'pray, go tochurch'; KSR (m[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL])-tael 'h., hallowed,s.'. Note that Km tataro 'to pray' and taro-mauri'worship' are loans from Polynesian, e.g., SAM talo 'topray' (obsolete).

PMc? *tara, tara-[sS]i 'to look, look at': PON sara-(da)'I. upwards' (da 'upwards'); MOK jar 'bend backone's head'; KIR #taratara 'be awake, to behold', tara-a(?< *taa-ra) 'to I. at, behold (s.t.)'; PEO *taRa-c 'I.up' (Geraghty 1990). Geraghty's reconstruction relies heavily onthe Micronesian forms, which he seems to misinterpret.

PMc *taraa 'squirrel fish': CHK sara 'yellow-lineds. f.'; MRT sara; PUL hara 'a kind of red f.'; CRL sara'sp. of edible reef f.'; STW sera; WOL sera 'a kind off.'; PCK *taraa; PON sara; MoK jara 'f. sp., kind of soldiert'; MRS jerak; KIR (te)-taa 'a fish'; LAK talaha 'k. off.'; PEO *taRaqa 'k. off. (Adioryx spinifer Holocendridac)'(Geraghty 1990). Cf. TON ta'a 'a fish (red, edible)'.

PWMc *taraki 'to sail': CHK seres 'be sailing, goon a sailing vessel, to reef a sail'; MRT serek 'to s., besailing'; PUL herak; CRL seragh, seraghi-; STW serak; WOL teragi'to s., travel by water'; PUA taleki 'to s., navigate';PCK *taraki; PON serek; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k; MRS jerak 's. away', jerakrek 'go sailing'.YA.P tareg 'to s.' is evidently a loan from a Chuukic source. Cf.PPN *tere 's., float'.

PCMc *tarawa 'barracuda': CHK saraw, sarawe-(n)'b., b. of'; MRT saraw; PUL haraw, harawa-(n); Cm. saraw; STWsaraw; WOL sarawe; PuA talawa; PCK *tarawa; PON saraw; MoK jaraw; KIR taawa.Cf. PMc ? *turai 'barracuda'.

PWMc *tare 'peer group, tier': CHK sassar, sassari-(n)'t., storey (of house), step (of stair), shelf (of cupboard), t.of'; CRL sare-(1), sari-(1) 'age mate of, peer of'; CRNhera-(n) 'his age mate, his peer'; WOL taare tera-(Ii)'generation, age group, g. of', -tare 'generation (incounting)'; PCK *tare; MRS jar 'crowd, any group of people as aclass, unit, or division'. Cf. Fu tara tara-va 'to follow';ARO areha 'kin by marriage', tare-ha 'a crowd' (a loan?);UAN *ta[rR]ap 'row.

PMc *tare, tare-ki- 'to move, remove': CHK sar 'bemoving, not staying in one place', sari-si 'm. (s.t.) from itsplace, r. (s.t.)', ssar 'be capable of being elevated or lifted up;WOL tera-gi-(i) 'to m. or pull (s.t.) up, m. it up, lift it; PCK *tare,tare-ki-; KSR tal 'to in., rub, paddle fast', tal 'rootout', tael[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'root (s.t.) out, pull out,pull up (a net)'.

PMc *tari 'child': MRT seri (sic) 'baby, c. (up toseven yrs. old)'; PUL haar hari- 'c., infant'; CRL saar sari-;STW saar 'person born at same time as oneself', sarisar 'beborn at the same time'; WOL saari, sari- 'c., boy, girl,baby'; ULI tar (fefel) (sic) 'prepubescent girl'; PCK *tari;PON seri 'her C.'; MOKjeri 'c.', jeri-([m.sup.W]eyn)'boy',jeri-(peyn) 'girl'; PNG s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ri'c.';

MRS (ha)-jriy 'c., kid, toddler'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]lik 'c.' (presumably t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li-k 'myc.'). Expressed final vowel without suffixed form in MRT, MOK, PNG, andMRS poses problem. Cf. also PCMc? *atarei 'child'.

PCMc *taro 'to be able': CHK (o)-sor 'offering to aspirit' (i.e., 'make effecting'), (enuu)-sor 'effectingspirit', ([m.sup.W]aane)-sor 'effecting man'; MRS[jet.sup.w]" 'be able to'; KIR tao.(n) 'to engage in, goat, begin upon'.

PMc *ta[sS]i- 'younger sibling': CHK seti-(p"itur)'youngest child of a woman' (lit. 'skirt child'),seti-(peen) 'small child'; MRS jati- 'y. S.'; KIR tad-'s. of same sex'; PEO *tazi (Geraghty 1983); POc *tazi (Blust1978:108); POc *taji (Ross 1988) (Fu taci 'y. s. of same sex'; SAA'dsi- 's.f of same sex'; BUG tahi- s. of same sex'; LAUasi 's. of opposite sex'; ARO asi 's. of opposite sex'[sic]; KWA asi-[na] 'y s.'; LAK tari- 'y. s. of samesex'). Cf. UAN *aji(h).

PMC *taSi 'salt water': CHK saat, seti-, -set; PUL haat,heti-; CRL saat; CRN haat; STW saat, sati-; WOL taati, tati-, saati, sati-;PUA taati, tati-; SNS taati; PCK *tadi; PON sead; MOK jed; PNG sed; MRS(law)-jet; KIR taari, -tari; KSR (kifin)-te 'salt water'; PEO *tazi(Geraghty 1983); POC *tasik, dasik (Ross 1988) (FIJ taci; PPN *tahi; SAA'asi; BUG tahi; ARO asi; KWA asi; PKB *dasi); UAN *[tT]asik. See alsoMarck (1994309) PMC *tazi.

PWMC *tata 'yellow snapper': CRL saas 'sp. of y.s.'; WOL taate, teta- 'a kind of y. fish'; PCK *tata; MRS jaj'a s.'.

PMc *tau, 'person': CHK sco-([tup.sup.w]), soo-(ma),soo-(pe) 'departed (dead) person, corpse, ghost'; PULhoo-([tup.sup.w]), hw-(ma) 'departed person, ghost'; CRL soo-(ma),soo-([tub.sup.w]) 'respectful term for one who is dead', soo-(pe)'respectful term for ghost or spirit'; CRN hoo-([tub.sup.w])'respectful term for one who is dead'; PUA tou-([tup.sup.w]a)'spirit, god'; PCK *tau; MRS je-([teb.sup.w]) 'spirit';POC *tau 'body, person'; (LAK tau- 'man of a place orclan'; SAA 'au-[sala] 'be a gadabout, neglect the home';ARO au-[henua] 'man of the place'); UAN *[tT]au 'person'.See also PMC *[tawu.sub.-1] 'master, expert', PMC ? [tawu.sub.2]'clan, family'.

PMC *[tau.sub.2]'season, sun': CHK see-(fe) 'newyear'; MRT see 'season'; PUL hee-(fe) 'be new'; CRNhee-(fe) 'new'; WOL tau-(wate) 'daylight, day, sun'; PUAtai-(dau) 'new, fresh'; PCK *tau-, tau-(fau); PON sow'sun' (archaic); MOK jow 'sun'; PNG j[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]w 'sun'; KIR taai 'sun', (te)-tai 'time,season, harvest'; PEO *taqu (PPN *taqu 'season'; SAA aau'season of the southeast wind'; KWA au 'southeast wind');UAN *taqun 'year, season'. Cf. Marck (1994:309) PMC *ta[w[theta]u'sun, year, season'; YAP duw 'year', daay 'tidalseason'. Cf. also PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u.sub.1], 'time period',PCK *tau 'sunset'.

PMC? *[tau.sub.3] 'who?': CHK (i)-ye, (i)-yee-(n), MRT(i)-ye; PUL. (yi)-ye CRL (i)-yo, (ii)-yo; CRN (i)-yo; STW; (ii)-yo.WOL(i)-teu; ULI(yi)-tey; PUA (I)-teu; PCK *yau, -t[ae]u; MOK ? (in)-je; PNG ?(i)-saa; KIR (an)-tai; KSR s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. There are problems here.Cf. POC sai 'who?' (Ross 1988) (FIJ [o]-cei, [ko]-cei; PPN *hai;SAM ['o]-ai; SAA [a]-tei; BUG [a]-hai; KWA dai; LAK [e]-re [e]-rei).Note that KIR ae 'who (relative pm.)' appears to be a loan from SAM(i)-ai 'who (relative pm.)'.

PMc *tautau, tau-ki 'to catch': CHK seese 'engagein a kind of fishing with handnets'; MRT seese 'c. fish with anet'; PCK *tautau; PON say-k 'to c. (fish)'; MOK jay-k'to try to c. or to c. on to (s.t.)'; MRS jjay 'to c.',jayi-k 'to c. (a falling object or fruit)'; KSR sas[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to c.', sau-k 'to c., grasp (s.t.)'. Cf. LAUdau, dadau 'to hold, catch, take, touch', Cf. PMC *[tawu.sub.3]'saved, held onto'.

PMC *tautu 'porcupine fish': CHK seew, seeseew; MRTseew; PUL heewu (sic) 'large growth stage of edible long-spined pufferfish'; CRL soow 'sp. of lagoon f., perhaps a goatfish'; WOLtausu a kind of fish'; PUA taudu; PCK *tautu; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]y ; MOK joy; KIR (te)-tauti 'a fish'; KSR taut 'needlefish' (Bender et al. 1984: 'p. f.'); PEO *taRuta (Geraghty1990) PMP *taRutum taRutu[eta] (Blust 1984-85). Cf. YAP t'uuy 'p.f.'.

PMC *tawaa 'break, broken': CRL ssowa 'to b. (aswaves on a beach), hatch (as an egg)'; CRN ssawa 'to b.,hatch'; WOL tewaa 'be broken, cracked (as an egg), smashed';PUA tawa-(di) (sic) 'to be broken'; PCK *tawaa; PON sawa 'bebroken'; KSR sawe 'to hatch'. Cf. SAA awaa 'beconvalescent after a fever, be over the attack'; KWA gwaa 'burst,healed of a boil'.

PWMc *tawia 'any of several kinds of sea bass': CHKsewi, #sewii-(n) 'any of a number of sp. of b. fish, b. f. of'; PULhewiy, hewiya-(n) 'blue spotted s. b., b. of'; PCK *tawiya; PONsawi 'grouper fish (Plectropomus)'; MoKjawi 's. b.'; MRSjawey 'a giant s. b. of genus Primicrops, s. b. of genusPlectropomus'.

PMC *ta[w[theta]o, ta[w[theta]]o-ni 'to press': MRSjewe-n 'press down on, weigh down on (s.t.)'; KIR tao-na'press (s.t.) down, control (s.t.)'; KSR t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to press', to-n 'to press(s.t.)'.

PMC *[tawu-.sub.1] 'master, expert': CHK sowu-'master, expert'; PUL hawu- 'expert, master, lord'; CRLsou- 'expert', sousow' 'evil magician, sorcerer';CRN hou- 'expert'; WOL sau-, tau- 'master, expert'; PCK*tawu-; PON sow- 'expert at' and saw- 'prefix in titles ofrank'; KIR tia- 'expert' (showing metath.); KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(k[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]srae) 'king ofKosrae'; POC? *taqu, daqu 'expert' (FIJ dau'expert'; TON tou- 'person who does s.t.'; SAM tau-'owner, expert'); UAN *taquh 'knower, expert'. Cf. FIJsau 'high chief'; PPN *sau 'rule, ruler' (the saw- incertain PON high titles is probably a PN loan). See also PMc *[tau.sub.2]'season, sun' and PMc ? *[tawu.sub.2] 'clan, family'.There arc problems.

PMc? *[tawu.sub.2] 'clan, family': CHK sowu- 'c.(prefix in some c. names)'; PUL hawu- 'c. (pref. in some c.names)'; CRN sou- 'c. (pref. in some c. names)'; WOL sau-'c. (pref. in some c. names)'; PCK *tawu-; PON sow, sowi-, sawi-'matrilineal c.'; MOK jow 'c'; MRS jewiw, jewiy'matrilineal c.'; KSR sau 'f.' (loan from MRS?). See alsoPMc *[tau.sub.2] 'season, sun', PMc *[tawu.sub.-1] 'master,expert'.

PCMc *[tawu.sub.3] 'saved, held on to': CHK soo-(chik)'be s., put away, kept', soo-(nap) 'be wasted, discarded,lost'; PUL hoo-(lap) 'waste, squander'; CRL soo-(lap)'squander, waste'; WOL tau 'be s., preserved, kept'; PCK*tawu; KIR tau-a 'to seize, grasp, hold back, retain, hold (s.t.)',tautau 'engage in holding or retaining'. Cf. PEO *taRu 'putdown, place' (Geraghty 1990) (SAA 'alu 'to put, place';BUG talu 'put, place, appoint'; LAU alu 'to put, bury';KWA alu 'put, keep'). Cf. also PMc *tautau, tau-ki 'tocatch'.

PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u.sub.1] 'time period': CHK(faan)-sowu-n 't. of it, t. of'; PON (a)-nsow 't., a period oft'; MRS jaw 'be formerly, used to be'; KIR tai 'in duet.'. See PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u.sub.2] 'to walt'.

PCMc *ta[w[theta]][u.sub.2] 'to wait': CHK sowu-ni'greet (a visitor on his arrival)'; CRL ssow, sousow 'lie inwait for prey (as a hunter), wait patiently to catch a desired variety offish', sou-li 'to be expecting (s.o.), to wait for (s.o.'sarrival)'; CRN hou-ni 'be expecting (s.o.)'; WOL sau-li-(i)'wait for it, expect it'; PCK *tawu-ni; MOK jowjow 'towait,' jowi 'wait for (s.t.)'; KIR tai-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]a 'wait for (s.o.)'. Cf. Pon awii 'wait for(s.t.)'. See also PMc *[tau.sub.2] 'season, sun', PCMc*ta[w[theta]][u.sub.1] 'time period'.

PMc *ta[w[theta]]u[iu] 'placenta, afterbirth': CRLsee-(la) 'p., a.' (Bender et al. 1984); WOL seeu-(le); MOK jou; PEO*tafui (SAA 'ehui). Cf. KWA afuni-(na) 'p.'; UAN *(tT)a(m)buni'a'.

PMc *tawu, tawu-ni 'laid, to lay (of a fire)': CHK so'be kindled, be lit (of an oven)', soo-ni 'lay, kindle (of afire or oven)'; PUL hoo (sic) 'to light (as a fire or oven)',hoo-ni hoo-ni-(y) 'to build up (as a fire)'; PCK *tau, tau-ni; PONsow 'to be made (of a fire)', saw-n 'to make (a fire), to addwood to (a fire)'; MOK jow 'start a fire,' jaw-n 'start(a fire)'; MRS jaw 'ignite, start (of a fire), run (of anengine)'; PEO *tafu-n (Fu tavu, tavu-na 'broil, roast onembers', tavutavu 'second burning of ground for planting'; BUGtafu-ni 'to kindle, light [a fire]'). Cf. PMc *tawu, tawu-ni,tawu-na 'to plant, bury'.

PMc *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na 'to plant, bury': PONsow(di) 'to bury itself in the mud (of crabs)', sowsow 'grave,cemetery'; MOK j[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]wj[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w'grave, cemetery'; MRS jaw 'slip under ground or sand (offish), place in sand where turtle lays eggs or coconut crab molts'; KIRtautau 'to b.', tau-na 'to b. (s.t.)'; KSRtat[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'b., cover, fill in', tau-n 'b.,cover, or fill in (s.t.)'. Cf. PEO *taRu 'cover' (Geraghty1990) and PEO *taRu 'put down, place' (Geraghty 1990) (FIJ tau'put down [of burden], lay one thing on another'; SAA 'alu'to put, place'; BUG talu 'to put, place, appoint'; KWAalu, alu-a 'to put, keep'; PKB tau 'to put, put down, deposit[of money], lay [of an egg]); UAN *taRuq 'put down or away'. Cf.also KSR toto 'b.', to-n 'b. (s.t.)'; and cf. PCMc*ta[w[theta]][u.sub.1] 'time period', PCMc? *Too 'atrest', PMc *tano 'ground, low'.

PCMc ? *tawu or *co[w[theta]]a- 'a fish': CRL soow'a lagoon f. (perhaps a goatfish)'; WOL soowe, sowa- 'kind off.'; MRS jew 'goatfish'; KIR (te)-tau 'a f.'. TheWOL and KIR forms are incompatible and probably do not both belong in thisset. See also PMc *tauta 'porcupine fish'.

PMc *tawui 'triton or trumpet shell': CHK sewi, sewii-;MRT sawi; PUL hawi, hawii-; CRL sawi, sawii-; CRN hawi; STW sawi; WOL tawii;PUA tawi (sic); PCK *tawii; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]wi; MOK jowi, PPC*tawii; KIR tau (? tauu) 'triton conch, trumpet shell' (Bender etal. 1984); PEO *taf uRi (Geraghty 1990); POc *tapuRiq, dapuRiq (ROSS 1988)(Fu davui; SAA 'ahuri' BUG tavuli; ARO ahurt); PMP *tambuRiq.

PCMc *taxe, taxe-ki- 'removed, excised': CHK sa 'beremoved, emptied (of earth oven), come loose (of outrigger float)', ssa,sassa 'run', saa-si 'remove (clothes), take away (from aplace), swing out (of arms or fish pole), remove or peel off (of skin), chaseaway into exile', (a)-saa-(y) 'chase away, cause to run'; PULhaa-ki-(y) 'to remove (clothes or outrigger), dislodge', haa-(lo)'leave, not stay'; CRL ssa 'swing the anns quickly whenwalking or running, run off, run away', saa-ghi 'to lift, move, orremove (an object or magic spell)'; WOL saasa 'peel off',saa-gi-(i) 'peel it off; PCK *tae, tae-ki-; PON sar 'to peel (ofskin after sunburn)', sansar 'be sliced, peeled', sansara-da'be uprooted', s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'to slice, peel with an instrument', sar[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k'to uproot, peel, pry'; MOK jar 'to come out', jar-(la)'be pulled out, come off', jare-k 'pull (st.) out'; KIRtae 'stripped, extracted, drawn out, defeated', tae-ka 'toroot up, to tear up by the root, to twitch on a fishline in order to catchthe hook in the mou th', tae(*[b.sup.w] oto) 'be uprooted'.

PMC *te- 'one (prefixed to classifiers)': CHK e-, i-;MRT e- and se-eik) 'ten animals'; PUL ye-; CRL. e- and sa-(naras)'one thousand'; CRN a-; STW e- and sa-([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aras)'one thousand'; WOL se-; PUA de-; PCK *te-; PON e-; MRS ji-(wen);KIR te-, te-(uana); KSR se.

PMc *telu, telu-ua 'three, three (general)': CHK een,wunu- 'three' and ini-ik, ini-ika-(<*wunu-yik)'thirty'; MRT eel, elu- and eli-k; PUL yeel, yelu-, yelu-(uw) andyeli-ik; CRN ili-; STW yeel, yelu-; WOL yeeli, seli- and seli-ike; ULI yeel,sulu-; PUA deni- and deni-iki; PCK *telu and *telu-yike; PON (e)-sil, sili-;MOK (e)-jil, jili-, jil-, jilu-(w), MRS jili-, jili-w; KIR keni-, tenu-(ua),teni-(ua); KSR tol, tol-(u); PEO *tolu (Geraghty 1983); POC *tolu (Ross 1988)(FU tolu; PPN *tolu; ROT folu; SAA 'olu; BUG tolu; ARO oru; KWA olu; PKB*tolu); UAN *telu. See PMC *ua 'general classifier in counting (suffixedto numerals)'.

PMC ? *tewe, tewe-mea 'goatfish': CHK woo-may 'sp.of g.'; CRL o-mey 'sp. of reef fish'; WOL woo-meye; PCK*[tw]oo-m[ac]y[ac]; MOK joo-me 'kind of g.'; MRS jew-mey 'a g.(Mulloidichthys auriflama)'; KIR (te)-tewe; PEO *tewe (Fu toa 'twokinds of fish'). Cf. PON yomo 'g. (Parupeneus indicus)'.

PMC *[tia.sub.1], 'stomach, belly, abdomen': PUA diia,dia-; ULI sie- 's.', sii 's. ache'; MRS (law)jey, jey,(law)-jiye-, jiye-; POC *tia (SAA 'ie and ULA 'ia; PKB *tia); UAN*(tT)iyan 'belly'. Cf. PPC *taka, taka-ni 'stomach, havestomach for'.

PMC? *[tia.sub.2], 'a fish': KIR (te)-tia 'af.'; PEO *tia (Fu tiatian 'a freshwater f.'). Cf. PMC *tia'stomach, belly, abdomen'.

PCMC *tiaa 'boundary': CHK iya, iyaa-(n) 'b., b.of'; CRL yaali-, yaali-(l) 'b., b. of'; WOL siyaa 'b.,division'; PUA dia (sic); PCK *tia[ae]; KIR (te)-tiaa. Cf. CHK kiya,kiyaa-(n) 'b., b. of'; PUL (ya)-kiyann, -kiyanne-(n) 'border,b., b. of' (loan from CHK?); MRS ketaha- 'b.'. Cf. also PPN*tia 'stake, post', *tia-ki 'to guard'; UAN *tiyari'stake, post'.

PWMc *[tiap.sup.w]o 'growing tip of a tree': CHK[wuwap.sup.w], #wuwap* p* e-(n) 'g. t. of the palm tree or bananaplant'; CRL. [uwob.sup.w] o-(l) 'growing top sprout of leaves (asof banana)'; CRN uwa[b.sup.w] o-(n); WOL siyabo-(li) 'top (oftrees, poles, masts), peak, crest'; PCK *ti[wy][ap.sup.w]o; MRS[jiyab.sup.w] 'heart of palm'. Cf. CHK [kuwap.sup.w],[#kuwap.sup.w] [p.sup.w] e-(n) 'g. t. of a tree'.

PCMc ? *tici 'bamboo': CHK iich, ichi-(n) 'b., b.of'; WOL siishi, sishi- 'a subfamily of b.'; PCK *tici; KIR(te)-tiri 'pandanus shoot for planting'.

PMC *tiku or *tuki 'tropic bird': CHK wuuk'white-tailed t. b.', wuku-(par) 'bird with a green body andred tail'; MRT uuk 'a bird'; PUL wuuk 't. b.',wuku-(chcha) 'red-tailed t. b.', wuku-(pak) 'a shortwhite-tailed t. b.'; STW suuk 't. b.'; WOL suugu. sugu-'white-tailed t. b. with long tail'; PCk *tuku; PON siik 'awhite sea bird'; Mok jik 'bird sp.'; KSR sik, sik 'a kindof bird'. Note that [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] is the expected reflex of inthe PON and MOK forms. The wuku- in CHK wuki-par) and PUL wuku-(hcha),wuku-(pak) appear to be the root for 'tail' (see PMc *iku'tail') rather than this one.

PMC *tina 'mother': CHK iin, ina-(n) 'm., hisin.'; MRT iin. ina-; PUL yiin, yina-(y) 'm., my in.'; CRL.iil, ila(l); CRN iin, ina-(n); STW iin, ina-; WOL. sila-(le) 'hisin.'; PUA diina, dina-; PCK *tina; PON iin, in[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'mother, his in.'; MOK ina-(a) 'his in.'; PNG ine'his in.'; MRS jine-; KIR tina-(na) 'his m.'; PEO *tina(Geraghty 1983) (FIJ tina; FIJ *tina; BUG tina[gna]; ARO ina-[na]; PNK*tina); PAN *tina (Ross 1988). Cf. KSR nine, nnae 'one'smother'.

PCMC *tinitini, tini-mi 'to roast, broil': PON iniin'to cook, r., b., toast', ini-m 'cook, etc. (s.t.)'; MOKiniin 'to cook', ini-m 'cook (s.t.)'; PNG iniin 'tocook'; MRS (yik)-yin 'cook fish on stones', jin-(bahat)'smoke out, smudge', jin-(kadwel) 'b. on hot stones'; KIRtintin 'to r., b.', tini-ma 'to b. (coconut), to fry(s.t.)'. Cf. POC *tunu 'to roast' (Fu tunu, tunu-ma, tunu-ca'to warm food up again'; PPN *tunu 'cook on open fire';ROT fun, funu- 'to cook [esp. by boiling]'; SAA uunu 'to bumon a fire, r. on embers'; BUG tunu 'mark, blot, or cicatrice causedby burning'; KWA unu-a 'cook vegetables by steaming in aleaf-plugged bamboo'; LAK tululu 'to bum [of a burn]',[e]-tululu 'hot taro'); UAN *tunu 'to r.'. Cf. also LAKsililu, sululu 'to singe'.

PMc *t[iu]p.sup.w]u 'be born, bear young': CHK[wuup.sup.w]", [wup.sup.w]u-(n) 'child, offspring (of man only), c.of', [wup.sup.w], [wuup.sup.w] 'be fertile, have increase, bearyoung', [wup.sup.w]u-(tiw) 'be b.'; MRT [up.sup.w]u-(tiw)'be b.'; PUL [wup.sup.w]u-(tiw) 'be b.'; CRL[ub.sup.w]u-(tiw) 'be b.'; STW' [up.sup.w]u-(to),[sup.sup.w]u-(to) 'be b.'; WOL subu 'be b.'; ULI subu-'be b.'; PCK *[tup.sup.w]u; PON [ip.sup.w][iip.sup.w] 'be apaternal descendant', [ip.sup.w]i-(di) 'be b.'; MOK[ip.sup.w]-(di) 'be b.'; MRS [jib.sup.w]i- 'grandmother,grandchild'; KIR [tib.sup.w]u-(na) 'his grandparent, hisgrandchild'; PEO *tubu 'grow' (Geraghty (1983); POc *tubuq'grow' (Ross 1988) (FIJ tubu 'to grow'; PPN *tupu'grow; spring up'; ROT fupu 'grow, increase'; SAA'upu, upu'upu 'to swell'; BUG tubu 'to swell',tubu-[gna] 'his mother's brother'; LAU ubuubu 'be thick,deep'; ARo ubu 'to swell'; KWA ubu 'swell,swelling'; PKB *tubu 'to grow'); UAN *(tT)umpuq. Note that PON[dip.sup.w], [dip.sup.w]i-(n) 'exogamous m atrilineal clan' ispresumably a loan.

PMC *tiro, tiro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to peer, have alook': CHK (e)-yira 'p. out at, look out for'; MRT iro-ne toobserve (s.t.)'; PUL yiro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'to look foror at (s.t.)'; PCK *iro, iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON iroyr'to look or p. in the distance, to see one's own reflection',iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to p. at'; MOK iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to p. at(s.t.)'; MRS jejer 'to look for',(kap)-jer, (kap)-[jer.sup.w] 'mirror'; KSR you 'to visit,peep', iro-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], irior-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'glance, peep' peck at'; PEO *tiro (Fu tiro, tim-va 'lookat s.t. reflected in water or a glass'; PPN *tiro 'look at';SAA 'iro, 'iro'iro 'to look at, look for, see'; BUGtiro 'to look, mirror'; ARO iro 'to look', iro-hi'to look into'; KWA ilo 'look at'); UAN *ti(n)Daw. KIRtiro-a 'to inspect, scrutinize (s.t.)' is a loan from a Polynesiansource, e.g., SAM lilotilo 'look, glance'. Note the unexpectedabsence of an initial consonant (t or s) in the KSR form, which may be a loanfrom PON. Cf. LAK tiloho 'to peer around or after without beingseen'.

PWMc *tisi, tisi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to point orface': CHK iti- 'p., be toward, f.,' iti-(no) 'p.away', itiit 'direction in which s.t. faces or to which itpoints', iti-ni 'p. or f. towards (s.t.)'; MRTiti-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'to p. at (s.t.)'; PUL yiti- 'lie(as a stick), f. (as a house)', yiti-(wenewen) 'f. directly east orwest', yitiit 'to p. yitiiti-(wow) 'protrude', yiti-ni-iy'top, out'; CRL itiit 'p., pointing project on';STW' it, iti- 'to p.', iti-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p.(s.t.) out'; WOL siti 'to be straight, stick out'; PCK *tidi,tidi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON idi- 'p.', idi-i 'to', idiidi-(da) 'to be pointed out, identified'; PNG id'p.'; MRS jit, jite-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'head in a certaindirection'. Cf. KIR tiri 'simply, merely, only, just', tiro-a'inspect or examine (s.t.) carefully'; KSR srisrsrisr 'to p.,hint', srisr-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'p. at, hint at (s.t.)'.Cf. PEO *tuz[iu] 'p.' (Geraghty 1983) (PPN *tusi; SAA 'usu;BUG tuhu; ARO usu; LAK turi, tuturi).

PMc *tiSaki 'to ask': PON (pe)-yd[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'to a. question', id[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to ask(s.o.)', (ke)-yd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to a. (s.o.,honorific)'; MOK idok; PNG id[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k; MRS jitek,ka-jjitek; KIR itiraki 'to question, make inquiry', (te)-titiraki'a question, an inquiry'; KSR siy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'toa, request, interrogate (so.)'. Cf. SAM 'aisi 'to a',from which could be derived a passive *'aisa'i. Cf. also PCK*[k[theta]a[t[theta]ieki 'to ask', PCK *katia, katitia 'toask, a question'.

PMc ? *to[ae] 'inheritance': PUA due-ni 'suceed it,inherit it'; PON sooso; MOK joojo 'i., souvenir, keepsake,memory'; MRS jew-(let); ? KIR toa 'all provided with, fullysupplied'; PEO *toRe 'remainder'. Inclusion of WOL too-(shigi)'careful treatment, careful consideration' in this series (Benderet al. 1984, Geraghty 1990) is not justifiable. There are problems here.

PMc *[toka.sub.1] 'to chop': MRS jek, jekjek 'tocut, hew, chop, prune, salute with the hands'; Km oka-a (showing loss of*t before *k) 'to cut off (pandanus fruit) with a blade fastened to astick'; PEO (BUG toka 'to fell [a tree], chop [s.t.] down').

PMc *[toka.sub.2] 'rafter': MRS jek-(pad) 'rafters(of a house)'; Km (te)-oka 'r. (of a house)' (showing loss of*t before k); PEO *[dt]oka (FLI doka 'ridgepole of house'). Cf. CHKwoo 'vertical rafter'

PMc *toki 'bite, peck': PON sok 'to bite (used withreference to rats'); Km (te)-oki 'chisel' (showing loss of *tbefore k); POc *toki (FLI toki 'to peck [of birds]'; TON toki'adze'; SAA 'o'i 'to break (s.t.) in pieces';ARO oi 'strike with an axe'; KWA o'i 'chop up wood';LAK toitoi 'a saw-tooth design'). Note that KIR doublet (te)-toki'chisel' would appear to be a loan from SAM to''adzc', since it does not show the loss of t before k.

PMC ? *toko 'omen': CHK oo, woo 'omen',oo-su-ni 'interpret or read (an omen) (presumably oo-su- is a backformation from an intransitive *oo-s derived from a transitive *oo-si-'to portend'); UAN *teges.

PMc *tokolau 'northerly, from the north': CHK weene'name of the island in northeast position in Chuuk lagoon'; PULweele 'name of same island'; MRS [jek.sup.w] lay, [jek.sup.w] elay'wind from the n.'; PEO *tokalau (PPN *tokelau 'n., northerlywind'; FIJ tokalau 'northeast wind'); UAN *tokalaud. Cf. SAAooru 'wind, to blow (a loan)'; LAU oru 'wind, to blow';BUG sokara lau 'a south wind'. See also PMC *lau 'pool, haveliquid'.

PMC *toko, toko-na 'cane, walking stick': PUL yoo,yooyo; STW yoo-; WOL soogo, sogo-; PUA dooko, doko-; PCK *toko; PON soko-n;MRS [jek.sup.w] e-n; KIR ooko, (te)-oko (showing loss of *t before k); PEO*[dt]oko, [dt]okon-a (FIJ toko 'prop, stay, supporting pole', doko'punting pole'; PPN *toko); UAN *teken. Note: CHK, MRT, and PULwook, woku-n 'cane, c. of', may be related but are not inheritedforms. Cf. YAP soog 'walking stick'.


PMC *towu 'sugarcane': CHK woow, #wowu-; MRT woow; PULwoow; CRL woow wowu-; STW woow; WOL woou, wou-; PUA -dou 'cut pieces ofbreadfruit (counting classifier)'; PCK *towu; PON seew, sew-; KIR(te)-tou 'fruit of the pandanus (chewed like sugarcane); KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] POC: *topu (SAA 'ohu; BUG ehu [a loan]; AROohu; KWA ofu; LAK tovu); PAN *CebuS (Blust 1984-85). Cf. FIJ dovu; TON too(presumably a loan). Cf. MRS taw, probably a loan.

PCMC *tou 'to dodge, parry (in fighting)': CHK(fi)-yuuw, (fi)-wuuw 'to fight', (e-fi)-yuuwu 'make himf.'; PUL (fii)-yoow (sic) 'to f.'; CRL (fi)-yoow 'tof.s.o.'; KIR toutou 'to dodge to one side (as the head)',toutou-a 'to ward off'. See also KIR (i)-tau 'to box, to f.with the fists'.

PCMC ? *t[ou]wai 'future negative, will not': WOL-tewai; PUA towai 'w. n., do not (in negative commands)'; KIR tuai'no longer'. Cf. PCK *-taa[i[theta]] 'no longer' (aspectmarker).

PMC *tuki 'tropic bird': see PMc *tiku.

PMC *tuki, tukituki 'to pound': CHK wusuus 'p. ormash with pestle', wusi 'p. it'; MRT use 'to p. or mash(s.t.)'; PUL wuk (sic) 'to pound', wukuuk 'to p. (astaro)', wuki-i-(y) 'to p. it (as poi)'; CRL ughuugh 'dopounding', ughu-w 'p. food into paste'; STW suku, yuku-(w)'p. it'; WOL sugu-u 'p. it, beat it, hit it, hammer it';PCK * tuki, tukituki; PON suk 'to p. (s.t.)'; MOK juk 'to p.,hit', juki 'to p. (s.t.)'; MRS [jik.sup.w] [jik.sup.w]'p. breadfruit or taro', [jik.sup.w] [jik.sup.w]iy 'p. or'; KIR ikiiku 'to engage in mashing breadfruit', (te)-ikiiku'stone pestle', ika 'p. or mash (food)', iku-a 'mashit'; KSR tuk, tuktuk 'to p.', tok 'pounder'; POc*tuki, tukituki (FIJ tuki 'strike at, knock at, hammer, pinch', PPN*tuki 'strike'; ARO u'i-[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a'i]'to beat upon [of rain]'; LAK tutu-a 'to strike with thefinger, tap [as a tattooing needle]'); UAN *Tuk, TukTuk. Cf. WOL susu(sic) 'p., beat, hit, hammer'; YAP tuguw 'pestle, betel nutpounder'. Note that [theta] is the expected reflex in the PON and MOKforms.

PMC *[tT]ulu- 'young shoot, sprout': MRS [jil.sup.w]'core of coconut tree at upper end, growth from old root or branch, y.s., bud forth, sprout'; KSR sulu-(n) 'y. s. of, sprout of'.Cf. KSR solo 'y. s., to sprout', sololo 'be full of shoots,covered with sprouts'. Cf. also PEO *juli 'taro sucker'(Geraghty 1983) (FIJ suli- 'banana or taro sucker'; PPN *suli'young shoot'); UAN *sulih 'sprout, shoot'. Cf. PMc *ili'sprout, shoot (of plants)'.

PMC ? *tuna 'freshwater eel': KSR ton; PEO *tuna (PPN*tuna 'freshwater c.'); UAN *[tT]u[nn]a 'e.'; PAN *tuNa'c.' (Wolff 1993). MRS [ten.sup.w] 'freshwater eel' is anevident loan from KSR--these eels are not found in the Marshalls but areknown from the Eastern Carolines.

PMC? *[tT]upa 'fish poison': WOL suupe supa-(li)'f. p.', f. p. of'; POc *tupa (FU duva 'Derristrifoliata'); PAN *tuba 'Derris spp.' (Blust 1984-85). Seealso PMc *upa 'derris vine', PMc? *iwu 'tree (Barringtoniaasiatica).

PMC *'tura 'house post': CHK wuur, wure-(n)'supporting p. of a h., p. of'; MRT uur 'p.'; PUL wura-n'p. of'; CRL uur 'main p.', ura-(li) 'use or set upon posts'; STW uur 'h. p.', ura-ni 'set (s.t.) up onposts'; WOL suure, sura-(li) 'h. p., h. p. of', sura-a'put a post under it'; PUA duulu, dulu-(sic) 'h. p.'; SNSduule 'h. p.'; PCK *tura; PON uur 'p.'; MRS jewer,jiwre-(n) 'pillar, column, p., pole, p. of'; POc *tura (SAA'ure and ULA 'ura 'to stand up'; ARO ura 'tostand'; KWA ula 'to stand'; LAK tura 'vertical wallpole', tura-[kakavo] 'house posts'). Cf. FIJ duru'p.'; UAN *turus. MRS length needs explanation.

PMC? *turai 'barracuda': PON suur[epsilon]; MOK juure'a kind of b.'; MRS [jir.sup.w]ey; KSR tola. Cf. PCMc *tarawa'barracuda'.

PMc * turi 'to string': CHK wuri, #(e)-wuru's.(s.t.) together'; PON iir's. of st. (as of flowers or fish)';MOK ir's. for stringing things, to work at stringing'; PPC *turi;PEO *tuRi 'to thread, string (fish)' (Geraghty 1990).

PMc *turu 'to drip': CHK surusur 'bedripping', ssur 'large drop (of liquid)'; PUL huri-(tiw)'d. down'; CRL ssur 'dribble', ssuru-(tiw) 'd. down,run down'; PCk *Turu Km tuu 'to trickle'; KSR tul 'd.,drop'; PEO 'to d.' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu turn 'd., drop [ofliquids]'; PPN *tulu; SAA 'uru'uru 'to spill, dribbleout'; BUG turu-(bel); PAN *tuDuq (Ross 1988). Cf. WOL sseru 'tip ofa canoc paddle (i.e., d. point?)'; PON ker 'to trickle'.

PMc *tu[sS]u 'finger, toe': CHK e-wut, e-wutu-(n)'f., his f.', e-wutu-(ros) 'be short fingered',(ni)-ke-wutu-(ros) 'person with short fingers', -wut 'f.(c.c.)'; MRT ya-Wutu-(n) 'his f.'; PUL ya-wutu-(n) 'hisf., -ya-wut 'f (c.c.)'; CRL a-ya-wut, a-yuttu-(l) STW ya-wut'f.'; WOL ga-ttu 'f' -ga-ttu. -ge-ttu 'f.(c.c.)'; ULI ga-ddu(l) 'f. of'; PuA ka-ttu 'f.',-ka-ttu 'f. (c.c.)'; PCk *ka-tudu tudu; PEO *tuz[iu]'point' (Gerahgty 1983) (TON tuhu 'f., to point',tuhu'i 'to point to'; Fu dusi 'to point with thef.', i-dusi 'index f.'; SAA 'usu 'to point';BUG tuhu 'to point'); UAN *[tu[n[theta]/Zuq 'to point'.Cf. Mas (ha)-ddiy 'f., toe'; KSR srisrsrisr 'to point out,hint', srisr-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to point at, hint at'.Cf. also PWMc *tanisi 'finger or toe'.

PMc *[tuu.sub.1], 'to stand': CHK wu 's. erect, beupright', wuu(ta) 's. up', (kke)-wu 'make upright, makes. erect', (e)-wuu-w 'make it s., build it'; PUL wuu-(ta)'s. up, rise', (kka)-wu erect (as a house)'; CRL uu-(ta)'s. up', (a)-yuu-w 'build (s.t.)'; WOL suu 's., takean upright position'; PUA duu 's' PCK *tuu; PON uu'stand'; MOK u 's.', uu-(da) 's. up'; MRS jiw(tak) 's up'; KSR tu 's up'; PEO *tuqu (Fu tuu; PPN*tuqu; BUG tuu; KWA uu LAK tuhu-(mapa) nod one's head up'); UAN*(tT)uquD. Cf. KIR tei 's.', tei-(rake) 's. up'. See alsoPMc *tuu 'stopped, halted'.

PMc *[tuu.sub.2] 'stopped, halted': CHK wu 'be s.,h. (of s.t. in motion)', (e)-wuu-w) 'makes stop, make halt',(kke)-wu 'stop, pause', (kke)-wuu-(no) 'stop altogether,cease, halt', wuwi-(iti) 'stop until'; PUL (ka)-wuu-(lo)'to stop', (ya)-wuu-we-(lo) 'to stop (s.t.)'; CRL uu-(lo)'stop', (a)-yuu-(lo) 'stop s.t., make it come to a stop';PuA duu 'stop'; PCK *tdii; PON uu-(di) 'to stop (of movingobjects)'; KSR tu 'stop'; PEO *tuqu (FLU tuu 'be in aplace'; TON tu'u 'to hold up, stop'); UAN *(tT)uquD. Seealso PMc *tuu, 'to stand'.

PCMc *Te-i., -Te-a 'remove rough edges': CHK(e)-si-i-(y) 'remove or strip off (barbed edges of pandanus leaf)';KIR te-a tete-a 'to smooth (s.t.) off, remove roughness from (s.t.),trim'.

PMC *Teka or *Tika 'penis': CHK see; PUL bee; PON siik'p. (of an infant)'; KSR seek. s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ka-(n)'stick, tree, s. of, pole of, bar of', s[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ka-(l) 'his p.'.

PCMc *[Tep.sup.w]u 'to drip': CHK #[suup.sup.w],sup[sup.w]u-n 'dripping, d. of', [ssup.sup.w] 'd., d. down (asrain)', [ssup.sp.w]i-iti 'sprinkle or d. Onto (s.o.)'; CRL[ssub.sup.w] 'drop (of liquid)', d. down'; WOL ssobu ssebu'to drop, d., trickle, pour, drizzle'; PuA [doop.sup.w][dop.sup.w]-u 'drop (of water)', [dop.sup.w]u 'to d.';PCK *[Toop.sup.w]u, [Top.sup.w]u-, [Top.sup.w]u or *[Teep.sup.w]u,[Tep.sup.w]u-, [Tep.sp.w]u; PON [sop.sup.w] 'be saturated with pomade orhair lotion'; KIR [teb.sup.w] u-(nau) 'to spatter (as heavyraindrops)'. Cf. Fu tobu 'pool of water, bathing hole'.

PWMc *Ter[ae] 'encounter by chanee': CHK ser 'bemet accidentally', sere-ni 'meet (s.o.) accidentally, chanceupon'; PIL heri-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-(y) 'encounter, chanceupon, meet'; WOL sere 'to hit, approach, go aground'; PCK*Tere, Tere-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; PON s[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]r'run aground'; MRS jerah-(tah) 'misfortune, bad luck'.Cf. MRs yar 'to beach canoe or vessel'.

PCMc *Ti-'we (inclusive, as subj. marker)': CHK si-; MRTsi-; PUL hi-; CRL Si-; CRN Id-; Srw si-; WOL si-, ULI si-; PuA di-; PCK*'fl..,. PON se 'we (excl.)'; MRS je-(n) 'we (incl.) areto'; KIR ti-.

PMc *Tika 'penis': see PMc *Teka


PMc *Tiri 'spurt, squirt': CHK siir siri-, sir'urine, urinate'; PUL. hiri-(n), hir 'urine of, urinate';CRL. siir sir 'urine, urinate'; STW siir sir; PCK *Tiri; MRS? jjir-'slippery, lubrication'; KIR tii 'spurt, spout'; UAN*ciri Cf. Fu tiri 'drip, drop (of liquids)'; ARO iri, iri-si'to pour'; KWA siri 'drip through, leak through'. Notethat KIR mim 'urinate' is either a loan from a PN source or aninherited reflex of POC *mimi (PPN *mimi; FIJ mii mimi); *UAN miRmiR.

PCMC *Toa or *Towa 'edge, side': CHK soo-(no) 'fars.', soosoo-(ne[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i]) 'be near, be on the s.toward'; PUL hoo-(lo), hoohoo-(lo) 'be or move a short distanceaway'; WOL soowe, sowa-(li) 'e., outside, backside, yonder, e.of'; PCK *Towa; KIR toatoa 'having four sides'.

PMC *Toka 'settle, alight': CHK so, soo-(tiw)'precipitate out (as starch derived from washing grated arrowroot ormanioc), a., come to rest, land (of flying things)'; MRT soo (sic)'to land (of flying things)'; PUL hoo (sic) 'to land (as aplane)', hoo-ni-(y) 'to lower it to the bottom (as a fishtrap)'; CRL soo-(tiw) and CRN hoo-(tiw) 'a., land (of flyingthings)', sooso 'to place a fish trap in the water'; STW so,soo-(tiw) 'to land, alight'; WOL sogo 'to remain on the bottom(as dregs)'; PCK *Toka; PON sok 'to land (of s.t. that flies), totouch bottom with one's feet in water'; MOK jok 'toswoop',jok-(di) 'to land (of bird or airplane)';MRS[jek.sup.w] 'to s. (of liquids), a, to land'; POc *toka (FIJtoka 'be placed, situated, take a boat'; PPN *toka 'set,settle, coagulate'; SAM to'a 'be still, s, down [of a liquid],run aground'; SAA 'o'a 'to settle [of birds]'; ARO'o'a 'to s. [of birds], stay, dwell'; LAK toa 'tostamp down, [el-toa 'place where a jumper lands'). KIR toka'be placed upon, take passag e, get on' is clearly a loan from aPolynesian source.

PMC *Toko 'collect, pile up': PUL hoyo-ni-(fenanni-y)'to c. it'; PON (ko)-sok 'to p. up',(ko)-sok[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'top. (things) up'; MRS? jewkay'p. of coconuts'; PEO *coko, cogo (FIJ soqo, soqo-na; soqo-ni'assemble'; BUG hogo-ni 'to store up'; KWA to'o[fana] 'gather, assemble'). See also PPC *uxo 'assembled,gathered'.

PWMC *To[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o 'to try': CHK(ee)-sso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'reach for s.t. that is not withinreach, reach out and fall short of one's goal, t. and fail',(ee)-sso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-e-(y) 'reach for and fall shortof'; PON so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to t., attempt, taste(s.t.)', so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oso[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]'temptation'; MOK jo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]jo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'to t., taste', jo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 't. or taste(s.t.)'; PNG so[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to t.'; MRS(yidah)-[je[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w] [je[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].sup.w]'to t., examine, inspect'. Cf. FIJ saga 'to t. hard to do orget s.t.'.

PCMC ? *Too 'at rest': CHK se 'be quieted (of fear,emotion, pain, wind), calmed, at r., set (of sun), (a)-seese 'r.,vacation, be resting (from work); PUL hee (sic) 'be rested,quieted', (ya)-heehe 'to r.', (ma)-hee-(lo) 'to quietdown (as wind, sea, or anger), be cured (as sickness)'; CRL see-(lo)'be resting, calm, relaxed', (a)-seese 'to r., take iteasy', (a)-see-(w) '(reflexive) to r. oneself, take it easy,relax'; CRN (a)-heehe 'be resting, calm, relaxed', (a)-hee-(y)'tor. oneself'; WOL. (ga)-seesee 'to r., relax'; PUA dee'to r.'; PCK *Tee; MRS jew 'calm spell (of weather)'; KIRtea 'lazy'.

PMC *Too 'soak, saturate': CHK sooso 's., immerse,lay a fishtrap', sea-ni 's. it, immerse it'; PUL hoo (sic)'lower (as a fishtrap)', boo-ni, hoo-naa-(lo) 'lower (as afishtrap), s. (as clothes)'; CRL sooso 'a fish trap, to lower afishtrap in the water', sea-li 'to trap (a fish or smallanimal)'; CRN hoo-ni to trap (a fish or small animal)'; STW soo-ni's. it, immerse it in water'; PCK *Too, TooToo, Too-ni; PON so'be saturated', sea-n 'tos. (s.t.)'; MRS jewjew's,'; KSR tw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]tw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],twetwe 'to wash, dip', twe-n 'wash, s.'; POc *coo (FIJtoo 'filled, satarated with liquid, saturated', [vaka]-too-ra'cause to be saturated or filled'). Cf. UAN *cemcem'moisten' (SAA toto, toto-hi 'to s. into, be absorbed in(liquid)'; ULA toto-(qini) 's. into, s. up'); PMP *celeb'sink, submerge' (Blust 1989:131) and PMP *ceNeb'immerse' (Blust 1986:29). Cf. also PMC *tawu, tawu-ni, tawu-na'to plant, bury'.

PMC *TooToo 'holder, fastener': CHK sooso, soosoo-'holder, fastener'; PUL hooho 'lashings'; CRL sooso'line that secures the outrigger float to the outrigger boom'; WOLsoosoo, sea- (ti-i) 'stringer-float lashing on canoe, tie or bindit'; PCK *TooToo; MRS jewjew 'ties between spar andoutrigger'; KIR (te)-tcaoo 'the perpendicular sticks on anoutrigger (connecting float to boom)'.

PWMC *Toro-mi 'suck up (s.t.)': PUL hom-mi-(y)'suck it in (as coffee), 'draw it in (as cigarette smoke)';CRL soro-mi and CRN horo-mi 'to sip (liquid) through a straw, to siphon(liquid)'; WOL sossom 'to suck, drink, sip', soro-mi-(i)'drink it, sip it, suck it'; PUA dolo-mi 'suck it, drink itwith a straw'; PCK *Toro-mi-; MRS [jer.sup.w] e-m 'drink up, suckup, absorb'; KIR too-ma 'to taste of, to sip (s.t.)'. Cf. KSRt[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'to suck',t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], t[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li 'to suck (s.t.)'; SAA omi'to suck (s.t.)', omi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'sucking','ono, 'ono-mi 'to swallow', tono, tono-hi 'todrink'; BUG sono, sono-vi 'swallow'; ARO ono-mi'swallow', gono, gono-hi 'drink'; KwA ado-mi-(a),ono-mi-(a) 'swallow'. Cf. PCMC *woro- 'swallow'.

PCMC *Towa 'edge, side': see PCMC *Toa.

PWMC *Towu 'leave, depart': CHK su, suu-(no) 'setoff (on a journey), 1., d.', (o)-suu-(w) 'see off (on ajourney)'; PUL hoow (sic) 'to cast off or sail'; CRL suu-(16)'I., d., go' WOL sou 'd., I., set out, start out',(ga)-sou-(we) 'say goodbye to, see (him) off'; PCk * Towu; PON sou'to move, change residence'; MRS jiwe-(ney) 'see off on avoyage'. Cf. PCk * Tuu 'to run away'.

PCMc *Tuu-ki 'be open': CHK ssuu-k 'be o., opened,to open', suu-ki 'o. it', (o)-ssuu-ku 'cause it to beo.'; MRT suu-ke 'to o. (a door)'; PUL huuhu 'be o.',huu-ki-(y) 'o. it'; CRL suusu 'to be opening', suu-gh'to be o.', suu-ghi 'o. (s.t.)'; CRN huuhu, huu-g,huu-gi; STW suu-ki 'o. it'; WOL suu-gi-(I) 'o. it'; PUAdu-ki (sic) 'o. (s.t.)'; PCk * Tuu, Tuu-ki-; KIR uu-ki'opened', uu-ka 'o. (s.t.)' (showing loss of *t before*k).

PWMc? *Tuuru 'wade': PON suur 'to sink in mud, tow. in mud'; MRS jiwir, jjiwir 'step on, set foot on, tread on,kick'. Cf. PEO "tuRu (Geraghty 1990) (ARO uru; KWA ulu; LAK tulu).

PMC? *ua, 'icndon, vein'; CHK wuwu- ? 't',wuwo-(or) 'shin, front of leg between knee and ankle'; KIR (te)-ia'v'.; PEO *uRat 'v. (Geraghty 1990) (Fu ua 'v.,muscle'; SAA uleule and ULKA ulaula 'sinew, t., v.';*Ua-[p.sup.w]ut[iu] 'high tide': PON uu 't'.' Mok u't'; MRS yi-([h.sup.w]ij) 'h. t'.; KIR (te)-ia 'astate of t.', ia-[b.sup.w]uti 'be h.t.'; PEO *Rua 'h.t'. (Geraghty 1983, 1990) (Fu ua 't., wave' sAA lue and ULAlua 'the rising t.'; KWA lua 'h. t'.)

PMc *[ua.sub.3] 'neck': CHK wuu, wuwa-(n); PUL wuuw,wuwa-(n); CRL uuw, uwa-(l); STW yuuw; WOL uuwe, uwa-(le); PUA uya-(na); PCk*ua; PEO *Ruqa (PPN *uqa; SAA lue; ULA lua; BUG lua-l gnaj; Kwa lua-[na]);UAN *Rugan. Cf. MRS (ken)wa(ha)-. Cf. Poc *kuqa (Ross 1988).

PMc *-ua 'general classifier in counting (suffixed tonumerals)': See, for example, PMc *rua 'two', PMc *ru[ao]-ua'two (general class of objects)'; PMc *telu, telu-ua 'three,three (general)'; PMc *lima, lima-ua, lim-manu, lima-nawulu 'five,five (general), five (animate), fifty'; PMc *walu, walu-ua 'eight,eight (general)', PCMc *Siwa-ua 'nine (general class ofthings)'.

PCMc *uae, ka-uae 'to whistle (of humans)'; CHK o-wuwa'to w.', o-wuwaa-(ri) 'w. to (s.o.)'; MRT a-uwe; PULyo-owa, yakko-owa (sic); CRL a-uwa, o-wuwaa-(li); CRN a-uwa; WOL ga-uwaa,ga-uwaa-(li-I); PCk *ka-uae; PON ku-way; MRS wwey, yew wey, wewwey; KIR(te)-ka-uae 'the root of a tooth'. Cf. MOK woj, wojwoj 'tow.'; KSR os, osos. Osi 'w., w. at or to'; SAA wadi'w.'; KWA kwadi 'w'. Cf. Also Fu kalu, kalu-va 'tow.'.

PMc *ucuucu, ucu-ki 'shake': CHK wuchuuch 's. out,be shaken (as a cloth)', wuchu-ki 's. it out', wuchuk,wuchukuchuk 'be shaken out'; MRT ushuush 'shakint',ushu-ke 's. it'; PUL wuRu-ki-(y) 's. it (as a coconut orchild)'; CRL ushu-gu and CRN uRu-gi 'to s. (s.t.)'; STWuRuur'to ss.', uRu-ki 's. it'; WOL ushuushu 'to s.,collect fruit (by shaking)', ushu-(peu) 's. hands',ushu-gu-(u) 's. it, collect it'; ushu-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]egi'be shaken, be collected'; PUA usuusu 'to s.', usu-ku's. it', usu-keki 'quake, tremble (as in an earthquake),earthquake'; PCk * ucu, ucuucu, ucu-ki; PON uut 'be shaken',iu-k 'to s. (s.t.)', iti-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'to s.hands'; MOK isiis 's.', isi-k 's. (s.t.)'; PNGisi-k 's. (s.t.)'; MRS wididdid 'tremble, s., quake, vibrate,shiver, chills', yidi-k 'to s.', yidi-kiy 's.(s.t.)'; KSR usrusr 's., usru-k 'to s. (s.t.)'. Cf, KIRruru 's., tremble', ka-ruru-a 'make (s.t.) s.'; LAKlugu-a, lugulugu-a 's. it (as the head).

PCMc *ulafi 'kind of fish': MRT ulef 'k. off'; STW wulef parrot f.'; WOL ulefi 'a k. of f.'; PCk*ulafi; KIR (te)-inai 'k. of f.'.

PCMc *ulafi 'kind of fish': MRT ulef 'k. off'; STW wulef 'parrot f.'; WOL ulefi 'a k. of f.';PCk *ulafi; KIR (te)-inai 'k. of f.'.

PMc *ulo 'maggot': CHK wuun, wunu; MRT wuul; PUL wuul;STW yuul, yulu; WOL uule, ule-; ULI iil (Bender et al. 1984); PUA iina, ina-;PCk *wulo; KIR (te)-ino; PEO *[q[theta]]ulo (Fij ulo; ARO uro); UAN *qulej.Note also CRL [m.sup.w]uul 'maggot', [m.sup.w][m.sup.w]ul 'beinfested with maggots'; KSR ule 'maggot', ul[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'infested with maggots'.

PMc *ulu 'extremity, top, tip, head': CHK wuun,wunu-(n), wunuun, wunuunu-(n), wunuune-(n) 'e., top, e. of',(wunu-(n chuuk), wunuune-(n chuuk) 'mountain top', wunu-(n ewu),wunuune-(n ewu) 'masthead', wunu-(n fenu), wunuune-(n fenu)'cape, point of land', wunu-(n ira), wunuune-(n ira) 'treetop', wunu-(n nwchew) 'spear point', wunuuno-(wu)'project out, stick out, long projection'; PUL wul, wulu-(n) (sie)'budding leaf, tree top, b. j. of'; CRL ulu-(l) 'leafof', uli-(l), yuli-(l), 'his head (respect usage)'; WOL uulu,un-(ni)-leaf of a tree, I. of'; PCk *ulu; MRS wili-(yej) 'cemetery;head (respect usage) (-yej 'upper, castern' < PMc *ata'upper part, top')'; KIR uni-([m.sup.w]aane), unn-(aune)'old man, old woman, elder'; KSR olo-(l), ulu-(n) 'its top,its tip, its apex (of a tree), t. of'; PEO *qulu (FIJ ulu 'head,top'; PPN *qulu 'head, hair'; BUG ulu 'head, top,end'; KWA ulu 'branch, frond'); UAN *qulu. Cf. PLK *uru'big' old'. Cf. also PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use apillow', PMC *ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'pillow'.

PMC *ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'pillow': CHK wuun,wuuna-; PUL wulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a-(n) 'p. of'; CRLulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a- 'p.'; WOLilu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e; PUA unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PCK*unu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; PON ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'his/herp.'; KIR (te)-uni[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; KSR ilu-n 'to prop,support (s.t.), rest (one's head on a p.)'; PEO *[q[theta]uluna(SAA ulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e 'serve as a p.'; BUGulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a; KWA uluna 'lean back against'); PAN*qulu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aq (Blust 1970:137). Cf. PMc *ulu'extremity, top, tip, head', PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use apillow'.

PMC *uluulu 'pillow, use a pillow': PUL wuluul'pillow'; CRL uluul 'use a pillow'; STW uluul'pillow'; WOL iluulu 'pillow'; PCK *uluulu; PON uluul'pillow, small hill'; MOK uluul 'pile (as of sand),dune'; KSR ilul 'to pillow, rest, prop'. Cf. PMC *uluna'pillow', PMC *ulu 'extremity, top, tip, head'.

PMC *[um.sup.w]a, [im.sup.w]a 'house': CHK [iim.sup.w],[im.sup.w]a(n) 'h., his h.', [im.sup.w]e-ni 'acquire ah.', [im.sup.w][eyim.sup.w] 'use or live in a h.'; PUL[yiim.sup.w], [yim.sup.w]a-(n), [yim.sup.w]a-ni-(y), [yim.sup.w][ayim.sup.w];CRL [iim.sup.w], [im.sup.w]a-(l); STW [iim.sup.w], [im.sup.w]a-(n); WOL[iim.sup.w]e, [im.sup.w]a-(le), [im.sup.w]e-li-(i), [im.sup.w][eim.sup.w]e;PUA [iim.sup.w]a, [im.sup.w]a-(na); MAP yun, un; PCK *[im.sup.w]a; PON[iim.sup.w], [im.sup.w]e-; MOK [im.sup.w]e-(n); PNG [iim.sup.w]; MRS[yem.sup.w], [yim.sup.w]e-, [m.sup.w]e-(n); KIR[ulun.sup.w]a,(te)-[um.sup.w]a, [um.sup.w]a-(na); KSR yuwe-, iwe-; PEO*[Rum.sup.w]a (Geraghty 1990); POC *[Rum.sup.w]aq (Ross 1988) (TON una'take shelter, be sheltered'; SAA nume and ULA numa; BUG lana'cave'; ARO numa; KWA hama; PKB *Luma); UAN *Rumaq. Note that KSRIom is a probable loan (source ?).

PMC *una, unauna, una-fi 'hair, feathers, scales, remove(hair or scales);: CHK wuun, wune-(n) 'h. (of head or body), fur,feather, scale (of fish);, h. of', wunewurt 'hairy', wune-fi'pluck (f., h.), remove (scales)'; MKT uun, una-(n); PUL wun (sic),wunu-(n) 'h., f., s., his h.', wunawun 'h., etc.',wune-fi 'to remove f., h., s.'; CRL ileila- 'f., fur, bodyh.', ileil 'be hairy', ili-(as) 'head h.',ulu-(yaraw) have thick, black, shiny h.'; CRN una- 'f., fur, bodyh.', unauna 'be hairy'; STW yuul, yula-(n), wulawul, unuun,yunu-fi; WOL uule, ule-(li), uleule, ule-fi-(i); PUA uuna, una-; PCK *una,unauna, una-fi; PON wine 'its h., etc.', kaa-win, kaa-wina, ka-wna'to pluck, scale'; MRS win 'fish scale', kar-win,kar-winiy 'to scale (fish)'; KIR (te)-ina 'fish scale,cataract of the eye', inaina 'scaly'; KSR une-(n)'feather, hair, scale, fur of', unon 'to pluck, scale',une 'pluck or scale (s.t.)'; PEO *quna-f (PPN *quna, quna-fi; ROTuna, une-hi; SAA unahi; KWA unauna-(na), una-fi-(a)); UAN *qunap.

PMC? *uni 'coconut cloth': see PMC *inu.

PMC *unu 'coconut cloth': PUL wun, wunu-(n) 'c. c.,strainer made of c. c., strainer of or for', wunu-u-(w) 'to strain(s.t)'; CRN uun sicve', un-ni 'to sift (s.t.); WOL uulu,un-(ni) 'coconut screen, coconut husk, c. s. of'; PCK *unu; PONini-(pal) 'fibrous, clothlike material of the coconut palm', iin(wini) 'medicine wrapped in coconut cloth'; MRS in-(pel) 'c.c.'; PEO *unu (TON wnu 'to slough, to shed skin, skin or shell thathas been shed, slough'; SAA unu 'fibrous spathe of a coconutfrond'); UAN *hunus (TAG hunos 'shed skin'). Cf. KIR(te)-i[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'fibrous, porous envelope at the base ofthe coconut leaf or frond that helps bind it to the tree'. Cf. also PMC?*unu-[sS]i 'extract'.

PMC? *unu-[sS]i 'extract': CHK wut-ti 'pull itout', #wuttuut 'draw out, draw lots'; PUL #wuttutt'choose, select'; STW yunu-ti 'pull it out'; PUA unu-tu'pull it out'; PCK *unu-di; PEO *unu-z (Geraghty 1983) (Fu ucu,ucu-na (showing metath.); PPN *unu-si; ARO unu, unu-si); UAN *hunus. Cf. WOLutuu-we 'pinch it, extract it'.

PMC *upa 'derris vine': CHK wuup, wupe-(n) 'v. (D.elliptica) used for fish poison, v. of', wupe-(ni-pot) 'vine (D.trifoliata, used as a hauling rope)', wup 'to fish with fishpoison'; PUL wuup, wupa-(n) 'shrub (D. elliptica) used as fishpoison', wupe-e-(y) 'to poison (a fish or human)'; CRL uup'D. elipitica v. (used for fish poision)'; STW yuup, upu-(l)'fish poison, f. p. of'; WOL upeupe 'to double-cross (betweenmale and female), betray, black mail'; PCK *upa; PON uup 'plant (D.elliptica) used to poison fish', uupa-wp 'to poison fish'; MOKip[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]yp 'use a repellant to force fish fromhiding'; MRS wep 'a tree (Barringtonia asiatica, seeds used forfish poison)'; KSR op 'plant used as fish poison, to poison or killwith the sap of this plant', opop 'poison at different places (afishing method)'. Cf. PMP *upas 'poisonous, as a snake' (Blust1986:111). Cf. also CHK wuun 'D. elipitica v.',wune-(ni-pot)'D. trifoliata v.'; and cf. KWA ufa-'i 'fishwith bow and arrow'. See also PMC? *[T]upa 'fish poison', PMC?*iwu 'tree (Barringtonia asiatica).

PMc *ura 'langusta, lobster': CHK wuur, wure-(n) MRT ur,ure(n) PUL wuur, wura-(n); CRI, uur; STW yuur, yura- (1); WOL uure, ura-(li);PUA uula, ula-; PCK *ura; PON uur, ur[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-(nna); MOK uro(nna); MRS wer; KSR ol-(paep) 'a kind of 1.'; PEO *qura (PPn *qura;FIJ urn; ULA ura 'crayfish, prawn'; BUG ura 'crawfish';KWA ula 'prawn'); UAN *quDa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Note that KIR(te)-ura is an apparent loan from SAM ula.

PMc *uri, uruuru 'drag, haul, tow': CHK wuri ', h. it, t. it', wuruur 'h., pull, hoist, t., be hauled, towed,pull up sail, halyard', (e)-wuru 'd., h., hoist (s.t.)'; MRTure 'd., pull'; PUL wuri-(i-y) 'd. it, pull it', wuruur'd., hoist, raise, lower (of sail), halyard'; CRL uru 'to d.or pull (st.)'; STw yuruur 'd.'; WOL uru-u 'pull it,, launch it', uruuru 'd., pull, launch, push'; PCK *ur[iu],uruuru; KsR ulul 'pull, rug, stretch', ul 'pull, etc.(s.t.)'; PEO *fuRu 'd., pull' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. KSR tal,tali 'h. or pull (on a net)'.

PMc *u[sS]a 'rain': CHK wuut, wute-(n) 'r., r.of', wut 'to r.', (seme)-wutewut 'god of r.'; MRTuut, uta-(n); PUL wut, wute-(n) (sic); CRL uut; STW yuut 'r.'(archaic); WOL uute, uta-'r.',(yaro-i)-ute 'rainfall';PUA uuta, uta-; SNS wuuta; PCK *uda; MOK wud 'r., to r.'; MRS wet,wit r. witey 'to r. on'; PEO *quza (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ uca; PPN*quha; SAA ute 'heavy r.'; BUG uha; LAU uta; ARO uta; KWA uta'r.', uta-ni-[a], uta-fi-[a] 'to r. on'; PNK *huza); UAN*quZan. Cf. POC *qusan 'r.' (Ross 1988) Cf. PCMc *wusi, wuwusi'splash water on (s.t.)'. See also Marck (1994-312) PMc *u[sz]a.

PMc ? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'cargo, load': PULwuta-n, wuta-na-(n) 'be loaded, c. or 1., c. of'; CRL (a)-wut'be loaded, have s.t. inside', (a)wuta 'pack it, put s.t. init'; STW (a)-yut 1. S.t.', (a)-yuta '1. it'; Wol uta-le'1., burden, pack, freight, c.'; PCk *uta-na; PON (pe)-ydayd'transportation, to transport in a vehicle', ida-n 'carry(s.t.) in a vehicle', awdawd 'be filled, may be loaded, know almosteverything', awd[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'to fill, I. (s.t)';MOK idayd 'to take in a vehicle transport', ida-n 'transport(s.t.)', (a)-wdood 'to 1., fill', (a)-wdo 'to 1., fill(s.t.)'; PEO Raja '1., c.' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu usa; usa-a;usa-na 'carry a.c. by boat'; SAA lude 'carry c.', luda-a'cargo', luda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to carry c.'; ULAluda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'c., luda-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i'to carry c.'; BUG luluja "c.", luja-[gini] 'to 1.c.'; KWA luda'1. in a canoe'); PMP *Rujan, usan, lujan (Blust1989:162). Cf. PMc *u-Ti, u-Taki 'carry', PMc *wua, wuawua, wua-ti,wua-ta 'cany, convey, transport', PMc *waxa, 'a frame',PPC *waa 'carry it, convey it, tran sport it'.

PMc ? *us[ei] 'make fire with fireplow': CHK. wutuut'm. f. with the fireplow', wutu-u(w) make (af,)'; PUL wutuut;WOL utuutu 'be erased, wiped out, efaced'; PCK *uduudu, udu-u; PONid m. f. by the fireplow', idi-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] tomake(af.)';MOK id 'start a f. with the fireplow', idi'start (a f.); MRS yit 'make a f. by rubbing sticks'; KIRire-a 'to rub or wash (s.t.)', ire-(ai) 'process of producingfire (at) by rubbing two sticks together'. Cf. SAA We 'to rub,polish', usu-ri 'to rub'; BUG uju-ri 'to rub the skin aswhen bathing'; LAU usu 'to wipe, anoint'; ARO usu 'torub, grate'; UAN *ujus 'to rub'.

PMc *u[sS][ou]-'core, interior': CHK wuut,wutu-(n)'c,, i., inside, its c.', (nee)-wut, wutu (n) 'c., atthe c., its c., at its c.'; MRT wutu-; CRL. (lee) -yutu-(l) 'itsinside'; STW' (lee)-utu 'inside of the body'; PCK*ud[ou]-; PEO *u[sz]O (SAA uto- 'pith, c.'; ARo uto 'the pithycore of breadfruit'; KWA uto-[na] 'center of breadfruit'). Cf.FIJ uto 'heart, pith of a tree'. See also PCK *wudu 'piece ofcooked breadfruit'.

PMc *uS[iu] 'a tree': STW wtau 'a small t. withfragrant flowers'; WoL uuta utu- 'a kind of coastal t. (Guetardasp.)'; PCK *udu; PON iid 'plant species'; MOK id 't.species with white flowers'; MRS wit 'a plant (common cultivatedhedge), general term for hedge plants and flowers there of, wreath offlowers'; KIR (te-uri)'t. with white flowers'; KSR i'kind of tree'; PEO *uzi (FIJ uci 'herb Evodia, used inperfume'). Cf. KSR it[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'a kind of t.'.

PMc *uta 'inland': MOK (e)wij; MRS (yi-ye)-wej, (ya)-waj'interior of an island', (na)-waj 'interior of an island fromthe lagoon side only'; KSR w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t; PEO *quta (PPN*quta 'i.'; LAK hutahuta 'general term for smallplants'); UAN *qu[iT]an 'forest'. See also Marck (1994;322)PMc *uta.

PMc *u-Ti, u-Taki 'carry': PON wi-sik 'burden, loadto be carried'; MOK wi-uk 'c., bring, take things'; KSR a-s'c. (st.)', ivus 'c. (s.t.) ainund with s.o.',u-t[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'be canying', #utut[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]k 'be canying around'. Cf. Kix (ie) -u-mid 'repeatedtransportation', a-raid 'engage in carrying stones, boards, etc.,to a certain place for collecting them there'; and cf. SAA fu'e'toe, suspended from the head'; ARO hua 'to c. suspended fromthe head'; KWA fua 'carry a load'; PEO *futa; and cf. BUG sutu'to c. (s.t.) on the head'; PNK *hudu (< *qunsu) 'c. on thehead'; POC *qusu, qunsu; UAN *[q[theta]]usu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]. Cf.also PMC ? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'cargo, load', PMC *wua,wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta 'carry, convey, transport', PPC *waa'carry it, convey it, transport it', PMC *waxa 'a frame'.

PMC *waani 'pumice stone': CRL waal; STW uwan; WOLuwaali; PUA wani; PCK *[u[theta]]waani; PON waan-(pey); MOK ween; KIR waan(Bender et al. 1984); KSR (yot) wet 'small black stone'. Cf. YAPwaar 'rock, big rock'. Cf. also CHK matto 'p. s.'; MRStilahan 'p.'. Cf. Marck (1994:318) PMC *fafu waani.

PMC ? *wae 'leg, foot': CHK waasaas (?<*waa-asa-as)'briskly, quickly (in walking)' (lit. ? 'with feet or legshigh'); PON wasas 'to stagger, have difficulty keeping one'sfooting', we-(yd) 'walk in a specific direction'; MOKwa-(jejjej) 'to skip over the water'; MRS wa-n- 'walktoward', wey-([lak.sup.w]) 'go away'; KIR (te)-wae 'l.,f.' (could be loan from Polynesian), wae-(tata) 'go or walkrapidly'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'go, arrive, sail',o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-('tu) 'walk down a slope'; PEO ?*waqe (PPN *waqe 'f., l.'). Cf. SAA 'ae 'ae'ae'leg, foot'; BUG (n)-ae (<*[na]-ae?) 'leg, foot'; LAUae 'foot, leg'; KWA 'ae 'foot, base, source, leg'.Cf. also PMC *faa- 'underside, under'.

PCMC ? *wai 'to spear, stab, pierce': MRS way 'tospear, stab, give an injection, receive an injection, an injection orshot', wayi-k 'stab, spear, give an injection to (s.o.)'; KIR(te)-wai 'the spearing of fish' wai 'to engage in spearingfish', wae-a 'to pierce, to stick, to sew, to interrupt(s.t.)'. One of these could be a loan from the other.

PMC *waka 'vein, sinew': CHK waa, waa-(n) 'v.,artery, tendon, nerve, s., v. of'; PUL waa-(n) 'v. or arteryof'; CRL. waa, waa-(l) 'veins, arteries, his v.', waawa'to have varicose or badly swollen veins'; WOL waaga, waga-'v., s., blood vessel, artery' PUA waaka, waka- 'root, v., s.,artery'; SNS waka (sic) 'root'; PCK *waka; MRS yekey 'v.,artery, blood vessel'; KIR wakawaka 'string, fibrous (as pandanusfruit)'; KSR aelko (<*okael?) 'blood vessel'. Cf. FIJ ua's.'; PPN *uaua 'v., artery, tendon, s.'; BUG ula'tendon, s., v.'; KWA ula 'blood vessel, v.'; LAK ua'radial roots of a tree'; UAN *uRat. There is no basis forGeraghty's (1990) reconstruction of PMC *aka 'vein, sinew'.See also PMC ? *[ua.sub.1], 'tendon, vein', PMC *waka, wakara'root'.

PMC *waka, wakara 'root': CHK. waar, waar[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-(n) 'r., its r.'; MRT waar[epsilon]-(n); PUL waarwaara-(n); CRL waw waara-(l) 'roots, r. of'; STW waar, waara-(n);WOL wegare, wagera-(li); PUA walakala 'r., stalk' (showingmetathesis); SNS walaga (showing meathesis); PCK wakara; MRS wekar; KIR(te)-wakaa 'r., one who gives support'; KSR DkDk 'mangroveroot', okae 'root'; POC *wakaR 'root' (Ross 1988)(FIJ waka 'root'; BUG oga 'root'); UAN *waka[rR]. Seealso PMC *waka 'vein, sinew'.

PMC *walu 'vegetation, forest': CHK wenuwen 'v.,bush', wenu-*([UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]aw) 'useless plant,weed'; MRT waliwel 'f.'; PUL waal, wali-(n) 'f., jungle,f. of', waluwal 'plant, trees, f., be forested'; CRL waluwal,#walawal 'f., jungle'; STW waniwan 'f., vegetated area';WOL waalu walu- 'f., bush, woods', waluwelu 'plant,tree'; PUA waanu wanu- 'green sprig used as a hair ornament',wonuwonu 'jungle, f., bush'; PCK *waalu, walu-, waluwalu; PON waal'jungle, f.'; MOK w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l 'f.'; PNGw[epsilon]l 'f., woods'; PPC *walu; PEO walu (KWA kwalu'unusable bush'). Cf. SAA walu-(malau) 'the world, all theislands'; ARO waruwaru 'the inhabited world generally, all theknown islands'. See also Marek (1994:322) PPC *walu, and PCK *waluwalu.

PMC *walu, walu-ua 'eight, eight (general)': CHK waan,wanu-, wanu-uw 'eight' and wani-ik 'eighty'; MRT waal;PUL waal. walu-, walu-uw, and wali-ik; CRL waal, walu-, walu-uw, andwali-igh; WOL waali, wali-, walu-uwe and wali-ige, PUA wanu- and wanu-iki;PCK, *walu, walu-uwa, and *walu-ike; PON ([UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL])-w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]li-, wali-, walu-u; MOK (a)-wal, wal-,walu-w; MRS (ri)-wali-(ytek); KIR wani-, wanu-ua; KSR Dl, al, Dl-, al-; PEO*walu (Geraghty 1983); POC *walu (Ross 1988) (PMP *walu; FIJ walu; SAA walu;PNK *wa[IL]u); UAN *walu(h). See PMC *ua- 'general classifier incounting (suffixed to numerals)'.

PCMc *w[ao][p.sup.w]o 'to beat, to strike with anobject': CHK [wop.sup.w] 'be b., struck, hit', [wop.sup.w]u-ni'b., strike, whip (s.o. with stick or whip)'; PUL [yoop.sup.w](sic) 'to hit', [yop.sup.w]u-li-(y) 'to b., hit, switch (aswith a club or as with a ball); MRS [wewb.sup.w][ab.sup.w]'smashed'; KIR [ob.sup.w]o 'be broken off, broken in strength,decrepit', [ob.sup.w]o-ra 'destiny, desolate, devastate, damage(s.t.)'.

PMC *wasi, wasiwasi 'balloon fish, pufer fish, belarge'; CHK wat-(te) be big, 1.', wat-(tee-no) 'to increase,get large'; CRL waat 'sp. Of b. f.'; WOL waati, wati- 'aking of f. (not eaten)'; PCK wadi; PON waad 'p.f.'; MOK wed'boxfish'; MRS wat 'p.f.'; KIR wari 'be of greatesize' (te)-wari(no-[b.sup.w]unii) 'a f.' (te-[b.sup.w]unii'a p.f. of genus Arothron); KSR otwot 'kind of f.'. cf. KSR e'kind of f. with white fat'.

PMC *waSe, waSe-ki 'to count': WOL watewate 'to c.,reckon, enumerate', weta-gi-(I) 'c or reckon it'; SNS wetewet'to c.'; PCK *wade; PON wadawad 'to read, c.',wad[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-k 'r. or c. (s.t.)', wad 'tomultiply (in mathematics)', wadi-ki 'multiply it'; MOK wadwadto read', wade-k 'to c. or read (s.t.)'; MRS watwat 'c.up, estimate by counting', wate-k 'c. up (s.t.)'; KIR ware'to c., read', (te)-wareware 'counting, reading,' ware-ka'c. or read (s.t.)'; KSR o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'c., enumerate', oe-k 'c. (s.t.)'; PEO *wase'divide' (Geraghty 1983) (FIJ wase 'to divide, separate',wasewase 'division, partition'; PPN *wase 'divide,separate'; SAA wate, wa'ewate 'to distribute food at a feaseafter making an oration'; ARO wate 'to give'; KWA kwate,kwate-a 'contribute, give').

PMC *watu 'toward or in direction of person addressed':CHK -wow, PUL waw; PCK *wa[tw]u; PON -w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]y; MRS waj,wej; Km wati 'toward person who has just spoken'; POC *watu'hence' (Ross 1988:464) (BUG atu 'go away, go forth').Cf. SAA wau 'adverb of place, there'; BUG au 'out, away'.Cf. also PMC *wotu 'outward'.

PMC *wa[w[empty set]]u 'wealthy': CHK wew 'be rich,wealthy', wewu-(n) 'wealth of', (e)-wewu make (s.o.)rich'; PON waaw 'respect, honor', waw-n 'respectful,respectable, honorable'; MOK wow-n 'respectful'; KIR wauwau'well furnished with conveniences or suitable clothing'; KSR Dprecious, of good quality, excellent'.

PMC *[waxa.sub.1], 'a frame': CHK waa-, waa-n 'f.,f. of'; STW waa-(n); WOL waa; PCK *waa; PON waar, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]r[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] body (of a person), his b.'; PEO*wa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ke- 'frame' (Geraghty 1983) (Fu waqa'box, case, cover'; TOK whakawaka 'frame cover' [Benderet at. 1984]). Cf. KSR Dko aki 'erect, set up, establish (s.t.)'.Cf. also PCMC *wa[x[theta]]a 'crosspiece', PPC *waa 'carry it,convey it, transport it', PMC *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta 'carryconvey, transport'.

PMC *[waxa.sub.2], 'canoe': CHK waa, waa-n, waa-n,waa-ni 'canoe, his canoe, canoe of, 'acquire it as a canoe';PUL waa, waa-n, waa-n, waa-ni-(y); CRL waa, waa-ni; CRN waa, waa-ni; STW waa,waa-; WOL waa, waa-le, woo-li, woo-li-i; PUA waa, woo-; SNS wa (sic); PCK*waa; PON waar; MOK war; PNG war; MRS wah 'possessive classifier forcanoes, ships, boats, or vehicles'; Km (te) -waa, woo-na, woo-ni,woo-nn-a (<*waa-ni-a); KSR Dk; PEO *wa[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ka (Geraghty1983); POC *waga (Ross 1988) FIJ waqa; PPN *waka; ARO waka 'foreignship' [obs.]; PKB *waga); UAN *wa[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]ka[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL].

PCMC *wa[x[theta]]a 'crosspiece': CHK waa-, waa-(n)'stick, tie, tie-rod, s. of', waa-(yi-so) 'distal board acrossthe outrigger booms'; PUL waa-(ni-yan) 'yoked stringer connectingoutrigger booms'; CRL waa,-(li-yan) 'crossbeam connecting outriggerbooms on sailing canoe'; WOL waa-(li-yeni) 'float stringer of acanoe', waa-(s-soosoo) (< *waa-li-soosoo) 'outrigger boomstringer'; waa-(li pauree) 'stick for scraping off the insideportion of banana layers'; PCK *waa; MRS wahwah 'crosswise',waha-(n bil) 'launching pad rollers'; Km (te)-waa 'sleepers ofa floor'. Cf. PMC *waxa, 'a frame'.

PMC *wece or 'strike, hit, beat': CHK wech 'bestruck, h., beaten, b.', wechewech 'striking, hitting, beating, bestriking', wache-e-(y) 's., b., h. (s.o.)'; KIR oro 'tos., h.' ore-a 'to h.,s. (s.o.)', (te) -oro 'ah.,blow', (te)-orooro 'a repeated striking'; PEO *wede(<wense), wese (SAA wete 'to h.'; ARO wete, wete-'i'to sand injure'; KWA kwete 'be h. by a foreign [supernatural]object causing local pains'). Cf. LAU gwegwe 'to buffet (as thewind)'. See also PCK *wici, wici-i 'strike, whip, hit'.

PMC *wee 'be alike, same, equivalent': CHK weewe'be a., s., equal, equivalence'; PUL we-(y) (sic) 'to resemble(s.t.)'; CRL weewe 'be the s.', wee-(y) 'to resemble,look like (s.t.)'; WOL weewee 'be a. in appearance, be the s,,similar', wee-(ye) 'resemble it, be the s. as it'; PUA wee'be similar, a'; PCK *wee; MRS wayweye- 'form, shape, manner(of), how'; KSR we-(n), we-(n) generation of'. Cf. LAK mai 'belike'. See also PPC *weewee 'understand'.

PMC *w[eo]li, w[eo]li-ki- 'be changed, change': CHK win,wini-(no), winiwin 'be c., altered, shifted, moved, turned over',wini-(iti) 'c. into', wini-k 'turn over', wini-ki'turn (s.t.) over', wini-si 'displace, removed, transplant(s.t.)', (refl.) 'c. one's position', (sii)-win'exchange, swap, trade, replacement', (sii)-wini-i-(v)'replace, take the place of (s.t.)', (ni)-win, (ni)-wini-(n)'to come back, return, a return or exchange for', (ni)-wini-i-(y)'make return to him, pay back for it, return it'; PUL weli-(iti)'to become (s.t.)', weli-(fehann) 'difference, be different,strange', (lii)-wel 'to c., substitute for, exchange,translate', (lii)-weli-(n) 'revenge for, pay back for'; CRLweli-ghi and CRN weli-(gi) 'to turn (something) over, till (the ground),(lii)-wel 'c., exchange', (lii)-weli 'to c. (something), takethe place of (s.o.)'; WOL weli 'c., be different', weliweli'keep changing', (lii)-weli 'be c., replaced',(lii)-weli-i-(ye) 'c. it, replace it', (lii)-wen-(ne) 'itsreplacement, its subs titute', (suu)-weli 'to change, exchange,alternate'; PCK *weli, weliweli, weli-ki-; PON weli- 'be turnedover', weli-k 'turn (s.t.) over', weli-(di) 'be turneddown'; MOK wel 'c. the leaves of a breadfruit fermenting pit',wili-k 'c. (the leaves), open (a book), turn over (a page)'; KIRoni-ka, onioni-ka 'to c. (s.t.)', oni-ki-(a) 'to c. it';KSR (ay)-ol 'c., replace, act for s.o.', (ae)-ol 'c. orreplace (s.t.), act for (s.o.)'. Cf SAA 'oli' 'to return,relapse', 'oil-si 'to c., alter (s.t.)'; BUG oli 'toc.', oli-hi 'to exchange (s.t.)'; LAU oli 'to return, goback', oli-si 'to answer (s.o.)'; ARO ori, oriori 'to c.,alter', ori-si 'to c., alter, exchange (s.t.)'; KWA oli'to return for s.t., come back to', oli-si-(a) 'to replace(s.t.)'. Cf. Also LAK di 'to dig'.

PMc *w[eo]n[eo] 'lie down, sleep': CHK won's.', wonto-(wut) 's. in the meeting house',wono-([yim.sup.w]) 's. in the family house'; PUL woon (sic)'I. d.', wono-(ccip) 's. restlessly'; CRL wol; CRN on;STW wolo-(tiw); WOL wolo 'to 1. d., stretch oneself out'; PUA wono-(tic); SNS woro-; PCK *wono; PON wen-(di); KIR wene, wenewene; KSR ona'to l. d.', on-(kiy[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ki 'be prone,l.'. Cf. POc *qeno 'l. d.' (Ross 1988:462) (SAA eno, enoeno'to l. d.'; BUG e[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]go 'l. d., s.';ARO eno 'l. d., rest'; KWA eno 's.'). Cf. also FIJ no'to l. (of things)', (i)-nono 'place where s.t. lies';and cf. UAN *inep

PWMc *were, werewere 'to flash, shine': CHK wer 'f.(of a light or flashlight)', were-e-(y) 'f. (a light) on'; PULwere 's. brightly', weri-(n) 'bright shining of'; CRL werwwer 'be illuminated', werewer 'lightning'; WOL. weere,were- 'light, firelight, gleam, f.', were 'to s., sparkle,glitter', werewere 'lightning, s., light, f.'; PCK *were,werewere; MRS wirwir 'f. flame'. Cf. PON pir 'to f.'.

PMc *weSe 'semen, sperm': CHK weet, weta-(n) 's.,his s.'; PUL. wet (sic); CRL weet, weti-(l) 's., his s.',wetiwet 'to masturbate'; WOL. weete wete-(l), PCK *wede; KSR WAi (?*wuhy).

PWMc *wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ae] 'fat, be fat': CHK iwi,#iwii-(n), twiye-(n) (<*wiwiy[ae]) 'rich or fatty taste, r. t.of'; PUL. yiwiiy, yiwiya-(n) 'greasy or oily matter (as in somefish), g. m. of'; CRL. wi 'be f. (of animals and fish)' wii'f.'; WOL uwiye 'be greasy, oily'; PCK *wiiy[ae],wiy[ae]-, wiwiy[ael; PON wii 'f., grease'; MOK iwi 'be moist(of meat), f. (from fish)'; MRS wiy, wiywiy 'f. in tuttle shell,blubber'.

PCMc *woca 'coral reef': CHK wooch, woche-n,wocho-(fenu) 'coral reef, c. r. of, fringing r.'; MRT woosh; PULwooR, wora-n; CRL woosh, wosho-; CRN ooR, oRo-; STW wooR; WOL. woosho,wosho-; PUA woosa, wosa-; PCK *woca; PON oot; MOK wos; MRS wed, wede-(n); KIRoora, (te)-ora. See also Marek (1994:314) PMc ot'a, which he sees ascognate with Proto-Central Pacific *voda 'rocks in sea'.

PMc *woco 'strike, hit, beat': sea PMc *wecc.

PMc *woki, woki-si- 'turn s.t. over, reverse direction':CRL. woghowogh 'to t. food when cooking', wogho-ti, weghe-ti'to flip (s.t.) over', woghe-tagh 'to t. and face in theoppposite direction'; WOL wegi-ti-(i) 't. it, change it, transferit, convert it', wegi-tegi 'to t. around, be turned over'; PUAweki 'to t., change direction', weki-ti 't. it over, t. itaround'; PCK *weki, weki-di-, weki-daki; PON wiki-d 'to t. (s.t.)over, to change (s.t., as an opinion)', wiki-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'to t., change direction'; MOK uku-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k'be turned'; PNG weke-d[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'to t. s.t.over'; MRS wikwek 'turn, turn over, upset, reciprocate; to change,translate, interpret', wike-t, [wik.sup.w] e-t 'change, translate,interpret (s.t.)', wikwek-tak 'to alternate, fluctuate, be changingconstantly'; KIR oki 'to return', (te)-okioki frequentreturning', oki-ra 'to return to (a place)'; KSR ek 'tot., t. over, capsize', ekyek 'varying, constantly changing',eka-s 'uncover, reveal, disclose, t. over (s.t.)'; PEO *foki (Fuvoki 'to shift, of the wind; P PN *foki 'to return, t,change'; ROT hc'i 'go back, return'). Cf. MRS wike-j'turn s.t. over', which forms a doublet with the transitivevariants wike-t and [wik.sup.w] e-t above. Cf. also CHK (a)-wiiwi 'toalternate, exchange, change off', wii-(y) 'take the place of(s.t.), succeed (s.o.)'; and cf. KSR ik 'to rock or roll (of aship)', iki-l 'rock it, make it roll, change its position, t. itover'; FIJ vuki 'to change, t., revolt, vuki-ca 't. (s.t.)over'; PPN *fuke 'to uncover'.

PMC *wono- 'six': CHK woon, wono-, wona-, wone-, wone-wonu-; MRT woon, wono-; PUL woon, wono-; CRL ool, olo-; CRN oon, ono-; STWool, olo-; WOL woolo, wolo-, wole-; PUA ono-; SNS woro-; PCK *woono, wono-;PON aun, oun, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-; MOK wono-;KIR one-; KSR on; POC *onom (Ross 1988) (FIJ ono; PPN ono; SAA ono; BUG ono;LAU ono; ARO ono; KWA ono; PKB *Wono); UAN *enem.

PMc *wonu 'turtle': CHK wiin, wini-; MRT woon, wone-,wuni-; PUL woo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n, wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; CRLwoo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-, #wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-; Srw woo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-; WOLwoon, woni-; PUA woonu, wonu-; PCK *wonu; PON weey; MOK woy, wey-; MRS wen;KIR (te)-on, oni-; KSR (ik) w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'kind ofturtle'; POC *ponu (Ross 1988) (ROT hoi; SAA honu; BUG vognu; PKB*bonu); PMP *penu (Blust 1984-85). Cf. KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]oe'kind of turtle'.

PCMC *wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][iu]-si 'wring out': CHKwu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'be wrung out', wu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'w.', wu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u-ti 'w. or squeeze it out'; PUL wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-ti-(y), #wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]e-ti-(y) 'wring it'; CRLwo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]owo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]o-ti; STW wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]owo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL],wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti; WOL wo[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]iwo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i 'to squeeze, press hard',wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]iti-(i) 'squeeze it, press it'; PCK*wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i, wo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ti; PON weniwen,we[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-d 'to w., squeeze', we[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-dek 'twisted', i[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-d-(p[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]n[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]) 'tosqueeze'; MOK o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]o[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'w.out', u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u-d 'w. it out'; KIRo[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]i-ra 'w. (s.t.)', o[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]i-ri-(a) 'w. it'. Cf. KSR twentwen 'pick, twist',twentweni 'grasp or hold between two objects and twist'. There isno basis for Geraghty's (1990) Micronesian reflexes of his PEO*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]kiRi 'squeeze'. Cf. PCMc ?*f[ao][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][ou]-si- 'blow (one's nose)', PCK*[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu, [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uTu-, [UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]uTu-ri- 'to snort, blow one's nose'.

PMc *[woro.sub.1] 'gills': CHK woor, wora-n 'fishgills, its g.'; CRL (fat)-oru-(l) 'its fish g.'; WOL(fati)-woro 'fish g.'; PCK woro; MOK wol, w[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- 'g.' (loan?); MRS wer 'fishg.'; KIR (te)-oo 'fish g.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]lo(sic) 'g.', [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'having many g.'. See also PMC*[woro.sub.2] 'wall, fence', PCMc *woro- 'swallow'.

PMC *[woro.sub.2] 'wall, fence'CHK wo,wr 'stonewall, stone pier, stone causeway'; MRT oroor 'wall'; PULworoor 'pier, dock'; STW woroor 'pier, wall, breakwater';WOL worooro 'fence, barrier to prevent intrusion'; PCK *woroworo;MRS werwer 'pen, fence, enclosure'; KIR (te)-oo 'fence';PEO *oRo 'k. of fence' (Geraghty 1990). Cf. FIJ oro, oro-ta, odro'to clasp', (i)-oro 'waistband'.

PCMC *woro- 'swallow': CHK woro-mi 'to s. it';PUL woro-mi-(y); CRL uru-mi, oro-mi; STW woro-mi; WOL woro-mi-(i); PCK*woro-mi-; KIR oo-na 's. (s.t.)'. Cf. KSR l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], l[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]l[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]we- 's. (s.t.)'. Cf. also SAA 'ono, 'ono'ono,'ono-mi 'to s.'; BUG sono, sono-vi 'to s.' (aloan?); ARO ono, ono-mi 'to s.'; KWA ono-mi-(a) (also odo-mi(a))'to s. (s.t.)'; PEO *tono, tono-mi; but note POC *konom's.' (Ross 1988). Cf. also PWMc *Toro-mi 'suck up(s.t.)', PMC *[woro.sub.1] 'gills'.

PMc *wos[ao] 'Colocasia taro': CHK woot, wote-(n)'C. t.', C. t. of'; MRT yoot 'elephant ear t.'; PULwoot 'C. t.', woto-([p.sup.w]eR) 'a kind of C. t.'; CRLoot, woot 'C. t.', woto-(shall) 'a kind of C. t.'; STWwoot; WOL woote 'C. t.', woto-(shalo) 'a kind of C. t.';PUA woota, wota- 'sweet t. grown on dry land'; PCK*wod[ao]-; PONood, w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]d 'Alocasia t.'; MOK wod 'swampt.'; MRS wet 'Alocasia t.'; KSR [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t'a kind of t'.

PMC *wotu 'outward': CHK -wu, -wuu- 'o., to thenorth'; MRT -wew; PUL -wow 'o., seaward'; CRL -wow 'o.,westward'; STW -wow; WOL -wau, -weu 'o., to the north or to thesouth (i.e., toward open ocean)'; PUA -wow 'outside, seaward';PCK *-wowu; KSR -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]t, -wot 'hence'; POC *potu'sea beyond the reef' (Ross 1988:462). Cf. PON -yey'outwards'. Cf. also PMC *watu 'toward or in direction ofperson addressed'.

PCMc *woTo 'cut in two': CHK was, wosoos 'be c. inhalf, c. in t.', wose-e-(y) 'c. it in half'; PUL wohe-e-(y)'c. it in half'; CRL wose-e-(y) 'to c. and gather(firewood)'; CRN ohe-(y) 'to c. and gather firewood'; PCK*woT[ao]; KIR otooto 'engage in breaking or folding', oto-(ua-a)'break (s.t.) in two', ote-a 'to fold (s.t.)',([m.sup.w]a)-oto 'broken (as a stick)'. Cf. PON pos'explode' and UAN *pocaq 'in pieces.

PMC *wua, wuana 'grey hair': CHK wuwan, wuwana-(n)'g. h., his g. h.'; MRS wiwan 'grey-haired'; KIR (te)-ia'g. h.', iaia 'grey-haired'; KSR fry[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]-l 'his g. h.'; Pre-PMC *fuqa, fuqana; PEO *qupa, qupa-na(NGG uvana 'g.h.'); UAN *quban 'grey-haired'. There is anapparent problem with the the initial f of KSR.

PMC *wua, wuawua, wua-ti, wua-ta 'carry, convey,transport': CHK wuwe-yi, wuwe-e-y) 'c., convey, t. (s.t.)',wuwe-ya-a-(to), wuwe-e-(ye-to) 'convey it hither', wuwoow,wuwoowo-(no) (< *wuwawuwa) 'convey, c., t., tote', wuwa-s,wuwa-se.(n) 'grass cover laid on top of food that has already beencovered by leaves in an earth oven (thing transported), grass coveringof'; MRT uwa 'c., uwa-a-(y) 'c. it'; PUL wuwa-(y)'c., t. (s.t.)', wuwa-a-(to) 'c. it hither', wuwow (sic)'to c.', wuwa-h, wuwa-ha-(n) 'burden, carried object, b.of', wuwoowo (sic) 'to carry'; CRL uwa-s 'scent or aroma(pleasant or unpleasant) on the air'; CRN uwa-h 'scent or aroma onthe air'; WOL uwa-te 'load, belongings'; PCK *wuwa, wuwawuwa,wuwa-ti-, wuwa-ta; PON wwa 'carry'; MRS wiwey, yiwwey (westerndialect), wiwwey (eastern dialect) 'to board, ride, get on, embark,mount, to rise (of dough); KIR uaua 'engage in carrying a child',uo-ta 'to c. (s.t), s.t. carried', uo-ta-na 'engage incarrying'; ua-(aki) 'to be engaged in dragging or towing' ,ua-(kaakaa) 'be burdened with many packages', ua-(roko) 'giftor present brought as to a chief', ua-(ruru[eta]) 'shifting of acargo', ua-(tou) 'engage in carrying pandanus fruit'; KSRw[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-n 'to c., t. (s.t)', wiw[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'do carrying'; POC *pua-ti, pua-ta (Fu vua 'to beartwo burdens on the shoulder [one at each end of a stick]', vua-ta'crop, harvest'; TON fua 'to lift, carry on shoulder with astick', fue-si-[a] 'carry, bear [a burden]'; KWA fua'carry a load', fua-'a-[gu] 'thing conveyed to me');UAN *buhat. Cf. also PMC? *u[sS]a, u[sS]a-ni, u[sS]a-na 'cargo,load', PMC *u-Ti, u-Taki 'carry', PPC *waa 'carry it,convey it, transport it', PMC *waxa, 'a frame'.

PMC *wuaa 'fruit': CHK wuwa, wuwaa-(n) 'f., berry,its f.'; MRT uwa; STW uwa; PUL wuwa 'f., flower, bur'; CRL uwawwa uwaa-(l) 'f., flower, its f.'; WOL uwaa 'f, to bearf.'; PUA ua (sic) 'f., flower'; SNS uwaa; PCK *wuwaa; PON waa'f., flower'; MOK waa, wee-(n) 'its f., f. of', uuwa'be in f.'; MRS wiwah 'bear much f. or many flowers'; KIR(te)-uaa, uaa-(na) 'f., its f.'; POC *pua (Ross 1988) (FIJ vua'fruit'; PPN *fua; SAA hue, huehue, ULA hua; ARO hua; PKB *vua'seed, fruit, berry'); UAN *buaq. Cf. KIR uee 'flower'.

PMC *wuci 'banana': CHK wuuch, wuchu-(n); MRT wuush,wushu-(n); PUL wuuR, wuRu-(n); CRL. wiish, wisha- wishe-; CRL. uuR; STW wiiR,wiRi-(l); WOL wiishi, wishi-(l); PUA wiisi, wisi-(n); PCK *wuci; PON uut,uti-; MOK wus, wusi-(n); PNG wis; KIR (te)-uri 'a tree'; KSR usr;POC *pudi (Ross 1988) (PPN *futi Fu vudi; SAA hudi; PKB *vudi); PMP *punti(Blust 1984-85).

PMC *wuko 'go early in the morning': CHK wuk wuko-(no)'go out of one's house for the first time in the m.'; Putwuke-e-(y) 'come or go to do (s.t.) in the e. m.', wuko-(16)'go off in the c. m.', wukook 'repeatedly come or go in the e.m.'; CRL ugh 'to be e. in the m.', ughu-(ta) 'get up the m.'; CRN ug 'very e. in the m.'; WOL ugo 'to goe.'; PCK *wuko; PEO *fuko (SAA hu'o 'come e. in the m.',[ma]-hu'ohu'o'c. m., dawn'; BUG vugo-i 'to be c,afoot in the m.'; ARO hu'o 'start very e., beforesunrise', hu'o-[rodo] 'to set out e.').

PMC *wuko, wuko-Si- 'pursue': KIR uko-ra, ukouko-ra'to look for (s.t.)'; KSR uk[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]k 'follow atrail, chase', uke 'chase, p., drive away (s.o.)'.

PMC *wuko, wuko-ti- 'fishnet, catch in a net': CHK wuuk,wuke-(n), wukowuk, or wukuwuk wuke-(ey) 'f., f. of, caul or spiderweb,catch in a net'; MRT wuuk 'f.'; PUL wuuk wukook, wukooko-n'seine, web, w. of'; STW wuko-(1) 'f. of'; WOL uuga,ugo-(li), ugougo 'f., f. of, swim-bladder'; PUA uuko, uko-'fishnet'; PCK *wuko; PON uuk 'net'; MOK uk 'roundnet'; MRS wek wike- 'net'; KIR? iko-ta 'bring together,collect, gather (s.t.)'; POC *pukot (PEO *fuko-t; SAA hu'o ', seine'; ARO hu'o 'large net, seine'; KWA fu'o'place for an ambush'; PKB *vuqo 'f.'); UAN *puket'dragnet'. Note also KSR nwek 'net'.

PMC *wuku, wuuku 'to blow': MRT wike-(y) 'b.(s.t.); PUL wuki-(y) 'to b. (s.t.) as by wind or person',wuka-a-(ta) 'b. (s.t.) upwards'; CRL ughu-u-(w) 'to b. air on(of a person or wind)'; WOL ugu-u 'b. (a musical instrument)',uguugu 'b. with the mouth'; PUA uku (sic) 'b. on it'; ULIyugu(-u); SNS wuugu 'to b.'; PCK *wuku; PON? uk 'inhale,breathe in deeply, absorb'; MOK uk 'to b., to smoke'; MRSwiwik 'to b. (as wind)' wiwiki-(y) 'b. on (s.t)'; KIR uki'to begin to b. after a calm'; KSR uk 'to b. (a bugle), b.(s.t.) away', ukuk 'to b., be blowing'. Cf. PEO *ufu-C'b.' (Geraghty 1983:153-154) (FIJ uvu, uvu-ca, uvu-sa 'b. withthe mouth'; ARO uhu. uhu- 'i 'to b., b. on'; PKB *pupu'to b.'); UAN *puput 'to b.'. Note also CHK [p.sup.w]u'be blown (as a trumpet)' (< PMc *[p.sup.w]uu < POc *mpupu(TON pupuu 'to sound as a conch shell when blown, to whistle', PPN*[ma]pu 'whistle, blow hard'; LAK pu-[su] 'to b. [as a conchshell], to b. s.t. out of the mouth'). Cf. SAA 'uhi 'to b.with the mouth'; BUG ifu 'b. wit h the mouth'; LAU ufi'b.'; ARO uhi 'to b.'; KWA fulu 'b. withmouth', ufi 'play panpipes', ufi-a 'to blow on'.

PWMc *wul[ae] 'penis': CHK wuun wunu-(n) 'testiclesand scrotum, his t.'; PON wil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'hispenis'; MOK wil[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL], 'his penis'; MRS wel,wile- 'penis'.

PMc *[wum.sup.w]a 'hermit crab': CHK[wum.sup.w][owum.sup.w], [wum.sup.w][owum.sup.w]e-(n) 'h. c., h. c.of'; PUL [wum.sup.w][owum.sup.w], [wum.sup.w][owum.sup.w]a-(n); CRL[um.sup.w]a-(l), [um.sup.w]e-(l); PUA uma-(anna) (sic) 'h. c. in theshell'; PCK *[wum.sup.w]a; MRS [wem.sup.w] 'h. c.'; PEO*[qum.sup.w]a (FIJ uga; TON qu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'large h.c.'); PMP *quman (Blust 1984-85). Cf. PON [mp.sup.w]a 'h. c.';MOK [um.sup.w] [p.sup.w]a) 'h. c.'; KWA u'a 'crab'.

PMc *[wum.sup.w]u, [wum.sup.w]u-ni- 'earth oven, bake in anoven': CHK [wuum.sup.w], [wum.sup.w]u-(n) 'e. o., o. of',[wum.sup.w] 'be put in an earth oven', [wum.sup.w]u-ni 'cook(s.t.) in an e. o.'; MRT [wum.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]- (sic); PULwuumw, [wum.sup.w]u-ni-(y); CRL. [uum.sup.w], [um.sup.w]u-li; STW[wum.sup.w]u-(n); WOL [uum.sup.w]u, [um.sup.w]u- 'e. o', [um.sup.w]'to cook in an e. o.'; PUA [um.sup.w]u; PCK *[wum.sup.w]u[wum.sup.w], [wum.sup.w]u-ni-; PON [uum.sup.w] 'e. o. [um.sup.w]'to bake in an e. o.', [wn.sup.w]u-n 'to bake (s.t.) in an e.o.'; MOK [um.sup.w] 'to bake', [um.sup.w]u-n 'bake(s.t.)'; MRS [wim.sup.w], [wim.sup.w][wim.sup.w], [wim.sup.w]i-n; KIR[um.sup.w][uum.sup.w], [um.sup.w]u-na; KSR um 'e. o.', #umi'cook (food) in an earth o.'; PEO *qumu (PPN *qumu; SAA umu; AROumu; KWA umu 'oven stones'; LAK humu).

PCMC *[wum.sup.w]u-lau 'a reef fish prized as food': CHK[wum.sup.w]u-ne; PUL [wum.sup.w]u-le; CRL [um.sup.w]u-le; WOL[wum.sup.w]u-lee; PCK *[wum.sup.w]u-lau; PON [um.sup.w]u-le; KIR[im.sup.w]u-nai 'a f.'. Cf. PMC *[wum.sup.w]u, [wum.sup.w]u-ni-'earth oven, bake in an oven'.


PMc *wu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'fruit cluster': KIR-u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'bunch of pandanus f. (in counting)'; KSRu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] 'c., bunch', u[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] (sic) 'having many clusters'; PEO*fu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u (SAA hu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u,hu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uhu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'bear f.'; BUGvu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]u 'bear f.'; ARO hu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u 'to f., a bunch or c. of f.'; KWA fu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u 'bunch of f., bearing f.'); PMP *pu[UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL]u and PAN *pu[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]uN (Blust 1980:131). Cf. PPC*[wum.sup.w]u 'fruit cluster'.

PMC *[wup.sup.w]a 'belly, abdomen, torso': CHK[wuup.sup.w], [wup.sup.w]a-(n) 'b., a, his b.'; PUL [wuup.sup.w],[wup.sup.w]e-(er) 'b., stomach, their b.'; CRL [uup.sup.w],[up.sup.w]a-(l) 'a., stomach, his a.;' WOL uube uba-(l)'chest, his c.'; PUA [uup.sup.w]a, [up.sup.w]a-'stomach'; PCK *[wup.sup.w]a; PON [iip.sup.w][UNKEYBOARDABLESYMBOL] 'his t.'; MOK [up.sup.w], [up.sup.w]e-(n) part of the back,shoulder blade, p. of b. of'; MRS [web.sup.w], [wib.sup.w]e-'chest'; KIR (te)-[ub.sup.w]a 'part of the upper breast overthe sternum', [ub.sup.w]a-(ete) 'suffer from dyspepsia'. Cf.KSR (in)-y[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]w[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]-'chest,bosom'; FIJ uma 'trunk of a tree for making into a canoe'; PEO*[tob.sup.w]a- 'b.' (Geraghty 1983) (SAA 'oqa and ULA'opa 'b., bowels, stomach'; LAU oga 'stomach, b.';ARO obaoba 'lap'; KWA oga 'b.').

PMC *[wup.sup.w]u 'young coconut': WOL uubu, ubu-'y. c., y. c. meat'; PUA [uup.sup.w]u, [up.sup.w]u- 'green c.,c. milk'; PCK *[wup.sup.w]u; PON [uup.sup.w] 'drinking c.';MOK [up.sup.w] 'unripe c.'; MRS [wib.sup.w] 'soft, unripe c.,tender skin of a baby', (meje)-[wib.sup.w] 'c., nearly ripe';KIR (te)-[ub.sup.w]u 'softer end of a green c.', [ub.sup.w]u'be in the early stage of development as a fruit'; KSR uf 'y.c.'. Cf. PCMC *[wup.sup.w][u.sub.-1], 'young coconut leaf'.

PCMC *[wup.sup.w][u-.sub.1] 'young coconut leaf': CHK[wup.sup.w]u-t, [wup.sup.w]u-te-(n) 'y. c. l., l. of', (o)-[wup.sup.w]u-ta 'put y. c. leaves on (s.t.)'; PUL [wup.sup.w]u-t'new upright shoot of pandanus or c. l.'; CRL [up.sup.w]u-t'shoot of a c. frond'; WOL ubu-te 'immature c. frond, white y.c. l.'; PCK *[wup.sup.w]u-da; MOK [up.sup.w]u-d 'c. frondshoot'; PPC *[wup.sup.w]u-da 'y. c. l.; KIR [ub.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u'soft and tender as a sprout', (te)-[ub.sup.w][uub.sup.w]u'the tender germ top of a c. tree'. Cf. PMC *[wup.sup.w]u'young coconut'.

PCMC *[wup.sup.w][u-.sub.2] 'breast': CHK -[wup.sup.w]'b. (in counting)', (o)-[wup.sup.w], -wupu-(n) 'b., herb.', [wup.sup.w]u-ri 'approach (another) with b. forward'; CRL(o)-[ub.sup.w] 'breast, teat'; PCK *[wup.sup.w]u; KIR[ub.sup.w]u-(rake) 'too forward, rude in approach'. Note that theKIR form could also derive from KIR (te)-[ub.sup.w]u 'nose, snout'.Cf. PMC *[wup.sup.w]a 'belly, abdomen, torso'.

PMC *wuro, wuro-mata 'wash one's face': WOLuru-mate; PuA ulo, uloulo; MRS wer-mej; PEO *furo (KWA fulo-a 'to nib,wipe, polish, clear up s.t.'). Cf. BUG ujuri 'to rub the skin aswhen bathing', gnujuri 'to rub (s.t.) with the hand'; and cf.PEO *fuRi 'pour water on, rinse' (Geraghty 1990).

PCMc *wusi, wuwusi 'splash water on (s.t.)': CHK wuti'throw or s. w. on (st.)', wutuut 's. with w.', wutu-mas's. w. on the face'; MRT uute 'to s. (s.t.)'; PULwuti-(y) 'throw w. on (st.)'; CRL uuti 'pour or sprinklew.'; PCK *wudu, wudi, wuwudi; PON iid 'fetch or draw liquids';MOK id 'to draw w.', idi-p 'draw (w.)'; KIR uura 'tothrow salt w. onto (a seine to frighten the fish), uri 'to sprinkle withw. as in religious ablution' (Bender et al. 1984). Cf. PMc *u[sS]a'rain'.

PMc *wuti 'pull up, uproot': CHK wi, wiiwi 'pulledup, extracted (of s.t. planted), to extract, p. up, weed (a garden)',wii-(y) 'p. up(plants)'; PUL wiiwi 'p. up with the hands (astaro or seaweeds)', wii-(y) 'pull it up, jerk it up'; CRL wi'to p. up or uproot a plant', wii-sagh 'be uprooted, pulledup'; CRN wi 'to p. up or uproot a plant', wii-heg 'beuprooted, pulled up'; STW wiiwi 'pluck up grass'; WOL wiiwi'to p. up, uproot, extract', wii-(ye) 'p. it up, uprootit'; PUA udu 'to pluck, harvest by pulling'; PCK *wuti; PON us'pull out, pluck'; MOK wij 'p. (s.t.) up or out'; MRSwij, wijwij 'p. out of ground, uproot'; PEO *futi (SAA hisu'to pluck leaves, pull fruit'; BUG vuti 'to pluck up by theroots'; ARO husi 'to pluck, pull off [as fruit]'; KWA fusi'broken off, died out [of a kin group]'); UAN *putput 'p. out,pluck out', *puput 'pluck off'. Cf. KSR fif 'to p.out', fi-s 'to extract (s.t.), p. (s.t.) out'. Cf. also KIRauau 'engage in drawing forth', au-ta 'draw or pluck (st.)out'.

PMC *wuu 'wicker fish trap': CHK wuu 'w. f. t.,lobster pot', wuu-ni 'catch (s.t.) in a f. t.'; MRT wuu; PULwuu; CRL uu;] STW wuu, WOL uu; PCK *wuu; PON uu; MRS wiw; KIR uu; KSR u; POC*pupu (FU vuvu; LAK vuvu), UAN *bubu. See also YAP wup 'chickentrap'.

PMc *xawu 'rafter': CHK woo 'vertical r.'; PULwoo 'vertical r.'; WOL weeu, weu-(li) 'house r., r. of';PCK *wawu; PON reew, rew-(lap) 'beam or r.', raaw 'minorr.'; KSR kwe-(srik) 'rafters'. Cf. BUG gaho 'r.'.Cf. PCK *[kau-cam.sup.w]a 'tie beam'.

PMC *-xu (suf. poss. prn.) 'my, of me': CHK -y, -yi-,MRT -y; PUL -y; CRL -y; STW -y; WOL -i; PUA -i; PCK -yi; PON -y; MOK -y; PNG-y; MRS -hi (vowel does not surface but raises preceding vowel); KIR -u; KSR-k; POC*-gu (FU -qu; SAA -ku; BUG -[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]gu; ARO -gu; KWA-gu PKB *-gu); PAN *-[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ku (Ross 1988).

PMc *ya[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]a 'spider shell (Strombidae):see PMc *a[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL][a.sub.2].

PCMc *yuwe 'a sail': CRL uuw, yuuw; WOL uuwe, uwe-(li);PUA uua, ua-; MAP ii; PCK *yuw[ae]; Mok i 'a sail'; KIR (te)-ie'a s.', ie, ieie 'to s.', ie-a 'to s. for or to (aplace)', ie-aki-na 'to s. (a craft)'. Cf. PON lii 'boomsheet, s. rope'; MOK li 'canoe line, sheet'; Fu liwa 'toblow (of the wind)'. Cf. also PMC *Luuwe, Luwe-, Luwe 'sail'posited by Goodenough (1995:76).

TABLE 1KOSRAEAN VOWEL SYMBOLS LEE 1976 OUR REPLACEMENTS: FRONT CENTRAL BACK FRONT CENTRAL BACKHIGH i ih u i i uUPPER MID e uc o e a oLOWER MID ac uh oh e A eLOW ah a oa ac a DTABLE 2CONSONANT CORRESPONDENCES: LABIALS, VELARS, AND GLIDESPOC (1) mp mp,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]p (2)PMC p [p.sup.w]KSR p fPCMC p [p.sup.w]KIR b [b.sup.w]PWMC p p (2)MRS p [b.sup.w]PPC p [p.sup.w]PPON p (9) [p.sup.w]PON p [p.sup.w]MOK p [p.sup.w]PNG p [p.sup.w]PCK p [p.sup.w]MRT p [p.sup.w]CHK p [p.sup.w]PUL p [p.sup.w]CRN p [b.sup.w]CRL p [b.sup.w]STW p [p.sup.w]WOL p bPUA p [p.sup.w]SNS p [b.sup.w]ULI p bPOC (1) p (3) m m,[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]m (2)PMC f m [m.sup.w]KSR [theta] (4) m w,m (5)PCMC f m [m.sup.w]KIR [theta] m [m.sup.w]PWMC f m [m.sup.w]MRS y m [m.sup.w]PPC f m [m.sup.w]PPON p,[theta] (10) m [m.sup.w]PON p,[theta] (10) m [m.sup.w]MOK p,[theta] (10) m [m.sup.w]PNG p,[theta] (10) m [m.sup.w]PCK f m [m.sup.w]MRT f m [m.sup.w]CHK f m [m.sup.w]PUL f m [m.sup.w]CRN f m [m.sup.w]CRL f m [m.sup.w]STW f m [m.sup.w]WOL f m [m.sup.w]PUA d[[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]] m [m.sup.w]SNS f m [m.sup.w]ULI f m [m.sup.w]POC (1) k nk [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PMC k x [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]KSR k k,[theta] (6) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PCMC k x [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]KIR k,[theta] (7) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PWMC k x [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MRS k,[k.sup.w] (8) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [[UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] .sup.w8]PPC k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PPON k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PON k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MOK k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PNG k r,[theta] (11) [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PCK k [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]MRT k,[theta](12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CHK k,s{_i},[theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL] [n.sup.13]PUL k,[theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CRN g,[theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]CRL gh,[theta] (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]STW k,o (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]WOL g (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]PUA k (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]SNS k (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]ULI g (12) [theta] [UNKEYBOARDABLE SYMBOL]POC (1) y wPMC y wKSR [theta] [theta]PCMC y wKIR [theta] wPWMC y wMRS y wPPC y wPPON y wPON [theta],y wMOK [theta],y wPNG [theta],y wPCK [theta],y wMRT [theta],y wCHK [theta],y wPUL [theta],y wCRN [theta],y wCRL [theta],y wSTW [theta],y wWOL [theta],y wPUA [theta],y wSNS [theta],y wULI [theta],y w(1)See Ross (1988) for general discussion of POC, and for detailedreconstructions.(2)POC *mp and *m became labiovelars in PMC before round vowels and insome other forms.(3)POC *p as lost in PMC before round vowels.(4)See Jackson 1983:329-330 for explanations of apparent exceptions.(5)PMC *[m.sup.w] merged with *m in final position (when it stood beforea final vowel that was lot) to yield KSR -m; see Jackson 1983;332-334.(6)PMC *x is usually lost in KSR before *u; see Jackson 1983:331.(7)ONC *k is sometimes lost in KIR morphemes that also reflect PMC *t(see footnote 7 to table 3 and Jackson 1983:310).(8)When PMC *k and *[UNKEBOARD SYMBOL] are preceded and/or followed by*o or *u, their MRS reflexes are rounded ([k.sup.w] and [[UNKEYBOARDSYMBOL ].sup.w] respectively), except in disyllables where *u in one ofthe syllables isthe sole such conditioning factor (the vowel of theother syllable being *i, *e, or *a,).(9)In the Pohnpeic languages, geminate obstruents are realized ashomorganic nasal-obstruent clusters.(10)PMC *f is often lost in PPON before *i; see Jackson 1986:202.(11)PMC *x is r before *a, and [theta] elsewhere.(12)PMC *k is often reflcted as CHK s before *i (and occasionally ++u),and is regularly reflected as [theta] before low and mid vowels when notalso preceded by a high vowel. "The geminate reflex of [PMC] *k is alengthened velar stop kk in all [Chu]ukic languages" (Jackson 1983:175).See Jackson 1983:175-185 for more on these complex developments in allthe Chuukic languages.(13)PMC *[UNKEBOARDABLE SYMBOL] sometimes becomes CHK n before *i; seeJackson 1983:171.TABLE 3CONSONANT CORRESPONDENCES: CORONALSPOC t s, nj (1) ns, j (1)PMC t T (4) s SKSR t,S (5) s t,s (5) [theta]PCMC t T s sKIR t, [theta] (7) t r rPWMC t T s sMRS j j t tPPC t T d dPPON j,[theta] (9) j d (10) d (10)PON s,[theta]{_i,u,e} (11) s d (10) d (10)MOK j,[theta]{_i,u,e} (11) j d (10) d (10)PNG s,[theta]{_i,u,e} (11) s d (10) d (10)PCK t T d dMRT s{_a},[theta] s{_[V.sub.low]} t tCHK s{_a},[theta] s{_[V.sub.-low]} t tPUL h{_a},[theta] h{_[V.sub.-low]} t tCRN s{_a},[theta] h{_[V.sub.-low]} t tCRL s{_a},[theta] s{_[V.sub.-low]} t tSTW s,t{_a},[theta] s{_[V.sub.-low]} t tWOL d,t{_a},[theta] s t tPUA d,t{_a},[theta] d t tSNS d,t{_a},[theta] d t tULI s,t{_a},[theta] s th thPOC j (2) nt,nd d, R (3) lPMC Z c r lKSR s sr I,r (6) IPCMC Z c r IKIR r r [theta] nPWMC [theta] c r lMRS [theta] d r,[r.sup.w] (8) I,l,[l.sup.w] (8)PPC [theta] c r lPPON [theta] c r lPON [theta] t (10) r lMOK [theta] s r lPNG [theta] s r lPCK [theta] c (12) r lMRT [theta] sh;shsh r lCHK [theta] ch;chch r nPUL [theta] R;cch r lCRN [theta] R;tch r lCRL [theta] sh;tch r lSTW [theta] R;chch r l,n;nn (13)WOL [theta] sh;eeh r l;nnPUA [theta] s;ss l nSNS [theta] s;ss l r;nnULI [theta] c;cc r lPOC n nPMC n nKSR n [theta]PCMC n nKIR n nPWMC n nMRS n,n,[n.sup.w] (8) nPPC n nPPON n [theta],nPON n [theta]MOK n [theta],n{[V.sub.+hi_]}PNG n [theta],n{[V.sub.+hi_]}PCK n nMRT n nCHK n nPUL n nCRN n nCRL l lSTW n,l;nn (13) nWOL l;nn lPUA n nSNS r;nn rULI l l(1)Refer to PEO phonemes (see Jackson 1983:342-348 and Geraghty 1983).(2)Refers to PEO *j reconstructed by Geraghty (1983:149-153); PMC *Z isemployed in only two etyma in this compilation: PMC *kiaZo and PMC*laZe.(3)The conditions for when POC *R merged with POC *r and when it waslost are unclear; see Jackson (1986:203).(4)See PMC *T in Jackson 1983:326 and 1986:203 and see fn. 5 inGoodenough 1992:112.(5)KSR reflects PMC *t and *s as s before *i and *e; see Jackson1983:338-342.(6)KSR l is the regular reflex of PMC *r; KSR r is diagnostic of loans;see Jackson 1983:335-338.(7)PMC *t is sometimes lost in KIR morphemes that also reflect PMC *k(see footnote 7 to table 2 and Jackson 1983:310).(8)The three sets of MRS consonants (light, heavy, and rounded) arediscussed in Bender 1969:xii-xxi. light consonants (e.g., l and n) arethe unmarked or default set. Heavy l and n reflect *I and *n,respectively, when followed by *a (or, less often, *o), unless the vowelin a contiguous syllable is *i or *u. The heavy consonants r, l, and nmay be rounded to [r.sup.w], [l.sup.w], and [n.sup.w], respectively, bythe same conditioning factors that round k and n to [k.sup.w] and[n.sup.w], respectively (see footnote 8 to table 2).(9)In the Pohnpeic languages, geminate obstruents are realized ashomorganic nasal-obstruent clusters.(10)In the Pohnpeic languages d stands for a voiceless apico- dentalstop, while in Pohnpeian t stands for a voiceless lamino- alveolar stop.(11)The reflex is 0 sporadically before PMC *e.(12)The spelling of geminate reflexes in each of the Chuukie languagesis given following the semicolons below.(13)PMC *1 and *n are reflected as STWl and n, respectively, in amajority of instances; in roughly 25%, however, the reflexes of the twoare switched without obvious conditioning factors, or both are found asvariants. As in WOL and SNS, geminates of the two are merged as nn.

(2.) Includes PCMC and PWMC as well as PMC.

Language abbreviations and sources: ARE, 'Are' are(geerts 1970) (no instances in PMC section); ARO, Arosi (Fox 1970); BUG,Bugotu (Ivens 1940); CHK, Chuukese or Trukese (Goodenough and Sugita 1980,1990; Goodenough 1963, 1992); CHM, Chamorro (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975);CRL and CRN, Saipan Carolinian and Saipan Carolinian Tanapag (Jackson andMarck 1991); FIJ, Fijian (Capell 1957; Geraghty 1983); JAR Jabem; KIRKiribati or Gilbertese (Bingham 1908); KSR, Kosraean or Kusaican (Lee 1976);KWA, Kwaio (Keesing 1975); LAK, Lakalai or West Nakanai (Chowning andGoodenough, n.d.); KAU, Lau (Fox 1974); MAP, Old Mapian (Kubary 1889); MOK,Mokilese (Harrison and Albert 1977); MRS, Marshallese (Abo et at. 1976); MRT,Mortlockese (Bender et at. 1984); NGG, Nggela (Fox 1955); NGK, Ngatcikese(Bender et at. 1984); PAL, Palauan (Josephs 1950) ; PAN, Proto-Austronesian(Blust 1980-89); PCK, Proto-Chuukic or Proto-Trukic (Jackson 1983, Marek1994); PCM, Proto-Central Micronesian (in classification of Jackson 1983 andMar ck 1994; PCP, Proto-Central Pacific (Marck 1994); PEO, Proto-Easternceanic, including PCO (Geraghty 1983, 1990); PKB, Proto-Kimbe (Goodenough1997); PLK, Proto-Lakalai (Goodenough 1997); PMc, Proto-Micronesian (Benderetat. 1984; Bender and Wang 1985; Jackson 1983; Marek 1991, 1994); PMP,Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (Blust 1980-1989), also UAN; PNG, Pingilapese(Pingelapese) (Bender et at. 1984); PNK, Proto-Nakanai (Goodenough 1997);PON, Pohnpeian or Ponapeian (Rehg and Sohi 1979; Sohi, Rehg, and Andreas,forthcoming); POc, Proto-Oceanic (Ross 1988; Blust 1970, 1978; Grace 1969);PPC, Proto-Pohnpeic-Chukic; PPN, Proto-Polynesian (Walsh and Biggs 1966;Biggs, Walsh, and Waqa 1970); PPoN, Porto-p PuA, Pulo-Annan (Oda 1977); PUL,Puluwatese (Elbert 1972); PWM, Proto-Willaumez (Goodenough 1997); PWMc,P1010-Western Micronesian (Jackson 1983; Marck 1994), see PPC; ROT, Rotuman(Churchward 1940); Roy, Roviana; SAA, Sa'a (Ivens 1918); SAM, Samoan(Milner 1966); SNs, Sonsorolese (Oda 1977; Bender et at. 1984); STW, Satawatese (Bender et at. 1984); TAG, Tagalog; TOB, Tobi (Kubary 1989); TOK,Tokelau (Bender et al. 1984); TON, Tongan (Churchward 1959); UAN,Uraustronesisch (Dempwolff 1934-38; Dyen 1951, 1953), also PMP; ULA, Ulawan(tvens 1918); UtI, Ulithian (Bender et al. 1984); WOL, Woteaian (Sohn andTawerilmang 1976); YAP, Yapese (Jensen 1977).

L refers to the section on loans to be included in part 2.

V is sometimes used for a reconstructed vowel of indeterminatequality.

Vowel diacritics are ignored in alphabetizing.

Square brackets enclose two possibilities for protophonemes wherethe evidence is ambiguous or contradictory (e.g., [sS]); the first is usedfor purposes of alphabetization.

"(sic)" 'so, thus' may follow a form thatdiffers from the expected reflex in some way in order to assert that acopying mistake has not occurred.


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Byron W. Bender, Ward H. Goodenough, Frederick H. Jackson, JeffreyC. Marck, Kenneth L. Rehg, Ho-min Sohn, Stephen Trussel, Judith W. Wang (1)

(1.) One name, that of Robert W. Hsu, really belongs here withours, but he has demurred. Certainly, without his initiative and assistanceat every tom, this article and many of the dictionaries upon which it isbased would not have appeared in their present form--if they appeared at all.

Bender, Byron W.^Goodenough, Ward H.^Jackson, Frederick H.^Marck,Jeffrey C.^Rehg, Kenneth L.^Sohn, Ho-min^Trussel, Stephen^Wang, Judith W.

Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2003 University of Hawaii Press

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